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The Effect of Cadmium on Physiological Indices, Growth Parameters and Nutrient Concentration in Tomato in Soilless Culture  [cached]
Z. Ghasemi,A. A. Shahabi
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2010,
Abstract: In order to determine the effects of cadmium on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional elements’ concentration in tomato organs in a soilless system, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse of Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in 2008 with a complete randomized block design with two treatments and 6 replications. The treatments were nutritional solutions of Hoagland with and without cadmium (20 μM). The measured indices included: RGR, NAR, RLGR, LAR, SLA, LWR, LWCA, length of the stem, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, amount of sugar, photosynthetic pigments, and concentration of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and cadmium in root, stem, leaves and fruit. The results showed that cadmium (20 μM) had significant effects on some measured growth indices. Growth parameters such as RGR, NAR, RLGR, Ls, RDW, RFW, SFW and SDW decreased 13.3, 19.1, 13.3, 18.8, 59.5, 58.7, 53.9 and 65.3%, respectively, and SLA increased 12.2%. But physiological parameters were not significantly affected by cadmium. The Cd concentration in all organs increased except fruit, compared with control which was Cd free. High cadmium concentration had significant effects on concentration of Mn and Cu in the root, Mn and P in the stem and Mn in the leaves. Concentration of Mn increased 5.3 and 87.6% in the leaves and stem, respectively, while it decreased 58.4% in the root. Concentration of P increased 33.3% and Cu increased 2times more in the stem. However, Ca concentration decreased 76.7% in the fruit, compared with the control. In conclusion, it is not recommended to grow tomato in the soils with high Cd concentration (polluted soil) because of its negative effects on tomato growth.
The Effect of Nitrogen and Boron on Growth, Yield and Concentration of Some Nutrient Elements of Tomato  [cached]
N. Farzaneh,A. Gholchin,K. Hashemi Majd3
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2010,
Abstract: A completely randomized factorial experiment was set up with 16 treatments and three replicates to study the effect of nitrogen and boron on yield, shoot and root dry weights and leaf concentration of nutrient elements in hydroponically grown tomato in greenhouse of Agricultural College of Zanjan University in 2008. In this experiment, tomato seed of Rio Grande Ug was selected and simple and interaction effect of four levels of N (100, 200, 300 and 400 mgL-1) and four levels of B (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1) on tomato yield, shoot and root dry weights and leaf concentration of nutrient elements was investigated. The results indicated that the simple and interaction effect of nitrogen and boron on yield and tomato shoot and root dry weights were significant. Te highest yield and root dry weights were obtained in N200B1.0 treatment and the highest shoot dry weight was obtained in N300B1.0 treatment. By increasing the nitrogen level in the nutrient solution, leaf N and Mn concentration increased while B, Fe and Zn concentration of leaves decreased significantly. In contrast, by increasing the boron levels, leaf N, B and Zn concentration increased and Fe and Mn concentration of leaves decreased significantly. With respect to the results of this study, applications of 200 mg L-1N and 1.0 mgL-1 B of nutrient solution are recommended to obtain higher yield and better quality for tomato in hydroponic culture.
Influence of deficit irrigation on nutrient indices in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.)  [PDF]
Krista Shellie, Brad Brown
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32031
Abstract: Deficit irrigation is widely used in wine grape production (Vitis vinifera L.) to meet wine quality goals yet its influence on tissue nutrient indices has not been well studied. The objective of this research was to determine whether response to water deficit compromised the prescriptive usefulness of tissue nutrient analyses. Tissue macro and micronutrient composition at bloom and veraison were evaluated over multiple seasons in nine wine grape cultivars grown under well-watered or deficit-irrigated conditions. Deficit-irrigated vines sampled at veraison had 2 to 12-fold higher petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentration, 6% lower blade nitrogen concentration and 13% lower blade copper concentration compared to well-watered vines. Water deficit influenced blade potassium concentration at veraison differently according to cultivar and was lower (cv. Malbec, Petite syrah, Viognier, Lemberger and Sangiovese), higher (cv. Merlot, Cabernet franc and Cabernet Sauvignon) or similar (cv. Grenache) to well-watered vines. Results from this study indicate that nutrient analysis of petiole or blade tissue sampled at veraison has limited diagnostic and prescriptive usefulness when vines are grown under a water deficit.
Effect of Different Colored Plastic Mulches on the Yield and Nutrient Contents of Tomato Plant  [PDF]
Arshad Nawaz Chaudhary,Safdar Ali,Imran Hassan
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different coloured (black, red and green) plastic mulches on nutrient contents, growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) variety Indian dwarf. It was observed that total nitrogen contents in plants were significantly higher (4.34%) in the green plastic mulch. The P and K contents in plants were found significantly higher (0.35 and 3.74%) in black plastic mulch. While the N and K contents in fruits showed significant variation among all the mulched treatments but the P contents were found to be non significant. The data showed significant effect on the yield of tomato. The highest yield (28.69 t ha -1) was recorded in green plastic mulch followed by red (22.7 t ha -1) and black plastic (15.84 ha -1) mulched treatments. The study concludes that the green mulch is the best treatment with regard to tomato production.
