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Media and conflict in Sierra Leone: national and international perspectives of the civil war  [cached]
Valentina Bau
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/4-1-10
Abstract: The rise of the media in Sierra Leone. The media and the civil conflict. The evolution of the conflict. The Western media perspective of a "barbaric" Africa. Western media coverage of the civil war in Sierra Leone: the British example. The role of NGOs in news reporting. The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between states, conflicts post 1990 progressively began to take place within countries. The doctrines of major world powers no longer seemed to determine the ideologies and objectives of warring groups and, almost as a new war strategy, combatants started to target civilians rather than fighting sections in order to achieve their objectives. Atrocities began to be the statements that publicised political positions. In countries that were rich in natural resources, such as diamonds, the political goals of wars were often linked to the complex logics of resource appropriation (Bangura, 2004). Rather than providing an account of the events that shaped the unfolding of the civil war in Sierra Leone, this paper focuses on the analysis of the role that the media played in elaborating the perception of those events, both at a national and international level. A theoretical examination of the impact of the conflict’s media coverage - which has been explored and reviewed by authors such as Khan (1998) and Shaw (2006) - is conducted and its effect of the war explained. The growth of the Sierra Leonean press is discussed and its limitations reviewed, examining both the financial and legislative constraints that characterised it, some of which derive from the colonial period. The role of the media is then evaluated in relation to the internal influence that “biased” journalism had on the shaping of the war, and how it impacted on the fighting. Finally, an example of the Western media coverage of the conflict is also reviewed within the context of theories that illustrate the way the African region is often regarded as an uncivilised and hopeless continent, where little can be done by the developed world to put an end to violence.
“The Boys Are Coming to Town”: Youth, Armed Conflict and Urban Violence in Developing Countries  [cached]
Josjah Betina Kunkeler,Krijn Peters
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2011,
Abstract: Young people are major participants in contemporary intra-state armed conflicts. Since the end of the Cold War there has been a trend to portray these as criminal violence for private (economic) ends, rather than politically or ideologically motivated. Hence, the perception of young people’s role has moved from “freedom fighters” to “violent criminals.” Our discursive and conceptual reconsideration based on a case study of Sierra Leone finds that the associated dichotomies (“new war/old war,” “greed/grievance,” “criminal/political violence”) are grounded in traditional modernization assumptions and/or constructed for policy purposes, rather than reflecting reality on the ground. Urban and rural youth violence in developing countries cannot be separated from its political roots. Moreover, the violent dynamics in which urban youth violence is embedded challenge our conceptions of what an armed conflict is. Including this form of violence in mainstream conflict theory would open the way for a new interpretation and more effective policy interventions. Extrapolating the experience of Latin American cities plagued by drug violence, the recent and significant increase in drug trafficking on the West African seaboard could mark the beginning of another armed conflict with high youth involvement, this time playing out in urban settings.
Disaggregated Perspectives on Civil War and Ethnic Conflict : Prospects of an Emerging Research Agenda  [PDF]
Tim Dertwinkel
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2009,
Abstract: After the end of the Cold War, international relations scholars studying violent conflict took note of the fact that since 1945, the most common and lethal form of organized violence was intra- rather than interstate war. Although in general less severe than interstate conflicts, 90% of all battle deaths since the end of the Cold War have been due to civil wars.
The Romanian Civil War: A Theoretical Discussion On The Proximate Causes of Violence  [cached]
Alexander Ghaleb
Sfera Politicii , 2011,
Abstract: The paper is a theoretical account of the Romanian Revolution viewed from the eyes of an American international security strategist who recounts his childhood in Romania. The author believes that the unresolved nature of the violence during the revolution discouraged many historians and political scientists from applying genuine theoretical foundations to the study of a sustained conflict that resulted in 1,104 official deaths and 3,352 wounded. Ultimately, the author suggests, the proximate causes of the violence in 1989 provide sufficient evidence to define the revolution as a coup related civil war. The fact that a conflict that meets the casualty element of the civil war definition does not attract the attention of the academia is an injustice not only against the families of the victims of the conflict, but also against the study of contemporary history itself.
The Health Consequences of the Diversion of Resources to War and Preparation for War  [cached]
Victor Sidel,Barry S. Levy
Social Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Armed conflict damages health in many ways. These include death and disability directly caused by war, destruction of the societal infrastructure that supports health and safety, forced migration of people both within their own country and as refugees to other countries, promotion of violence as a method to settle conflicts and disputes, and the long-term adverse effects on social relationships. This special issue of Social Medicine examines the impact of war on human health from a geographically diverse set of countries and from diverse perspectives. Dr. Andrea Angulo Menasse, a researcher from Mexico City’s Autonomous University, documents the very personal story of how the violence of the Spanish Civil War affected one family. In her case study the trauma suffered by Spanish Republicans is traced through three generations and crosses the Atlantic Ocean as the family moves is exiled in Mexico. Dr. Sachin Ghimire from the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University reports on his fieldwork in Rolpa, Nepal, the district from which the Nepal Civil War (also called the People’s War) originated in 1996. Based on 80 interviews, he documents the difficulties faced by health care workers as they negotiated the sometimes deadly task of remaining in communities where control alternated between Nepalese Special Forces and the Maoist rebels. Finally, Colombian researcher, Carlos Iván Pacheco Sánchez, from the University of Rosario in Bogota, brings an epidemiologist’s tools to examine the impact of the ongoing armed conflict in the border Department of Nari o. His discussion is informed by the current debate over health care in Colombia where a recent Constitutional Court decision has found that the current health care system violates the right to health. These three papers amply demonstrate the depth, breadth and relevance of contemporary social medicine.
