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Composición química, producción de gas in vitro y astringencia en el follaje de Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill  [cached]
A Ojeda,J.A Barroso,N Obispo,J.L Gil
Pastos y Forrajes , 2012,
Abstract: Con el objetivo de determinar la composición química, la astringencia, la producción de gas y la degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la fracción comestible de Samanea saman, durante el a o 2009 se realizaron cinco muestreos (febrero, abril, mayo, junio y octubre) en plantas localizadas en un bosque semicaducifolio tropical en Venezuela. En cada muestreo se consideraron 10 plantas diferentes, cada una como una réplica evaluada en un dise o completamente aleatorizado. No hubo variación (P>0,05) en la MO (94,1 ± 1,5%), la PC (20,1 ± 1,5%), la hemicelulosa (17,5 ± 3,7%), la celulosa (10,5 ± 2,5%), la lignina (11,1 ± 1,8%) y los fenoles totales (2,8 ± 1,1%). De mayo a octubre se observaron los mayores valores (P<0,05) para la EE (5,3 ± 0,8%), la FND (44,8 ± 3,3%), la FAD (16,7 ± 1,9%) y el Ca (1,3 ± 0,2%); mientras que los taninos totales (P<0,05) y condensados (P<0,01) se elevaron en octubre (3,75% y 0,99%, respectivamente). La astringencia no se detectó de febrero a mayo y fue baja de junio a octubre (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eat/100 g de MS). No hubo diferencias en los parámetros b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h), To (1,2 ± 0,2 h) y T (21,3 ± 3,3 h), con la mayor producción potencial de gas en febrero (63,3 mL/g MS). La degradabilidad de la MO y de la FND se redujeron (P<0,05) en abril (44,7% y 24,7%, respectivamente), sin diferencias para los meses restantes (51,2 ± 3,4% y 37,7 ± 3,3%, respectivamente). La biomasa comestible de S. saman puede ser empleada como una fuente de nutrientes en sistemas silvopastoriles, con una reducida participación de taninos condensados de baja actividad biológica, lo que supone un impacto positivo sobre el flujo de nitrógeno no amoniacal a partir del rumen In order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October) were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%), CP (20,1 ± 1,5%), hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%), cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%), lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%), and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1%) did not show variations (P<0,05). From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05) of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%), NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%), ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%), and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2%) were observed; while total (P<0,05) and condensed tannins (P<0,01) increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively). Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limi
Producción de biomasa y calidad nutricional del estrato graminoide en un sistema silvopastoril dominado por samán (Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr)
Hernández,Manuel; Guenni,Orlando;
Zootecnia Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: a study was carried out at la antonia experimental station of universidad central de venezuela to evaluate the effect of shade of saman (samanea saman) on pasture production. the experiment was performed on two plots with different tree densities. the first plot (pi) had one saman tree and the herbaceous stratum was composed by digitaria swazilandensis (ds) and urochloa arrecta (ua). the second plot (pii) had four trees plus ua and urochloa mutica (um). biomass production, forage nutrient concentration and some plant morphological characters were measured during 6 consecutive regrowth weeks along three times of the year: 1) wet-dry period 2003 (p1), 2) dry-wet period 2004 (p2), and 3) wet-dry period 2004 (p3). at pi the percentages of photon flux density (pfd) beneath the single tree canopy were 38, 82, and 41% along p1, p2, and p3, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for pii were 33, 48, and 26%. specific leaf area increased in all grasses as pfd decreased. at p1 and p3, leaf area index increased in ds and ua, and diminished in um. ds y ua showed a high phenotypic plasticity to low pfd intensities, while um had a greater response at p2. in general, the reduction in soil water content along p2 decreased dry matter yield at 100% light. in this case, a pfd of 48 to 82% appeared to have a compensatory effect on the pasture, since soil humidity was increased in some cases, improving total forage biomass under shade. during p1 the forage protein content of almost all grasses increased under shade when compared to full light, whereas phosphorus values, cell wall content and the dry matter degradability did not show any important variation under shade. pasture radiation use efficiency (rue) increased from full light to shade within the ranges 0.7 to 1.5 g/mj and 1.4 to 2.4 g/mj for ds and ua, respectively. these rue increments may have a significant effect on improving grass responses to decreased light under tree cover.