Effects of Different Levels of Supplementary Nitrogen and Potassium in Nutrient Solution on Yield and Leaf N and K Concentrations of Tomato  [cached]
N. Farzaneh,A. Golchin,K. Hashemi Majd
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of different levels of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L) and potassium (125, 250 and 375 mg/L) on yield and leaf N and K concentrations of tomato were investigated in perlit culture using a factorial randomized design with three replications. The highest fruit yield was obtained with 200 mg/L N. Higher levels of nitrogen decreased tomato yield. With increasing nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, N content of leaf increased significantly whereas leaf K concentration decreased. Different potassium levels had no significant effect on tomato yield. With increasing potassium levels of nutrient solution, concentration of leaf N decreased significantly whereas concentration of leaf K increased. The greatest and the least fruit yields were obtained from N200K250 and N400K375 treatments, respectively. The highest and the lowest concentrations of leaf N were observed in N400K125 and N100K375 treatments, respectively. The greatest and the least concentrations of leaf K were observed in N100K375 and N400K125 treatments, respectively.
Effect of Zinc and Manganese Nutrition on Fruit Yield and Nutrient Concentrations in Greenhouse Tomato in Hydroponic Culture  [cached]
A. Tavassoli,A. Ghanbari,A. Ahmadian
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2010,
Abstract: This research was performed in a completely randomized block design with four replications to investigate zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) nutrition effects on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. HAMRA) in a perlite-containing media. Experimental treatments were: (1) control (Mn and Zn-free nutrient solution), (2) application of Mn in a concentration equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution (4.06 mg/l), (3) application of Zn in a concentration equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution (4.42 mg/l), (4) application of Mn and Zn in concentrations equal to the 50% Hoagland’s nutrient solution (2.03 mg/l Mn + 2.21 mg/l Zn), and (5) application of Mn and Zn in concentrations equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution (4.06 mg/l Mn + 4.42 mg/l Zn). Results showed that the highest fresh-fruit yield, fruit and leaf dry matter and content of Mn and Zn in fruit were obtained from single or combined application of Mn and Zn in concentrations equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution. In addition, Zn and Mn nutrition significantly affected the fruit concentrations of crude protein, nitrogen and phosphorus, while the effect of these treatments on fruit size of tomato was not significant.
Classes of operators determined by ordinal indices  [PDF]
Kevin Beanland,Ryan Causey,Daniel Freeman,Ben Wallis
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We introduce and study the Bourgain index of an operator between two Banach spaces. In particular, we study the Bourgain $\ell_p$ and $c_0$ indices of an operator. Several estimates for finite and infinite direct sums are established. We define classes determined by these indices and show that some of these classes form operator ideals. We characterize the ordinals which occur as the index of an operator and establish exactly when the defined classes are closed. We study associated indices for non-preservation of $\ell_p^\xi$ and $c_0^\xi$ spreading models and indices characterizing weak compactness of operators between separable Banach spaces. We also show that some of these classes are operator ideals and discuss closedness and distinctness of these classes.
EFFECT OF N, P, K CONCENTRATIONS ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) IN TUFF CULTURE  [PDF]
Majid FANDI,Jalal MUHTASEB,Munir HUSSEIN
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2010,
Abstract: This study concluded that high concentration of N, P and K in the nutrient solution gave higher total yield and tomato fruit weight than the control nutrient solution in tuff culture grown tomato. High phosphorus concentration (100 ppm) in the nutrient solution gave the highest total and marketable yield, number of marketable fruits and yield per plant, while low phosphorus concentration (20 ppm) gave the highest total soluble solids and titratable acids content in tuff culture grown tomato. The control nutrient solution gave the least total soluble solids, titratable acidity content and the highest pH of tomato juice.
Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants
Rattin, Jorge E.;Andriolo, Jer?nimo L.;Witter, Márcio;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362002000400023
Abstract: the nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. plants of hybrid monte carlo were grown in 4.5 l bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. a nutrient solution containing, in mmol l-1: kno3, 4.0; k2so4, 0.9; ca(no3)2, 3.75; kh2po4, 1.5; mgso4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 103, was used as reference. microelements were added by a commercial mixture. the t3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments t1, t2, t4 and t5 quantities of all nutrients from t3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. in each treatment, the volume of 1 l of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and n concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. five dilution curves were fitted from data of n concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. a general relationship was adjusted between actual n concentration in shoot (nt) and in the fifth leaf (nf): nt = 1.287 nf (r2 = 0.80). this relationship could be used to estimate the n status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (nni), from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.
Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants
Rattin Jorge E.,Andriolo Jer?nimo L.,Witter Márcio
Horticultura Brasileira , 2002,
Abstract: The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO3)2, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 103, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt) and in the fifth leaf (Nf): Nt = 1.287 Nf (R2 = 0.80). This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.
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