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Isoenzymatic variation in the germplasm of Brazilian races of maize (Zea mays L.)
Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido;Lopes, Catalina Romero;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572000000200023
Abstract: there are more than 200 races of maize (zea mays l.) divided into three groups (ancient commercial races, the recent commercial races, and indigenous races). although the indigenous races have no commercial value, they have many important characteristics which can be incorporated into maize breeding programs. most brazilian indigenous germplasm race stocks were collected at least 40 years ago, and nothing is known of the genetic variability present in this germplasm. the genetic variability was assayed in 15 populations from four indigenous races of maize (caingang, entrela?ado, lenha and moroti) and five indigenous cultivars, using five isoenzymatic systems encoded by 14 loci. the analysis revealed a low level of variability among the samples studied. overall, the mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus was three, 64.3% of the loci analyzed being polymorphic and the estimated heterozygosity was 0.352. the mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus per population was 1.6. a mean of 47.5% of the loci were polymorphic. the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.195, the mean genetic identity was 0.821 and the proportion of total genetic diversity partitioned among populations (gst) was 0.156. a founder effect could explain the low variability detected.
Isoenzymatic variation in the germplasm of Brazilian races of maize (Zea mays L.)  [cached]
Gimenes Marcos Aparecido,Lopes Catalina Romero
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2000,
Abstract: There are more than 200 races of maize (Zea mays L.) divided into three groups (ancient commercial races, the recent commercial races, and indigenous races). Although the indigenous races have no commercial value, they have many important characteristics which can be incorporated into maize breeding programs. Most Brazilian indigenous germplasm race stocks were collected at least 40 years ago, and nothing is known of the genetic variability present in this germplasm. The genetic variability was assayed in 15 populations from four indigenous races of maize (Caingang, Entrela ado, Lenha and Moroti) and five indigenous cultivars, using five isoenzymatic systems encoded by 14 loci. The analysis revealed a low level of variability among the samples studied. Overall, the mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus was three, 64.3% of the loci analyzed being polymorphic and the estimated heterozygosity was 0.352. The mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus per population was 1.6. A mean of 47.5% of the loci were polymorphic. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.195, the mean genetic identity was 0.821 and the proportion of total genetic diversity partitioned among populations (Gst) was 0.156. A founder effect could explain the low variability detected.
Collecting and evaluation of germplasm of spiked pepper from Brazilian Amazon
Gaia, José Maria D;Mota, Milton Guilherme da C;Concei??o, Carmen Célia C da;Maia, José Guilherme S;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362010000200004
Abstract: spiked pepper (piper aduncum l.) is an aromatic plant species with high essential oil production. it is a species that occurs abundantly in the brazilian amazon. its essential oil has exploitable biological properties in the human health and agriculture. aiming to study its germplasm toward future use in genetic breeding programs, collecting was carried out (inflorescences, cuttings, leaves and thin branches) in ten provenances from the brazilian amazon. twelve morphoagronomic traits were determined to take the data: number of leaves by branch, length of leaf, width of the leaf, circumference of the older branch, height of the plant, number of orthotropic branches, number of plageotropic branches, length of the internodes, number of spikes per branches, yielding of oil, content and production of dillapiole, as well as data on the environment and populations of spiked pepper. the inflorescences and cuttings were encoded and sent for the federal rural university from pará state (ufra), brazil, for propagation. the leaves and thin branches were sent for the emílio goeldi museum, from pará state (mpeg) for extraction of essential oil (hydrodistillation). estimators of amplitude of variation, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were utilized to study the phenotypical variability. the morphoagronomic traits of largest variability were number of orthotropic branches, number of spikes per branch, circumference of the older branch and the content and production of dillapiole. this species has adapted to many different environments of vegetation, soil, climate, relief and drainage becomming easy the domestication and cropping. there is morphoagronomic variability pleasing the selection and genetic breeding.
Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana  [cached]
E. Sapey,K. Adusei-Fosu,D. Agyei-Dwarko,G. Okyere-Boateng
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R)-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I). The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavourable weather conditions. Only Dura (D) forms of Oil palm were present without the existence of the other forms. The smallest shell thickness recorded was 1.6 mm. Data on stem height, bunch weight, bunch length, bunch depth, bunch diameter, bunch width, bunch spine length, bunch stalk weight, fruit length and width were recorded in-situ. Mesocarp, kernel and shell to fruit ratios were computed. Data collected were analysed using standard procedures; Elementary statistics (mean values, standard error, range and co-efficient of variation) were computed. Results revealed some variation for both qualitative and quantitative traits assessed on the accessions. Seedlings have been raised from these accessions for testing for drought screening and yield evaluation.
Genetic divergence among Psidium accessions based on biochemical and agronomic variables
Santos, Carlos Antonio Fernandes;Corrêa, Luiz Cláudio;Costa, Soniane Rodrigues da;
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-70332011000200007
Abstract: sixty-nine psidium accessions collected in six brazilian states were analyzed by two non-hierarchical clustering methods and principal components (pc), to provide orientation for breeding programs. the variables ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, titrable acidity, soluble solids, total soluble sugars, moisture content, lateral and transversal fruit diameter, fruit pulp and seed weighs, and plant fruit number and weight were analyzed. specific groups were observed for the ara?azeiros accessions, by the tocher and the k-means methods, as well as by the three-dimensional dispersion of the four pcs. the clustering separated accessions of ara?azeiros from the guava. there was no specific grouping in terms of states of origin, indicating the absence of barriers in the guava propagation accessions. analyses suggested the collection of a greater number of guava germplasm samples from a smaller number of regions and divergent accessions with high nutritional compound levels to develop new cultivars.
