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Phytogenic additive as an alternative to growth promoters in broiler chickens
Scheuermann, Gerson Neudí;Cunha Junior, Anildo;Cypriano, Lucas;Gabbi, Alexandre Mossate;
Ciência Rural , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782009000200032
Abstract: this study evaluated a phytogenic feed additive for broiler chickens. a total of 1,632 broiler chicks were distributed into four treatments: negative control (without growth promoter); positive control (avilamycine, 10ppm + colistin, 15ppm); and two alternative treatments with 150ppm of phytogenic additive, one with a reduced ca and p levels diet (pa-r1) and the other with lower energy, and amino acids, besides ca and p (pa-r2). the trial was conducted with 12 replicates, each consisted of a pen with 34 birds. the alternative diets showed body weight intermediate to the two controls at 42 days, with no significant (p>0.05) treatment effect on feed conversion ratio. no treatment differences (p>0.05) on carcass yield and composition was observed. there was a tendency of abdominal fat lipids saturation, when the phytogenic additive was used, as possible consequence of a decreased level of soybean oil in the diets. a difference (p<0.001) on ingredient consumption profile was observed between the treatments. all together, this study showed a possibility to reduce the cost of total feed used to produce a broilers or a ton of body weight by the utilization of the tested phytogenic additive.
Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as a Feed Additive in Broiler Diets
A.A. Mohammed,A.S. Zakariya`u
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjnasci.2012.38.41
Abstract: The research was carried out to determine the growth performance of 84 day old Hubbard broiler chicks on various levels of supplemental Vernonia Amygdalina (VA). Four treatments were used including the control which had 0 g VA, treatments two, three and four had 300, 600 and 900 g VA, respectively as an additive in both the starter and finisher diets. The results of the growth performance showed that there were no differences (p>0.05) among all the growth performance parameters analyzed. Broilers on V300 and V900 showed increased feed intake and feed conversion ratio, respectively. There was decreased mortality in broilers fed V600 diet.
Effect of Phytogenic Growth Promoter on Broiler Bird  [PDF]
S. K. Mukhopadhayay,S. Haldar,D. Niyogi
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to study the biological effect of phytogenic growth promoter supplemented with the diet or added in the drinking water in the broiler birds. In the experiment, two proven phytogenic growth promoters, Digestarom 1317 (dosage 150 ppm) and Digestarom 1440 (dosage 800 ppm) AC were fed to the broiler chickens against an antibiotic growth promoter, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD). The experimental birds were distributed into four equal groups viz., T1, T2, T3 and T4. Birds of the negative control group (T1) were supplemented with basal diet but no growth promoter and birds of the positive control group (T2) were supplemented with basal diet with BMD. Birds of T3 and T4 groups were supplemented basal diet along with two different doses of phytogenic feed additive, Digestarom 1317 @ 150 ppm and Digestarom 1440 @ 800 ppm. Studies on different biological parameters revealed that phytogenic growth promoters significantly (P<0.001) enhance the productive performance of treatment group.
Black cumin seeds as phytogenic product in broiler diets and its effects on performance, blood constituents, immunity and caecal microbial population  [cached]
Sohail H. Khan,Jehanzeb Ansari,Ahsan u. Haq,Ghulam Abbas
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2012.e77
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 3 different levels (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0%) of black cumin seeds (BCS) on five hundred chicks. A basal diet was supplemented with either 0 (negative control), or 0.1% antibiotic (positive control), or 3 levels of BCS. At day 28 and 42 of age, the 2.5 and 5.0% BCS groups had significantly greater body weight gain (BWG) than the 1.25% BCS and the antibiotic group. The same groups had feed efficiency significantly improved (P<0.05) compared to the 1.25% BCS group and the controls. At both ages, measurement of the dressing percentage showed no marked variation between BCS supplementation and antibiotic. The 2.5 and 5.0% BCS groups showed an increase (P<0.05) in total protein and higher (P<0.05) haematological values than the 1.25%, antibiotic or unsupplemented diet group. The activities of blood enzymes were lower (P<0.05) and caecal coliform and Escherichia coli populations decreased (P<0.05) in BCS and antibiotic groups. Serum and tissue cholesterol concentration decreased (P<0.05) as the levels of BCS increased. The geometric means haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres of the BCS and the antibiotic group were always higher than the negative control. The mean lymphoid organs weight/body weight ratio of the negative control was significantly (P<0.05) lower than BCS and antibiotic groups. In conclusion, including up to 2.5 or 5.0% BSC in the diets of broilers has no deleterious effects on their performance, immunity, serum biochemical constituents nor haematological indices. In fact, it may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken meat.
