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Differences in Self-Assessment Regarding Eating Behaviors among Female University Students Living in Japan, Korea, and Austria  [PDF]
Mihoko Tominaga, Masanori Taguchi, Akiko Suzuki, Ho-Sook Youn, Kyubok Cho, Johannes Scherling, Roswith Roth, Yoshiko Ikawa
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312219
Abstract: Objective: To investigate cross-cultural differences in self-assessments of eating behaviors of female university students who bear responsibility for their own eating behaviors and who will, in the future, likely determine a family’s eating style. Design: A cross-cultural comparison. Setting: Japan, South Korea, and Austria. Subjects: Female university students from Japan (n = 276), Korea (n = 103), and Austria (n = 127). The survey comprised a questionnaire containing ten sections about eating behaviors (eating habits, regular meal times, and frequency of food intake) and eating attitudes. Results: Eating behaviors and attitudes differed significantly among the three cultures. Japanese students practiced healthier eating behaviors than did Korean and Austrian students, on the basis of their variety of food intake and regular consumption of three meals, but rated themselves lower on healthy eating behaviors. Austrian students tended to have more independent attitudes toward eating and food preparation (e.g., “I want to eat only my favorite dishes”) than Japanese or Korean students. Conclusions: Effects of cultural differences in psychological processes, such as self-cognition, emotion, motivation, and values, on self-assessment of eating behaviors is suggested.
Validation and Gender-Based Comparison of the Eating Behavior Scale for Japanese Young Adults  [PDF]
Masami Horiguchi, Gohichi Tanaka, Haruko Ogasawara, Ryoko Maruyama
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.519219
Abstract: Young adulthood is a time when eating behaviors can become disturbed. In general, women want to lose weight, and men want to gain weight in the form of muscle. A convenient tool to assess characteristics of eating behavior in young adulthood is needed in order to promote a healthy diet. The first aim of this study was to develop an eating behavior scale for Japanese young adults (EBS). The secondary aim was to compare eating behaviors between men and women. The EBS was modified from a questionnaire directed at high school students by Tayama and colleagues (Tayama, Watanabe, Nishimura, Murakami, & Fukudo, 2008). The participants of this study were 794 Japanese young adults (404 men and 390 women) enrolled at three universities and two vocational schools in Japan. They were recruited in the classroom and were asked to submit the completed EBS questionnaire if they agreed to participate. We assessed the validity of the EBS and compared factors between men and women. Three subscales were extracted from the EBS: “Extrinsic eating” (e.g., eating when others eat or when feeling irritated), “Eating quickly” (e.g., eating quickly or not chewing food well), and “Strong taste” (e.g., liking strong-tasting or greasy food). Overall EBS score and “Extrinsic eating” were higher, and “Strong taste” was lower, in women than that in men. The findings indicate that the EBS is suitable as a simple tool to assess properties of eating behavior of healthy Japanese young adults.
Psychometric Validation of the Motivation for Healthy Eating Scale (MHES)  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kato, Makoto Iwanaga, Roswith Roth, Tomoko Hamasaki, Elfriede Greimel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.42020
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Japanese version of the Motivation for Healthy Eating Scale (MHES), a modified version of the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale that assesses the motivational orientation toward healthy dietary regulation. In the first study, a sample of 490 female Japanese undergraduate students completed the MHES. In the second study, 357 female undergraduate students completed the Balanced Diet Scale (BDS), and Subjective Health Status Questionnaire (SHSQ) in addition to the MHES. The MEHS showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity as measured by correlation with scores on the BDS and SHSQ. Psychometric analyses of the MEHS revealed a six-factor scale structure. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ranged from .72 to .84 (Intrinsic motivation: .80, Integrated regulation: .82, Identified regulation: .84, Introjected regulation: .73, External regulation: .77, and Amotivation: .72). Concerning criterion validity, autonomous regulation was positively associated with BDS scores, whereas controlled regulation was negatively associated with SHSQ scores. The results indicate good psychometric properties for the Japanese version of the MHES. It might be confirmed that fostering autonomous regulation lead healthy eating habits and enhance subjective health.