Use of exudated gum produced by Samanea saman in the potabilization of the water
Griselda González,Magaly Chávez,Donaldo Mejías,Marielba Mas y Rubí
Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad del Zulia , 2006,
Abstract: En la clarificación del agua potable se utiliza sulfato de aluminio para remover materia coloidal y sustancias orgánicas, mejorando la calidad del agua. Elevadas concentraciones de aluminio residual en el agua potable tienen implicaciones en la salud humana, siendo necesario el desarrollo de coagulantes alternativos, ambientalmente aceptables para reemplazar los productos químicos. En esta investigación se estudió el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman como coagulante natural, estableciendo su dosis óptima mediante la prueba de jarro y determinando los parámetros: turbidez, color, pH, alcalinidad total, número más probable y conteo de heterótrofos, usando agua turbia sintética inoculada con un cultivo puro de Escherichia coli y solución de coagulante en dosis de 10-500 mg/L, con valores de turbidez inicial entre 10-100 NTU. La dosis óptima del coagulante resultó entre 10-25 mg/L, obteniendo disminuciones significativas en los valores de turbidez (1NTU) y color (5 UC), los valores de pH y alcalinidad total no presentaron variaciones significativas, los coliformes fecales y totales tuvieron remociones significativas (99,7% y 99,8% respectivamente) y el conteo de heterótrofos de observó con 0 UFC. Los parámetros evaluados cumplen con los estándares establecidos para garantizar la calidad del agua para consumo humano, usando el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman, demostrando la eficiencia de este coagulante natural. For the clarification of drinking water aluminium sulphate is used to remove colloids and organic substances to improve the water quality. High concentrations of residual aluminium in the drinkable water can have implications on human health, thus, it is necessary to develop alternative environmentally acceptable coagulants. The exudates gums from Samanea saman were studied as natural coagulants, establishing optimum dose according to the jar test and determining parameters such as: turbidity, colour, pH, total, alkalinity, MPN and heterotrophic count; using synthetic turbid water inoculated with pure culture of E. Coli and coagulant solution on the volume range of 50 to 500 mg/L. The initial turbidity used was between 10 to 100 NTU. The optimum coagulant dose was found to be between 10 to 25 mg/L, with significant reduction of turbidity and colour, i, e,: 1 NTU for turbidity and 5 U for colour. The pH and total alkalinity did not present significant variations. On the other hand, for fecal coliforms a significant removal of 99.7%, and for total coliforms (99.8%) was found. And finally, the heterotrophic count was observed with 0 UFC. The parameters ev
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.  [PDF]
Ahmed Syed Muzammil,Tasleem Farhana,Ahmed Salman
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.
Use of exudated gum produced by Samanea saman in the potabilization of the water
González,Griselda; Chávez,Magaly; Mejías,Donaldo; Mas y Rubí,Marielba; Fernández,Nola; León de Pinto,Gladys;
Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad del Zulia , 2006,
Abstract: for the clarification of drinking water aluminium sulphate is used to remove colloids and organic substances to improve the water quality. high concentrations of residual aluminium in the drinkable water can have implications on human health, thus, it is necessary to develop alternative environmentally acceptable coagulants. the exudates gums from samanea saman were studied as natural coagulants, establishing optimum dose according to the jar test and determining parameters such as: turbidity, colour, ph, total, alkalinity, mpn and heterotrophic count; using synthetic turbid water inoculated with pure culture of e. coli and coagulant solution on the volume range of 50 to 500 mg/l. the initial turbidity used was between 10 to 100 ntu. the optimum coagulant dose was found to be between 10 to 25 mg/l, with significant reduction of turbidity and colour, i, e,: 1 ntu for turbidity and 5 u for colour. the ph and total alkalinity did not present significant variations. on the other hand, for fecal coliforms a significant removal of 99.7%, and for total coliforms (99.8%) was found. and finally, the heterotrophic count was observed with 0 ufc. the parameters evaluated using the exudates gum from samanea saman, comply with the standard established to guarantee the quality of water for human consumption, showing the efficiency of this natural coagulant.