Studies with sanguinarine like alkaloids as feed additive in broiler diets
Vieira, SL;Berres, J;Reis, RN;Oyarzabal, OA;Coneglian, JLB;Freitas, DM;Pe?a, JEM;Torres, CA;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2008000100010
Abstract: this research included two studies evaluating the live performance of broilers fed sangrovit? (minimum of 1.5% sanguinarine, a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid extracted from macleaya cordata). both studies were conducted using ross 308 female broiler chicks. birds were fed corn-soybean meal all-vegetable diets without growth promoters with 5 treatments and 8 replications in each study. in the first study, treatments were composed of a negative control without feed additive and four diets with graded increases of sangrovit of 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 ppm. in the second study, chicks received a similar diet from placement to 21 days of age and subsequently were given feeds with graded reductions in crude protein (cp) as follow: a negative control with 19.7% cp without sanguinarine, and then 19.7, 19.2, 18.8 and 18.3% cp supplemented with sangrovit at 20 ppm. it was demonstrated that body weight was increased when birds were fed 50 ppm of sangrovit at 21 d when compared to the negative control. also comparatively to the negative control, cumulative feed conversion was improved for birds fed with sangrovit at 37.5 ppm as well as feed intake from placement to 7 days at 12.5 ppm. no differences were observed in feed intake. birds supplemented with sangrovit and 18.8% cp had similar body weight gain and feed intake as the negative control with 19.7% cp. mortality in both studies was not correlated with the treatments. results from both studies indicate benefits of the supplementation of sangrovit in diets for broilers.
Boron supplementation in broiler diets
Fassani, EJ;Bertechini, AG;Brito, JAG;Kato, RK;Fialho, ET;Geraldo, A;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2004000400004
Abstract: boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. however, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. this study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid p.a. as boron source. six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm) were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m2. a completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. no performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05) in the period from 1 to 7 days. the regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p<0.05) without affecting feed conversion (p>0.05), although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p<0.05). in the total rearing period (1 to 42 days), the level of 57 ppm boron was adequate for weight gain (p<0.01) without affecting feed conversion (p>0.05). ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05).
Electrolyte Balance in Broiler Growing Diets  [PDF]
Sebastiao Aparecido Borges,Ana Vitoria Fischer da Silva,Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura,Alex Maiorka
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2004,
Abstract: Two experiments were carried out using 1,120 chicks to evaluate the electrolyte balance (EB = Na+K-Cl) in growing (21-42 days) broiler diets. The feed, based on corn and soybean meal with 20.0% CP and 3,200 kcal ME/kg, was offered ad libitum. In experiment I, K level was fixed, but Na and Cl levels varied among the four treatments, which included five replications of 40 birds each. In experiment II, increasing levels of Na and K were used, with a total of four treatments and four replications of 20 birds. In both experiments, the EB treatments were 40; 140; 240 and 340 mEq/kg of feed. EB showed a quadratic effect on weight gain and feed to gain ratio when the electrolyte ratio was increased only by the supplementation of Na. Feed intake was maximum for 264 mEq/kg, when Na level was increased in the diet, and 213 mEq/kg, when K and Na levels were concurrently increased in the diet, indicating that there is a limit over which feed intake is depressed as a function of excessive Na and/or K. The ideal EB, obtained by the manipulation of Na and Cl levels, was between 202 and 235 mEq/kg.