Eating with Familiar Friends Decreases the Electrical Taste Threshold  [PDF]
Shiho Tsuchida, Genki Sakauchi, Momoko Asada, Naoto Sato, Kasumi Suzuki, Misaki Kaiwa, Kenichi Shibuya, Hiromi Inaba
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93013
Abstract: Communal eating reportedly induces changes in food-related behaviors such as increased consumption and alleviation of indefinite complaints. Here, we examined the influence of intimacy with co-eaters on the palatability of the food and the physiological taste thresholds. The study was a single-blind crossover trial with 16 healthy women aged 18 - 19 years (two close friends × 8) as participants. We examined the effect of four preset conditions with regard to taste (condition 1 = tasting alone; condition 2 = tasting with a friend; condition 3 = tasting with three unfamiliar individuals; condition 4 = tasting with a friend and two unfamiliar individuals). Electrical taste thresholds were measured pre-and post-eating. The subjective evaluation of taste did not show any significant difference between the four conditions (p > 0.05). However, the electrical taste threshold significantly decreased when eating with close friends (p < 0.05). As a factor associated with the meal environment, co-eating with family or friends appears to influence tastiness; however, in the present study, it showed no effect on the perception of taste. Nevertheless, eating with friends significantly decreased the electrical taste threshold and enhanced the perception of taste. Decrease in the electrical taste threshold was observed only when eating with a close friend; it was not observed when eating with other people and showed no association with the total number of individuals co-eating.
Do Japanese Style Acupuncture and Moxibustion Reduce Symptoms of the Common Cold?  [PDF]
Kenji Kawakita,Toshiyuki Shichidou,Etsuko Inoue,Tomoyuki Nabeta,Hiroshi Kitakoji,Shigekatsu Aizawa,Atsushi Nishida,Nobuo Yamaguchi,Norihito Takahashi,Eiji Sumiya,Kaoru Okada,Takashi Umeda,Tadashi Yano,Shouhachi Tanzawa
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem055
Abstract: We summarize the results from a series of investigations of Japanese style acupuncture and moxibustion therapies on symptoms of the common cold that have been conducted (FTLE 1999–03, supported by the Foundation for Training and Licensure Examination in Anma- Massage- Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion). We also discuss the various interventions and concerns that we faced during these investigations. The subjects were students and teachers. The pilot study (FTLE1999) of a two arm (real and non-treatment control) RCT at a Japanese acupuncture school showed that manual acupuncture to a specific needling point at the throat clearly reduced symptoms of the common cold. The first multi-center (five centers) RCT (FTLE 2000) revealed a significant reduction in cold symptoms, by general linear model analysis (between groups, P = 0.024). To reduce the technical variation, we employed indirect moxibustion to the neck points as a uniform intervention in the next project (FTLE 2001) without statistically significant results. Then we elongated the periods of treatment from 2 to a maximum of 12 weeks (FTLE 2002) with different interventions accompanied by 4 weeks follow-up. The results were still not statistically significant. As the final project, we tried to develop a new experimental design for individualized intervention by conducting n-of-1 trials using elderly subjects in a health care center but without detecting a clear effect. In conclusion, the safety of Japanese acupuncture or moxibustion was sufficiently demonstrated; however, a series of clinical trials could not offer convincing evidence to recommend the use of Japanese style acupuncture or moxibustion for preventing the common cold. Further studies are required as the present trials had several limitations.
Chinese Female Undergraduate’s Explicit and Implicit Attitude toward Chinese Skincare Brands and Japanese and South Korean Skincare Brands  [PDF]
Yuanyan Hu, Shengyan Qiu, Shaohua Chen, Jinghui Bi
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.71001
Abstract: The study aimed to explore the Chinese female college students’ attitudes toward skincare brands (including Chinese brands and Japanese and Korean brands) by comparing the results of self-report survey and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results showed that participants have inconsistent response patterns in explicit/implicit measures toward Chinese brands and Japanese and Korean brands, and both explicit and implicit attitude measures are significantly differences. That is, participants holds a more positive attitude on Japanese and Korean brands than Chinese brands in explicit attitude, but a more negative in implicit attitude.
