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A Comparative Analysis of Reliable and Congestion-Aware Transport Layer Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bhisham Sharma,Trilok C. Aseri
ISRN Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/104057
Abstract: Design and implementation of wireless sensor Networks have gathered increased attention in recent years due to vast potential of sensor networks consisting of spatially distributed devices (motes) to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions at different locations. Wireless sensor networks are built upon low cost nodes with limited battery (power), CPU clock (processing capacity), and memory modules (storage). Transport layer protocols applied to wireless sensor networks can handle the communications between the sink node and sensor nodes in upstream (sensor-to-sink) or downstream (sink-to-sensor) direction. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of reliable and congestion aware transport layer protocols for wireless sensor networks and number of open issues that have to be carefully realized to make use of the wireless sensor networks more efficiently and to enhance their performance. We first list the characteristics of transport layer protocols. We then provide a summary of reliable and congestion aware transport layer protocols with their respective pros and cons and comparison of different protocols based on reliability, congestion control, and energy efficiency. Finally, we point out open research issues of transport layer protocols for wireless sensor networks, which need further attention to overcome the earlier mentioned challenges. 1. Introduction Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are formed by collection of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes and are used to monitor events in a region. Sensor nodes are composed of processor, memory, transceiver, one or more sensors, and a battery [1]. The data collected from the region are sent to the Access Point (AP) that connects the sensor network with one or more observers. The observer is end user wishing to receive information from the observed area [2]. Our major focus in this paper is on the comparison of transport layer protocols for wireless sensor networks. Transport protocols are used to decrease congestion and reduce packet loss, to provide fairness in bandwidth allocation, and to guarantee end-to-end reliability [3]. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [4] and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [5] are popular transport protocols and deployed widely in the Internet, neither may be a good choice for wireless sensor networks. There is no interaction between TCP or UDP and the lower-layer protocols such as routing and Media Access Control (MAC) algorithm. In wireless sensor networks, the lower layers can provide generalized information to the transport layer and
Transport Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions  [PDF]
Justin Jones,Mohammed Atiquzzaman
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2007, DOI: 10.1080/15501320601069861
Abstract: Characteristics of wireless sensor networks, specifically dense deployment, limited processing power, and limited power supply, provide unique design challenges at the transport layer. Message transmission between sensor nodes over a wireless medium is especially expensive. Care must be taken to design an efficient transport layer protocol that combines reliable message delivery and congestion control with minimal overhead and retransmission. Sensor networks are created using low cost, low power nodes. Wireless sensors are assumed to have a finite lifetime; care must be taken to design and implement transport layer algorithms that allow maximum network lifetime. In this paper we present current and future challenges in the design of transport layers for sensor networks. Current transport layer protocols are compared based on how they implement reliable message delivery, congestion control, and energy efficiency.
A Survey of Transport Layer Protocols on Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Sambhaji Sarode,Kasturi Pansambal,Rupali Kshirsagar,Anubhooti Nayakawadi
International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing , 2013,
Abstract: Generally Transport Layer is responsible for Congestion Control and Reliable Packet delivery.Reliable Packet delivery is an essential problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs).If Reliable Packetdelivery is not achieved in WSNs, and then it leads to scarce wastage of energy of Sensor nodes. The QualityOf Service (QoS) Requirements of network can be achieved by designing Reliable Transport Layer Protocols.In this paper, we present the survey of different existing Reliable Transport Protocols.
Research on Reliable Transport in Wireless Sensor Network

HE Qing-Wei,SUN Li-Min,LIU Jun-Tao,

计算机科学 , 2007,
Abstract: Wireless sensor network consists of a large number of sensor nodes in Ad hoc and multi-hop manner. Due to its characteristics of constrained resources, poor link quality and dynamic topology, it is largely different from Internet and other wireless networks and poses new challenge for reliable data transport. Aiming at wireless sensor network, this paper presents some essential considerations for reliable transport protocols, analyzes two mechanisms for reliable transport, categorizes these protocols, mainly introduces several recent typical protocols, and finally proposes research directions for future work.
Real Time and Energy Efficient Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
S. Ganesh,R. Amutha
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Reliable transport protocols such as TCP are tuned to perform well in traditional networks where packet losses occur mostly because of congestion. Many applications of wireless sensor networks are useful only when connected to an external network. Previous research on transport layer protocols for sensor networks has focused on designing protocols specifically targeted for sensor networks. The deployment of TCP/IP in sensor networks would, however, enable direct connection between the sensor network and external TCP/IP networks. In this paper we focus on the performance of TCP in the context of wireless sensor networks. TCP is known to exhibit poor performance in wireless environments, both in terms of throughput and energy efficiency. To overcome these problems we introduce a mechanism called TCP Segment Caching .We show by simulation that TCP Segment Caching significantly improves TCP Performance so that TCP can be useful e en in wireless sensor
Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks - A Survey  [PDF]
Shio Kumar Singh,M P Singh,D K Singh
International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey , 2010,
Abstract: Advances in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has provided the availability of small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. Variety of sensing capabilities results in profusion of application areas. However, the characteristics of wireless sensor networks require more effective methods for data forwarding and processing. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks areresponsible for maintaining the routes in the network and have to ensure reliable multi-hop communication under these conditions. In this paper, we give a survey of routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network and compare their strengths and limitations.
Performance Analysis of Stochastic Delivery Transport Protocols in WSNs