Genetic divergence among Psidium accessions based on biochemical and agronomic variables  [PDF]
Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos,Luiz Cláudio Corrêa,Soniane Rodrigues da Costa
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: Sixty-nine Psidium accessions collected in six Brazilian states were analyzed by two non-hierarchical clusteringmethods and principal components (PC), to provide orientation for breeding programs. The variables ascorbic acid, b-carotene,lycopene, total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, titrable acidity, soluble solids, total soluble sugars, moisture content,lateral and transversal fruit diameter, fruit pulp and seed weighs, and plant fruit number and weight were analyzed. Specific groups were observed for the ara azeiros accessions, by the Tocher and the k-means methods, as well as by the three-dimensionaldispersion of the four PCs. The clustering separated accessions of ara azeiros from the guava. There was no specific grouping interms of States of origin, indicating the absence of barriers in the guava propagation accessions. Analyses suggested the collectionof a greater number of guava germplasm samples from a smaller number of regions and divergent accessions with high nutritionalcompound levels to develop new cultivars.
Record of Edessa scabriventris St?l (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil
Lima, Mauricio S;Fernandes, José A M;Lima, Iracilda M M;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000400032
Abstract: this study reports for the first time edessa scabriventris st?l on eugenia uniflora (brazilian-cherry) and on psidium guajava (guava) (myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of alagoas (maceió municipality 35°45'11.16''w; 9°40'18.52''s) and pará (belém municipality 48°28'14.65''w; 1°26'14.83''s), north-northeastern brazil.
Variation in Antioxidant Attributes at Three Ripening Stages of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruit from Different Geographical Regions of Pakistan  [PDF]
Javaria Gull,Bushra Sultana,Farooq Anwar,Rehana Naseer,Muhammad Ashraf,M. Ashrafuzzaman
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17033165
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4–247.9 mg 100 g?1), Islamabad (89.7–149.7 mg 100 g?1) and Bhakkar (73.1–129.5 mg 100 g?1). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.
Drug abuse among workers in Brazilian regions
Silva,Ovandir Alves; Yonamine,Mauricio;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102004000400011
Abstract: objective: many business organizations in brazil have adopted drug testing programs in the workplace since 1992. rehabilitation, rather than layoff and disciplinary measures, has been offered as part of the brazilian employee assistance programs. the purpose study is to profile drug abuse among company workers of different brazilian geographical regions. methods: urine samples of 12,700 workers from five geographical regions were tested for the most common illicit drugs of abuse in the country: marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamine. enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (emit) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (gc/ms) were the techniques utilized for urine testing. the distribution of collected urine samples according to geographical regions was: 72.0% southeast, 13.8% northeast, 7.9% south, 5.7% central west and 0.6% north. results: of all samples analyzed, 1.8% was found to be positive for drugs: 0.5% from the south region, 1.1% from northeast, 1.2% from central west, 1.3% from north, and 2.2% from southeast. of these, 59.9% was marijuana, 17.7% cocaine, 14.6% amphetamine, and 7.7% associated drugs. conclusions: the distribution of drugs found in the samples shows a regional variation. marijuana, however, was found in all regions. cocaine was seen only in central west and southeast regions. amphetamine was found in northeast, central west, and southeast regions.
Dietary availability patterns of the brazilian macro-regions
Sileia Nascimento, Flávia S Barbosa, Rosely Sichieri, Rosangela A Pereira
Nutrition Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-79
Abstract: The development of a dietary availability patterns according to geographic regions in Brazil.The 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey was conducted in 48,470 households. Dietary availability patterns were identified by Principal Component Analysis using as a unit of analysis the survey's Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) and purchased amounts for 21 food groups. Each of the extracted dietary availability patterns was regressed on socioeconomics categories.There were no differences in dietary availability patterns between urban and rural areas. In all regions, a rice and beans pattern was identified. This pattern explained 15% to 28% of the variance dependent on the region of the country. In South, Southeast and Midwest regions, a mixed pattern including at least 10 food groups explaining 8% to 16% of the variance. In the North region (Amazon forest included) the first pattern was based on fish and nuts and then it was designed as regional pattern. In multiple linear regression the rice and beans pattern was associated with the presence of adolescents in the households, except for North region, whereas the presence of adolescents was associated with the Regional pattern. A mixed patterns were associated with a higher income and education (p < 0.05), except in the South region.The rice and beans and regional dietary availability patterns, both considered healthy eating patterns are still important in the country. Brazil has taken many actions to improve nutrition as part of their public health policies, the data of the Household Budget Survey could help to recognize the different food choices in the large regions of the country.Identification of dietary patterns has been widely used to classify individuals and communities according to healthy and unhealthy diets, overcoming many restricted characteristic of traditional analyses focused on nutrient intake [1].Few studies in Brazil have identified dietary patterns, and all of them were limited to local populations or
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