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Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici Races 1 and 2 Associated with Tomato Seeds in Egypt
M.A. ElWakil,M.E. Abdalla,S.B. Mathur
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1998,
Abstract: Among 83 seed samples of tomato, 16 were naturally infected with Fusarium oxysporum, while the percentage of infection ranged from 1 to 22 per cent. Based upon pathogenicity tests and race identification using tomato differential cultivars, two races 1 and 2 of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici were identified. Greenhouse tests of the resistance reaction of 9 tomato cultivars against local isolates of races 1 and 2 of the fungus showed that cultivars Flora Dade, and PomoDoro were resistant to race 1, while cultivars Peto 86 and Super Marmand were resistant to race 2. Only Strain-B was resistant to both races. The other cultivars were susceptible or moderately susceptible to both races of the fungus.
The Effects of Fungicides on Fusarium Oxysporum F. SP. Lycopersici Associated with Fusarium Wilt of Tomato
Jahanshir Amini, Dzhalilov Fevzi Sidovich
Journal of Plant Protection Research , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10045-010-0029-x
Abstract: Tomato fusarium wilt is considered as one of the most important diseases of tomato both in field and greenhouse - grown tomatoes worldwide. In presented research, six fungicides; benomyl, carbendazim, prochloraz, fludioxonil, bromuconazole and azoxystrobin, were evaluated for their efficacy against the disease casual agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in vitro and in vivo. Seven different concentration (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/ml) were used for assessment of their inhibitory activities against the pathogen through mycelial growth inhibition on potato media. Four concentrations of above mentioned fungicides (0.1, 1. 10 and 100 μg/ml) were tested for controlling Fusarium wilt on tomato plants in glasshouse. Fungal radial growth was measured and median effective concentration (EC50) values (μg/ml) determined. The result of glasshouse tests revealed a different degree of efficacy of all tested fungicides in reducing disease infestation. Prochloraz and bromuconazole were the most effective fungicides against the pathogen both in vitro and in vivo, followed by benomyl and carbendazim. All other fungicides were less effective. Conserning the application date of fungicides it was shown that they were less effective when applied 7 days after tomato plant infection, compared with 1 day prior infection. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed after the application of prochloraz, bromuconazol and benomyl when used at recommended doses, especially on seedlings. However both fungicides fludioxonil and bromuconazole were shown to be phototoxic to tomato seedlings.
Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato, Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, by Grafting onto Resistant Rootstocks  [PDF]
Khaled Hibar,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, the efficacy of grafting two tomato cultivars onto two rootstocks was examined in growth chamber and in greenhouse conditions. The rootstock cultivars Beaufort F1 and He-Man F1, already known and confirmed as resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, were evaluated during two crop seasons under greenhouse heated with geothermal water in South Tunisia. The cv. Durintha F1 showed the best plant growth, fruit yield and fruit quality when grafted onto Beaufort F1; while cv. Bochra F1 gave the best results when grafted onto He-Man F1. This study demonstrated that grafting tomato cultivars onto Fusarium resistant rootstocks is one of the best alternatives for controlling Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato.
First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 on tomato in Brazil
Reis, Ailton;Costa, Hélcio;Boiteux, Leonardo S.;Lopes, Carlos A.;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582005000400017
Abstract: fusarium wilt, caused by three races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is one of the most important diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum). races 1 and 2 are distributed worldwide whereas race 3 has a more limited geographic distribution with no report thus far in brazil. seven f. oxysporum isolates were obtained from wilted tomato plants of race 1 and 2-resistant hybrids 'carmen' and 'alambra' in venda nova do imigrante (state of espírito santo), brazil. virulence assays were performed using a set of the race differential cultivars: 'ponderosa' (susceptible to all races), 'ipa-5' (resistant to race 1), 'floradade' (resistant to races 1 and 2) and 'bhrs-2,3' (resistant to race 3). all isolates were highly virulent to 'ponderosa', 'ipa-5' and 'floradade' and were able to infect only a few plants of 'bhrs-2,3'. an additional virulence test was conducted including the same set of cultivars plus lycopersicon pennellii 'la 716'. identical results were obtained with l. pennellii displaying an extreme (immune-like) resistant response. these results indicated that all seven isolates could be classified as f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3. this new fusarium wilt might became an economically important disease since race 3-resistant cultivars adapted to brazil are not yet available.
Outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in commercial fresh-market tomato fields in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Reis, Ailton;Boiteux, Leonardo S;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362007000300025
Abstract: fusarium wilt, caused by three races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is one of the most important tomato diseases. in brazil, all three races were reported, however, race 3 has been so far restricted only to espírito santo state. in the present work, seven f. oxysporum isolates obtained from wilted plants of the race 1 and 2-resistant tomato hybrids 'giovana', 'carmen' and 'alambra' in s?o josé de ubá and itaocara (rio de janeiro state, brazil) were characterized at race level. virulence assays were performed using a set of race differential cultivars: 'ponderosa' (susceptible to all races), 'ipa-5' (resistant to race 1), 'floradade' (resistant to races 1 and 2), 'bhrs-2,3' (resistant to all three races). two wild tomato accessions (solanum pennellii 'la 716' e s. chilense 'la 1967') previously reported as resistant to all brazilian isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were also evaluated. isolates from s?o josé de ubá and itaocara were highly virulent to 'ponderosa', 'ipa-5' and 'floradade'. they were also able to infect a few plants of 'bhrs-2,3', inducing vascular browning and wilt symptoms. solanum pennellii and s. chilense accessions displayed an extreme (immune-like) resistant response. these results indicated that all seven isolates could be classified as f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3, expanding the geographical distribution of this pathogen within brazil. the hypothesis of transmission via contaminated seeds is reinforced after the present report, which confirms the almost simultaneous outbreak of race 3 in two geographically isolated tomato-growing areas in brazil (espirito santo and rio de janeiro). evaluation of commercial seed lots imported into brazil for contamination with the pathogen would be necessary in order to avoid nation-wide spread of this serious disease.
Reaction of different tomato cultivars toward race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  [PDF]
?or?evi? Mladen,Vatchev Tzenko,Girek Zdenka,?evi? Milan
Genetika , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1201109d
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the reaction of different tomato cultivars towards race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The researched tomato cultivars were: Adonis, Gru anski zlatni, Jasmin crveni, Narvik SPF and SP109, breeding lines Hom-3, Hom-4, L-4, S-49, S-31, S- 35, SPA, SPR,V-100, 34/56, 93/10 and 93/16. Reaction to pathogen were tested in F1 generation, as well, in combination of 93/16 x V-100, S-35 x L- 4, S-49 x SPA, 34/56 x SPR, S-49 x Hom-4, 93/16 x Hom-3 and 93/10 x S- 31. Plants were inoculated by submerging wounded roots in to pathogen suspension. Disease was assessed 30 days after inoculation. After evaluation 15 cultivars expressed resistance toward this pathogen. Among them 93/10 x S-31, Hom-3 and 93/10 had average disease rating 1,0. Other genotypes had average disease ratings as follows: Narvik SPF and S-49 (1,1), 34/56, Hom-4 and S-49 x Hom-4 (1,2), while Adonis, 93/16 x Hom-3, 34/56 x SPR and 93/16 x V-100 had average disease rating 1,3. Cultivars SPR and 93/16 had 1,7 ADR, meanwhile Sp-109 had 1,8 average rating. Genotypes SPA (2,1), S-49 x SPA (2,1), V-100 (2,2) and L-4 (2,6) belong to the group of tolerant genotypes who did not expressed typical symptoms of chlorosis and wilt of plant but expressed some level of necrosis of xylem in lower part of plants. Most sensitive to fusarium wilt were S-35 x L-4 (3,3), S-35 (3,5), S-31 (3,6), Gru anski zlatni (3,8) and Jasmin Crveni with average disease rating of 4,0.
Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato Caused by Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. Radicis-Lycopersici Using Mixture of Vegetable and Posidonia oceanica Compost  [PDF]
S. Kouki,N. Saidi,A. Ben Rajeb,M. Brahmi,A. Bellila,M. Fumio,A. Hefiène,N. Jedidi,J. Downer,H. Ouzari
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/239639
Abstract: A compost of vegetable waste and Posidonia oceanica mixture (70?:?30% vol?:?vol) was tested in vitro and in vivo for its efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp radicis-lycopersici (Forl), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. chourouk).The incorporation of non-sterilized VPC in the culture medium showed potent antifungal activity against Forl and complete inhibition of mycelium growth was observed for all the tested compost rates (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20%). However, only the highest rates (15 and 20%) of a sterilized suspension of VPC were effective in preventing mycelial growth. Nine indigenous bacterial strains isolated from VPC exhibited antagonism against Forl. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates were assigned to Bacillus sphaericus (B12 and BS2), Pseudomonas putida PPS7 and Burkholderia gladioli BuC16. Under green house condition, seed inoculation by B12, BS2, PP7 and BuC16 strains protected significantly tomato against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp radicis-lycopersici (Forl) attacks. 1. Introduction During the last decades, various studies in Tunisia investigated the effects of organic composts as nutrient-rich amendments to correct mineral deficiencies of soils in a semiarid climate [1], In this context, we have conducted some studies, aimed to exploit the ability of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as an organic feedstock to be transformed into compost as well as the mineralization of MSW when added to soil [1–3]. The evolution of microbial biomass was studied by [4, 5]. Application of composted Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) can lead to addition of potentially toxic heavy metals to Tunisian soils [6]. Some compost may also contaminate the soil with aflatoxins [7]. Other sources of organic matter could be used as alternatives to MSWC. In Tunisia vegetable garden waste was not considered for compost production. Also, the use of compost as a biocontrol agent able to limit some plant disease has not been reported from Tunisia. It is well known that compost offers a disease control alternative to fungicides [8]. The use of composts to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens has been extensively reviewed by several authors [9]. Different mechanisms have been postulated to control plant diseases by compost application such as competition for nutrients, antibiotic production by beneficial micro-organisms, activation of disease-resistance genes in plants [10], triggering systemically acquired resistance mechanisms [11] and compost obtained from heterogeneous vegetable wastes [12]. Pascual et al. [13]
Physiological Race of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Lycopersici in Kurdistan Province of Iran and Reaction of Some Tomato Cultivars to Race 1 of Pathogen  [PDF]
J. Amini
Plant Pathology Journal , 2009,
Abstract: In this research, eleven isolates of Fusarium oxysporum were collected from tomato plants displaying wilt symptoms in fields in Kurdistan province. Race 1 of pathogen was obtained from Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy in Russia. Pathogenicity of the collected isolates and race 1 of the pathogen were evaluated in glasshouse conditions. Pathogenicity tests and race determination were conducted using root-dip inoculation with different tomato cultivars, Beliy naliv-241 (not resistant), Blagovest (resistant to race 1) and Benito (resistant to both races of 1 and 2). The experimental design was a completely randomized type with six replications (pots) containing two seedlings per pot. Disease severity was measured five weeks following inoculation by using a scale of 0 to 4. The criteria used to assess the response of different cultivars were; leaf disease index, plant height and vascular discoloration index. Results showed that Beliy naliv-241 lacking any resistance gene wilted four weeks after inoculation, but cultivars Blagovest and Benito did not develop symptoms to any of the isolates tested. The reaction of race 1 and the Iranian isolates were similar in pathogenicity suggesting that all of the isolates belong to Fusarium f. sp. lycopersici race 1. Also, Reaction 23 tomato cultivars against to F. o. f. sp. lycopersici indicated that 6 of the them were resistant, 5 were intermediately resistant, 6 were tolerant, 3 were susceptible and the rest 3 were found to be very susceptible.
ASPECTOS GENERALES DE LA INTERACCIóN Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici-TOMATE
González,Ivonne; Yailén,Arias; Peteira,Belkis;
Revista de Protecci?3n Vegetal , 2012,
Abstract: fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (sacc.) snyder and hansen is the causal agent of the vascular wilt in tomato. the use of resistant varieties is one of the most effective methods for managing this disease. this paper summarizes the biochemical and molecular mechanisms mediating the natural and induced resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici-tomato interaction.
Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Isolated from Algerian Tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Trichoderma harzianum
Nour Eddine Karkachi,Samia Gharbi,Mebrouk Kihal,Jamal Eddine Henni
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjagr.2010.31.34
Abstract: Evaluation of the antagonistic activity of three bacterial and a fungi with direct confrontation method and the filtrates culture against the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici showed the inhibition of the mycelia growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici with Bacillus cereus energized the low activity and it was more significant with Serratia marcescens and Trichoderma harzianum for the 2nd day but with Pseudomonas fluorescens, it was for the 5th day. The filtrates of culture of these antagonists showed that only Serratia marcescens and Trichoderma sp. have a rate of inhibition which varies between (40-95%) and of (20-30%) with Pseudomonas fluorescens.
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