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.  [cached]
Afia Ferdous,Mohammad Zafar Imam,Tajnin Ahmed
Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: In the present investigation the n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and choloroform soluble fractions of crude methanolic extract of Samanea saman bark were tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and total antioxidant activity test. Antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion method against thirteen bacteria and three fungi and cytotoxicity was tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Chloroform and hexane soluble fraction showed IC50 value of 12μg/ml and 14μg/ml respectively in scavenging DPPH radical while the reference Butylated hydroxytoluene showed an IC50 value of 10μg/ml. The carbon tetrachloride fraction showed the highest total antioxidant capacity. The carbon tetrachloride fraction was also found to possess mild to moderate microbial growth inhibitory capacity. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform soluble fractions showed LC50 value of 14.94μg/ml, 0.831μg/ml and 3.288μg/ml respectively. The results suggest good antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of chloroform and hexane soluble fractions and antimicrobial activity of carbon tetrachloride fraction of Samanea saman bark extract.
Volume Table of Raintree (Samanea Saman) in Bangladesh by Regression Technique  [PDF]
S. S. Islam, Jonaed Kabir, Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.21012
Abstract: Raintree (Samanea saman) is a multipurpose village tree species grown in abundance at southern and northern regions of Bangladesh. Village people need to know estimation procedure for timber inventory of this useful tree species. Data on diameter at breast height (diameter) and total height (height) of 205 standing sample trees were collected by Spiegel relascope for the purpose. The sample trees with diameter ranging 21 cm - 91 cm and height ranging 10 m - 20 m were considered for measurement. Volumes (m3) of individual trees were computed by Smalian formula. A total of 10 linear models of volume on diameter and volume (V) on diameter (D) and height (H) were examined with the sample trees. A few statistics of F, t, mean square error, multiple correlation coefficient and Furnivall Index was computed and tested for investigation of best fitted models. The two models of In(V) = 8.3023 + 2.1746 In(D) and In(V) = –9.1864 + 1.85502 In(D) + 0.8234 In(H) were found to be best fitted models. They have been recommended to estimate volume of large scale standing Raintree trees.
Caracterización analítica de cinco gomas Mimosaceae Venezolanas y su posible aplicación industrial Analytical characterization of five Venezuelan Mimosaceae gums which have a possible industrial applications
D Abed El Kader,E Molina,G León de Pinto,G Negrón
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2002,
Abstract: Acacia glomerosa, Acacia tortuosa, Acacia macracantha, Samanea samán y Enterolobium cyclocarpum, especies Mimosaceae venezolanas, tiene la capacidad de exudar goma, después de un estímulo apropiado. Datos de estas gomas, determinados por métodos analíticos clásicos, son muy interesantes. Las gomas de Acacia tortuosa y Acacia macracantha son muy solubles en agua; las gomas de Enterolobium cyclocarpum y Samanea samán mostraron alto valor de la viscosidad intrínseca. La composición de azúcares de las gomas estudiadas demostró contener galactosa, arabinosa, ramnosa, ácido glucuronico y su 4-0-methyl derivado. Los datos obtenidos mostraron algunas similitudes con los reportados para la goma de Acacia senegal, la cual tiene amplia aplicación industrial; por lo tanto, seria muy interesante ensayar el comportamiento de esas gomas en la industria alimentaría y en otras aplicaciones industriales. Acacia glomerosa, Acacia tortuosa, Acacia macracantha, Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Venezuelan Mimosaceae species, are able to exudate gum, after appropriate stimulation. Data on these gums, determined by classical analytical methods, are very interesting. Acacia tortuosa and Acacia macracantha gums are very soluble, in water; Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Samanea saman gums showed high intrinsic viscosity. Sugar composition of the gums studied showed them to contain galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and its 4-0-methyl derivative. The data obtained showed some similarities with that reported for Acacia senegal gum, which has wide industrial application; therefore, it would be very interesting to test the behavior of those gums in the food industry and other industrial applications.