A Study of the Relationship between the Taste Sensitivity of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and Blood Pressure (Random Sample from the Students of Qurna College/Basrah-Iraq)  [PDF]
Hasna Amir Mohaus, Asaad Y. Ayied
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.611001
Abstract: The present study aimed to detect the relationship between taste sensitivity of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and pressure (systolic and diastolic) among a group of 138 individuals of both sexes (64 males and 74 females), representing a random sample of students and some professors of, aged (20 - 50) years. The study also included the relationship between eating salted foods and their effect on pressure among males and females of tasters and non-tasters of (PTC) substance. The results showed an increase in the proportion of the phenotypic style of tasters compared to non-tasters among males (75%, 25%) and females (77.03%, 22.97%) respectively. The average of systolic pressure was (117.91 mm/Hg, 107.06 mm/Hg) and diastolic (78.22 mm/Hg, 68.71 mm/Hg) among tasters and on-tasters for both sexes respectively. The results showed significant differences in systolic pressure among non-tasters female compared to their counterpart tasters [X2 (DF = 1) 5.783, P ≤ 0.05]. Such an effect doesn’t appear among males. The results showed an increase of non-tasters (66.58%) among those with abnormal blood pressure and (68.42%) of those who consumed salted foods.
Relationship between the Influence of Others’ Opinions on Taste during Co-Eating and the Empathy of Individuals  [PDF]
Hiromi Inaba, Genki Sakauchi, Shiho Tsuchida, Momoko Asada, Naoto Sato, Kasumi Suzuki, Kenichi Shibuya
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.84013
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the opinions of people eating together affect the taste of the foods they eat. In addition, if the opinions of others influence taste for one of the people eating with them, are the others’ opinions related to the empathy of individuals? Finally, this study was also intended to consider whether the taste threshold changes depending on the opinions of others. Twelve healthy young women (aged 18.4 ± 0.8 years; mean ± SD) participated in the present study. The participants tasted bread under three conditions: 1) quiet condition: a participant ate with three quiet persons, 2) positive condition: a participant ate with three persons who were talking favorably about taste, and 3) negative condition: a participant ate with three persons who were talking negatively about the taste. The electrical taste threshold was tested before and after tasting the bread, and a visual analog scale (VAS) was completed immediately after the tasting. Before the first trial, participants were asked to complete the Interpersonal Reactive Index (IRI). In the positive condition, the taste score increased significantly compared with the negative condition. There was no significant relationship between taste and empathic concern. To our knowledge, taste changed according to the comments of other people who were eating together. However, the change in taste due to the other’s speech was not related to the individual’s empathy. The results of the present study suggest that people experience food as delicious when others eating with them comment about the food being “delicious,” and this tendency did not depend on individuals’ empathy.
Analysis of the Relationship Between Eating Attitudes and Body Shape in Female Students  [PDF]
Sirus Alipoor,Ali Moazami-Goodarzi,Maryam Zarra-Nezhad,Lale Zaheri
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study aims at investigating the relationship between eating attitudes and body image dissatisfaction. Among the female students of psychology from Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, during 2008, 140 students were selected through random sampling. This research was conducted in a field work fashion using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The data collected were analyzed using correlational statistics. Results suggested that there is a significant positive correlation between the eating attitudes and body image dissatisfaction. Thus, students who are overly dissatisfied with their body shape are at a higher risk for an eating disorder.
Effects of Aerobic Training on Eating Disorders in Non-athlete Female Students
R Mollazadeh Esfanjani,H Arazi,S Rohi,M Mohammadi
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: One of the most common mental disorders is eating disorders that have high comorbidity with psychological factors and is observed in the teenage and young girls more than others. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular aerobic training on eating disorders in non-athlete female students. Methods: In this experimental study, the eating attitudes questionnaire was completed by 458 female students of University of Guilan, and 38 students were diagnosed with eating disorders. From these 38 students, 25 ones took part in the study. Finally, subjects were assigned into two groups randomly: experimental (n=13) and control (n=12) group. Both groups were homogeneous in regard to standpoint age, weight, and marriage and didn’t show statistical significant differences. Experimental group trained for 8 weeks and 2 times per week. After training program, two groups recompleted EAT-26 questionnaire. Because of exclusion of 2 individual from experimental group for discontinuing training program, 23 subjects were analyzed. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t test and ANCOVA. Results: Findings showed that there were significant differences between experimental and control groups in regard to their eating attitudes (p<0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that regular exercise training such as aerobic training may reduce eating disorders in female students
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