Legalization of Civil Wars: The Legal Institutionalization of Non-International Armed Conflicts  [PDF]
Kenneth ?hlenschl?ger Buhl
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2009,
Abstract: This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non-international armed conflict' is used here.
Understanding Civil War Violence through Military Intelligence: Mining Civilian Targeting Records from the Vietnam War  [PDF]
Rex W. Douglass
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Military intelligence is underutilized in the study of civil war violence. Declassified records are hard to acquire and difficult to explore with the standard econometrics toolbox. I investigate a contemporary government database of civilians targeted during the Vietnam War. The data are detailed, with up to 45 attributes recorded for 73,712 individual civilian suspects. I employ an unsupervised machine learning approach of cleaning, variable selection, dimensionality reduction, and clustering. I find support for a simplifying typology of civilian targeting that distinguishes different kinds of suspects and different kinds targeting methods. The typology is robust, successfully clustering both government actors and rebel departments into groups that mirror their known functions. The exercise highlights methods for dealing with high dimensional found conflict data. It also illustrates how aggregating measures of political violence masks a complex underlying empirical data generating process as well as a complex institutional reporting process.
IF WAR COMES TOMORROW: THE CONTOURS OF FUTURE ARMED CONFLICT  [cached]
G.E. Vre?
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/28-2-218
Abstract: The concept of future war and the controversial concept of a revolution in military affairs represent concepts and an evolving debate that could easily be perceived to be a pure American concept. The fact however is that Russian thinking on military theory and practice contains a strong line of thinking and concurrent ideas on this issue. The Russians have traditionally held strong and original thoughts on military theory and practice of which the deep operations theory and their views on building their maritime power are but two examples. In this publication much of their future thinking is being articulated and expressed by general Gareev. As the author, his experiences and visions originate from a military career spanning more than fifty years. His views, theories and future perspectives are placed into context by Jacob Kipp who relates the future contours constructed by Gareev to national and international security before presentation of the original ideas of Gareev. The first chapter is a thorough introduction by the editor into the world of Russian thinking and in particular that of general Gareev. In his efforts to familiarise the reader with the author, the issues as well as the concept of a revolution in military affairs and the Russian response, Kipp sets the stage for Gareev's more abstract thoughts on future war. As a publication translated from Russian on a topic not generally well known, this introductory chapter is of much value.
Evaluation of the Effects of Corruption in the Armed Conflict in Northeast and Other Situations of Violence in Nigeria  [PDF]
Hagler Okorie
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.95036
Abstract: Corruption is regarded as the abuse of public office for private gains. This is done when an official accepts, solicits, or extorts a bribe. Also, public office is abused when private agents actively offer bribes to circumvent public policies and processes for competitive advantage and profit. It can also be abused for personal benefit even if no bribery occurs, through nepotism and clannishness, the theft of state assets or the diversion of state revenues. Corruption in Nigeria has been responsible for the pernicious enervation of government and governance whether military or democratic since independence. Corruption engenders the occurrence of conflicts involving large-scale organized violence. This is because of how endemic corruption is and the various attacks it has on the life, progress and development of the state. It has robbed the state of peace and progress; unity and harmony. Again, this results into class conflict which materializes into various forms of revolution as carried out by the Niger Delta militants, the Indigenous Peoples of Biafra and the internecine bloodletting of the Fulani Herds men marauding across the country without let and hindrance as a result of corruptive nepotism and clannishness pervading within the Federal powers. This work analyzes the catalyzation of corruption on the armed conflict in the Northeast and other situations of violence in Nigeria. The work also examines the domestic legal regimes established to stamp out this kleptocratic menace and concludes that there is the need to strengthen these laws, especially by the further amendment of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, to constitutionally establish an independent and special court to try corruption cases in the country.
EXTENDING JUST WAR THEORY: THE JUS AD BELLUM AND THE CAPABILITIES APPROACH TO ARMED CONFLICT  [cached]
Deane-Peter Baker,Deborah Roberts
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/35-2-36
Abstract: As the nature of armed conflict continues to change, so the living ethical tradition that is just war theory has to adapt to meet new challenges. This paper offers a proposal for extending just war theory by incorporating into its framework a human capabilities-based ethic drawn from the work of Martha Nussbaum. This new approach is analysed in the light of two important recent challenges to just war theory: David Rodin’s critique of the principle of national defence, and the emerging doctrine of humanitarian intervention. While the results of this analysis can only be considered to be preliminary, the authors argue that indications are that supplementing just war theory with Nussbaum’s human capabilities-based ethic, or something similar, could yield significant benefits for the ethical analysis of contemporary armed conflicts.
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