Plano Oficial de Urbanización de Algarrobo, 1950: urbanismo saludable y visión de futuro para un balneario de la antigua Provincia de Santiago (Chile) / Official Plan of Private Algarrobo, 1950: healthy urban planning and vision for a resort of the old Province of Santiago (Chile).  [cached]
Pavez Reyes, María Isabel
Revista de Urbanismo , 2006, DOI: doi: 10.5354/0717-5051.2006.5128
Abstract: Se analiza el proyecto urbano para la comuna de Algarrobo (Chile), aprobado en 1950, a partir de copia matriz de plano en Archivo Histórico del departamento de Urbanismo FAU. U. de Chile. A cargo de esta planificación estuvo la Sección de Urbanismo del Departamento de Arquitectura de la D.G.O.P., dirigida por el Arqto. Luis Mu oz Maluschka./This article analyzes the project for Algarrobo approved in 1950 when Luis Mu oz M. was in charge of the plan management.
Estudios termométricos de granitoides de Algarrobo del águila, provincia de La Pampa Thermometric Studies from Algarrobo del Aguila granitoids, province of La Pampa  [cached]
T Montenegro,S Quenardelle,E Llambías
Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina , 2003,
Abstract: Los plutones graníticos de Algarrobo del águila, provincia de La Pampa, forman parte del Complejo Intrusivo Algarrobo del águila y afloran en el bloque de Las Matras. Tienen edad permo-triásica y constituyen cerros de escasa altura. Los principales afloramientos son Puesto Los Cerros, Puesto Las Tinajeras y Cerro Colorado. Hacia el oeste, cerca del límite con Mendoza, se encuentra, en forma aislada, el monzogranito de Chos Malal. Las edades obtenidas por el método K/Ar sobre roca total son de 256,8 ± 5,5 Ma para Cerro Colorado y 197,9 ± 3,9 Ma para Puesto Los Cerros. Los cuerpos ígneos se caracterizan por una amplia variación textural con transición hacia términos volcánicos, indicativos de una rápida cristalización en ambientes de profundidad somera. La cristalización del cuarzo tiene lugar bajo diferentes presentaciones. A partir de 370o y hasta 260°C los megacristales de cuarzo capturaron fluidos de composición compleja H2O-NaCl-CO2, con salinidad elevada y concentración de CO2 no mayor a 0,04% molar. En las miarolas, el cuarzo cristalizó entre 335o y 235°C y en las venas entre 330o y 300°C, con salinidades de hasta 14% equivalente en peso NaCl. Los feldespatos potásicos tienen un grado de ordenamiento intermedio lo que indica un enfriamiento rápido a temperaturas inferiores a 400°C. Estas temperaturas son congruentes con la cristalización de microclino sin las maclas según leyes de Albita-Periclino. La presencia de minerales como fluorita, apatito y turmalina, sumado a todas las anteriores características, son indicativos de la cúpula de un plutón emplazado en niveles someros. The granitic stocks of Algarrobo del Aguila, in the province of La Pampa, are assembled in "Complejo Intrusivo Algarrobo del Aguila" and they crop out in Las Matras Block forming smooth and small hills. Main outcrops of these Permian-Triassic granites are Puesto Los Cerros, Puesto Las Tinajeras and Cerro Colorado. The isolated outcrops of the Chos Malal monzogranite are close to the border with the province of Mendoza. Two new K/Ar whole rock ages yielded 256.8 ± 5.5 Ma for the Cerro Colorado aplite and 197.9 ± 3.9 Ma for the Puesto Los Cerros aplite. The granites show a wide textural variety, from fully plutonic to volcanic ones indicating a quick process of crystallization in a high level of the crust. Quartz crystallized in different modes. Complex composition fluids (H2O-NaCl-CO2) with high salinity, were captured from 370 to 260°C in megacrysts. The CO2 did not pass 0.04% molar. The miarolitic quartz crystallized between 335 and 235°C, and the quartz of the veins between
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