Nutritional Evaluation of Amaranthus cruentus Leaf Meal Based Broiler Diets Supplemented with Cellulase/Glucanase/Xylanase Enzymes
A.O. Fasuyi,A.O. Akindahunsi
American Journal of Food Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Sundried leaves of Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM) were milled and analyzed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0±0.55%; crude fat, 5.4±0.1%; crude fibre, 8.8±0.02%; ash, 19.3±0.01% and gross energy, 3.3±0.01 kcal g-1; metabolizable energy, 2.8±0.21 kcal g-1 all on dry matter basis. Minerals, amino acids and antinutrients were also determined. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels of 0, 5, 15 and 25%. The diets were duplicated with a set supplemented with Roxazyme G2 in a 2x4 factorial experiment. All the 8 diets including the control diets were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 288) from day 3 to day 24. Statistical main effects indicated that broiler chicks in which ACLM was incorporated at 5% inclusion level in their diet with Roxazyme G2 supplementation was found to have the highest weight gain. Feed consumption value is found to be highest in chicks fed diet 8 at 25% inclusion level of ACLM with Roxazyme G2 supplementation. The feed conversion value obtained for birds on diet 4 with Roxazyme G2 supplementation was the best. Broiler chicks on diet 4 also had the best value for Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in all the hematological parameters investigated. The additive inclusion of Roxazyme G2 in broiler diets can further increase the use of ACLM as a protein source effectively at 5%. There were no deleterious effects even up to 25% ACLM inclusion level with enzyme supplementation.
Evaluation of Herbal Methionine Source in Broiler Diets  [PDF]
J. Yuan,A.J. Karimi,S.D. Goodgame,C. Lu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2012,
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate an herbal methionine replacement product in diets for young broiler chicks. A corn-soybean meal diet that was complete in all respects but methionine was prepared and divided into three aliquots. One was supplemented with 0.30% DL methionine and another was supplemented with the herbal methionine replacement product. Each of these was then blended with the unsupplemented basal diet to provide diets with 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30% of either DL methionine or the herbal methionine replacement product. Each diet was fed to twelve pens of five male broiler type chicks each in electrically heated battery brooders. The diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum feeding from day of hatch to 18 d of age. Analysis of the diets indicated that the methionine activity of the diets with DL methionine was close to expected values but no apparent increase in analyzed methionine activity in diets supplemented with the herbal methionine replacement product. Body weight gain and feed conversion of birds fed the diets with DL methionine were significantly superior to that of birds fed the diets with the herbal methionine replacement product. No significant differences were observed between birds fed the two products for weight of digestive or immune organs when expressed as a percentage of body weight. These data suggest that the herbal methionine replacement product is not suitable for use as a methionine source in diets for young broiler chicks.
Evaluation of Hops (Humulus iupulus) as an Antimicrobial in Broiler Diets  [PDF]
J.M. Cornelison,F. Yan,S.E. Watkins,Lloyd Rigby
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the use of hops (Humulus iupulus) in broiler diets as a potential replacement for antibiotics. Broiler diets were prepared based on nutrient specifications of top broiler companies and supplemented with either 50 g/ton penicillin or hops at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 lbs/ton of feed and compared to an unsupplemented control group. Each treatment was assigned to eight replicate groups of 45 male chicks of a commercial broiler strain. The diets were fed in pelleted form with starter diets fed as crumbles. Addition of 50 g/ton of penicillin resulted in significant improvements in body weight, feed conversion, and feed efficiency at all ages, as compared to those fed the negative control. The addition of hops at 0.5 lbs per ton also resulted in significant improvements in feed conversion and feed efficiency at all ages when compared to the negative control, and also significantly improved body weight at 14 d as compared to those fed the negative control diet. At 42 d, the body weight of chicks fed 0.5 lbs of hops per ton was greater (P = 0.09) than that of chicks fed the negative control. Higher levels of hops feeding resulted in some improvements as compared to those fed the negative control; including 14 d body weight for those fed 1.0 lb per ton, and improved 1 to 42 d feed conversion and feed efficiency for those fed 1.5 lbs per ton. Results of this study suggests that inclusion of hops into diets at the rate of 0.5 lbs per ton for broiler chickens may result in improved growth rate and feed utilization in the absence of growth promoting antibiotics.
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