XIONG Bin-Bin,LIN Chuang,REN Feng-Yuan,

软件学报 , 2009,
Abstract: In general, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are resource constrained, and with high Bit Error Rate (BER) links. Highly reliable transport protocol for this kind of network is challenging and costly in terms ofenergy and delay expenditure. On the other hand, many applications deployed on WSNs can live with some packetslosses provided that the loss rate is tolerable. Hence, the stochastic delivery transport protocols emerge as the applications and network constrains require. The stochastic delivery transport protocols carry out a profitable trade-off between the reliability and resource cost, thereby are adopted by many applications in WSNs. To analyzethe performance metrics of this kind of protocol in multi-hop WSNs, a Finite State Markov Chain (FSMC)-basedmodel is developed in this paper. By using this model the performance parameters of the protocols can be calculated directly, easily and comprehensibly. The effects of different network parameters (such as number the hops, the biterror rate of the wireless link) on the performance are investigated. To enhance the efficiency of stochastic deliveryprotocols, hop by hop acknowledgement scheme is introduced in some stochastic reliable transport protocols, and sodoes the broadcast character of the wireless channel. The analytical results show that the effects of these schemes on performance are diverse with the change of network parameter settings. Finally, the paper presents some advice for improving these protocols based on the analysis. Simulation results also demonstrate the effectiveness of these improvements.
Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Luis Javier García Villalba,Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco,Alicia Trivi?o Cabrera,Cláudia Jacy Barenco Abbas
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91108399
Abstract: The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.
Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network Protocols for Node Cluster Analysis  [cached]
Harkeerat kaur,Himanshu Sharma
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Now days the use of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has arisen extremely. The main requirement of wireless sensor network is to extend the network lifetime and energy efficient routing, data gathering and aggregation protocols that representing large-scale environment. Hierarchical clustering protocols have been used for energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited processing, and storage capabilities and transmission range, as well as energy resources also limited. Routing protocols maintain the routes in the network and ensure reliable multi-hop communication under limited resources. WSNs use clustering for achieving scalable and efficient communications. Clusters are organized and select a cluster head for each cluster. Cluster head nodes have great importance in these network topologies because these nodes are communication and coordination hubs. In this paper a detailed description about HEED is provided, as well as comparison with other hierarchical routing protocols as LEACH and PEGASIS.
On Formal and Automatic Security Verification of WSN Transport Protocols  [PDF]
Vinh Thong Ta,Levente Buttyán,Amit Dvir
ISRN Sensor Networks , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/891467
Abstract: We address the problem of formal and automated security verification of transport protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN) that may perform cryptographic operations. The verification of this class of protocols is difficult because they typically consist of complex behavioral characteristics, such as real-time, probabilistic, and cryptographic operations. To solve this problem, we propose a probabilistic timed calculus for cryptographic protocols and demonstrate how to use this formal language for proving security or vulnerability of protocols. The main advantage of the proposed language is that it supports an expressive syntax and semantics, allowing for studying real-time, probabilistic, and cryptographic issues at the same time. Hence, it can be used to verify systems that involve these three properties in a convenient way. In addition, we propose an automatic verification method, based on the well-known PAT process analysis toolkit, for this class of protocols. For demonstration purposes, we apply the proposed manual and automatic proof methods for verifying the security of DTSN and SDTP, which are two of the recently proposed WSN transport protocols. 1. Introduction Numerous transport protocols have been proposed specifically designed for applications of wireless sensor networks (WSN), requiring particularly reliable delivery and congestion control (e.g., multimedia sensor networks) [1]. Two of the latest protocols are the distributed transport for sensor networks (DTSN) [2] and its secured version, the secure distributed transport protocol for sensor networks (SDTP) [3]. In DTSN and SDTP the intermediate nodes can cache the packets with some probability and retransmit them upon request, providing reliable transmission, energy efficiency, and distributed functionality. Unfortunately, existing transport protocols for WSNs (including DTSN) do not include sufficient security mechanisms or totally ignore the security issue. Hence, many attacks have been found against existing WSN transport protocols [4]. Broadly speaking, these attacks can be classified into two groups: attacks against reliability and energy depleting attacks. Reliability attacks aim to mislead the nodes so that loss of a data packet remains undetected. In the case of energy depleting attacks, the goal of the attacker is to perform energy-intensive operations in order to deplete the nodes’ batteries [4]. In particular, using a fake or altered acknowledgment message, an attacker can give the sender the impression that data packets arrived safely when they may actually have been lost.
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