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Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  [PDF]
G. Strunz,J. Post,K. Zosseder,S. Wegscheider
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-11-67-2011
Abstract: In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia. The paper explains the underlying concepts and applied methods and shows some of the results achieved in the GITEWS project (Rudloff et al., 2009). The tsunami risk assessment has been performed at an overview scale at sub-national level covering the coastal areas of southern Sumatra, Java and Bali and also on a detailed scale in three pilot areas. The results are provided as thematic maps and GIS information layers for the national and regional planning institutions. From the analyses key parameters of tsunami risk are derived, which are integrated and stored in the decision support system of the national Indonesian Early Warning Centre. Moreover, technical descriptions and guidelines were elaborated to explain the developed approach, to allow future updates of the results and the further development of the methodologies, and to enable the local authorities to conduct tsunami risk assessment by using their own resources.
Tsunami mortality in Aceh Province, Indonesia
Doocy,Shannon; Rofi,Abdur; Moodie,Claire; Spring,Eric; Bradley,Scott; Burnham,Gilbert; Robinson,Courtland;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000400012
Abstract: objective: nine tsunami-affected districts in aceh, indonesia, were surveyed between february and august 2005 to characterize tsunami mortality. methods: the surveys employed a two-stage cluster methodology with probability proportional to size sampling, and encompassed 1653 tsunami-displaced households with a pre-tsunami population of 10 063 individuals. findings: of the original pre-tsunami population, a total of 1642 people, or 17%, were reported as dead or missing in the tsunami. crude mortality rates in the four survey areas ranged from a high of 23.6% in aceh jaya district on the west coast to 5.3% on the east coast. age-specific mortality rates followed a similar pattern across the four survey areas, with the highest mortality concentrating in the youngest children (aged 0-9 years) and oldest adults (70+). the risk of mortality was significantly greater among females than males; this difference was most pronounced among individuals between ages 10 and 69 years, and diminished among younger and older age groups. conclusion: mortality risk in the 2004 asian tsunami varied by geographic location, age and sex. the districts of aceh jaya, banda aceh and aceh besar experienced the greatest mortality. risk of death was highest among females, and among the oldest and youngest population subgroups. while the full human impact of the asian tsunami in aceh province, in terms of lives lost or damaged, may never be fully measured, the resulting female deficit will likely be the tsunami?s most deeply felt and prolonged impact.
Roberto Morales Mu?oz
Urbano , 2010,
Abstract: Frente a los graves da os causados por el terremoto y posterior tsunami del 27 de febrero del 2010 en las costas de la macrozona centro sur de Chile, especialmente en peque as localidades costeras que viven del mar, tanto de la pesca artesanal como del turismo local, siempre es posible sacar lecciones positivas, que permitan a través de la reconstrucción, mejorar la calidad y seguridad de estos asentamientos, en este caso particular, sobre la planifi cación de los asentamientos costeros de Tubul, Llico y Tirúa en la provincia de Arauco de la Región del Bio Bio, El presente artículo entrega una visión sintética de los efectos urbanos de esta catástrofe, desde un punto de vista geográfi co y se ala las principales acciones que se están emprendiendo para lograr que su reconstrucción sea sustentable y contribuya a mejorar la calidad de vida de sus habitantes.
NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL TSUNAMI: Indonesian Tsunami of 26 December 2004  [PDF]
Zygmunt Kowalik,William Knight,Tom Logan,Paul Whitmore
Science of Tsunami Hazards , 2005,
Abstract: A new model for the global tsunami computation is constructed. It includes a high order of approximation for the spatial derivatives. The boundary condition at the shore line is controlled by the total depth and can be set either to runup or to the zero normal velocity. This model, with spatial resolution of one minute, is applied to the tsunami of 26 December 2004 in the World Ocean from 80 S to 69 N. Because the computational domain includes close to 200 million grid points, a parallel version of the code was developed and run on a supercomputer. The high spatial resolution of one minute produces very small numerical dispersion even when tsunamis wave travel over large distances. Model results for the Indonesian tsunami show that the tsunami traveled to every location of the World Ocean. In the Indian Ocean the tsunami properties are related to the source function, i.e., to the magnitude of the bottom displacement and directional properties of the source. In the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica, in the Pacific, and especially in the Atlantic, tsunami waves propagate over large distances by energy ducting over oceanic ridges. Tsunami energy is concentrated by long wave trapping over the oceanic ridges. Our computations show the Coriolis force plays a noticeable but secondary role in the trapping. Travel times obtained from computations as arrival of the first significant wave show a clear and consistent pattern only in the region of the high amplitude and in the simply connected domains. The tsunami traveled from Indonesia, around New Zealand, and into the Pacific Ocean. The path through the deep ocean to North America carried miniscule energy, while the stronger signal traveled a much longer distance via South Pacific ridges. The time difference between first signal and later signals strong enough to be recorded at North Pacific locations was several hours.
Terremoto 2010: Impacto en la incidencia de lesiones subepicárdicas. experiencia en telemedicina Impact of the 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile: a telemedicine evaluation of subepicardial lesions
Francesca Bello,Patricia Adriazola,Edgardo Escobar,Stefania Pavlov
Revista Chilena de Cardiología , 2012,
Abstract: La asociación de estrés y eventos coronarios agudos ha sido extensamente estudiada. En relación a un evento estresante existiría un aumento en la liberación de ca-tecolaminas que incide en un incremento en la presión arterial y alteraciones de hemostasia, como sería el caso de un terremoto. En el presente trabajo se describe la relación contemporánea observada entre el terremoto del 27 de febrero del 2010 y el diagnóstico de lesión subepicárdica, en electrocardiogramas recibidos en ITMS, Telemedicina de Chile. Se analizaron 280.592 electrocardiogramas (ECGs) provenientes de todo el territorio nacional, que corresponden a un periodo de 12 meses de los a os 2009 y 2010. Se realizó una comparación estadística entre el porcentaje de lesiones subepicárdicas registradas en el fin de semana del terremoto (27/02/2010 y 28/02/2010) versus los fines de semana de los meses estudiados. Se obtuvieron los datos correspondientes a siete pacientes que se encontraban con monitoreo ambulatorio de presión arterial (MAPA) el día 27/02. El diagnóstico de lesión subepicárdica se hizo en 1.795 trazados, correspondientes a un 0.64% del total de ECGs recibidos. Hubo un aumento estadísticamente significativo de las lesiones subepicárdicas (p<0,05) en el fin de semana del terremoto, la distribución por edad se mantuvo similar al resto de los períodos analizados. Sin embargo se invirtió la distribución por género durante dicho fin de semana siendo mayor en mujeres que en hombres, como es en el resto de los períodos analizados. En los registros MAPA se documentó un aumento de la presión arterial y frecuencia cardíaca en relación al evento estresante. Se confirmó entonces un aumento estadísticamente significativo del diagnóstico electrocardiográfico de lesiones subepicárdicas en relación al estrés producido por el terremoto del 27 de febrero de 2010. Background: The association of stress and acute coronary events has been extensively explored. An increased output of catecholamines leading to high blood pressure and alteration of hemostasis may be responsible for this effect. A severe earthquake and tsunami is a major stress. Methods and Results. 280,592 electrocardiograms (ECG) obtained via a telemedicine system in the years 2009 and 2010 were analyzed. The frequency of subepicardial lesions recorded during the weekend in which the earthquake took place (27/2/2010 - 28/2/2010) was compared to that observed in all other weekends throughout the period. 7 subjects had a blood pressure Holter monitoring on that weekend. A subepicardial lesion was diagnosed in 0.64% of ECGs recorded thro
GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System  [PDF]
T. Sch?ne,W. Pandoe,I. Mudita,S. Roemer
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-11-741-2011
Abstract: On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.
Abordajes Frente al Terremoto y Tsunami del 27 de Febrero del 2010: Experiencia de la Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica (SCPC)
Jade Ortiz Barrera,Caterina Manzo García
Terapia Psicológica , 2010,
Abstract: En el presente artículo se describe de forma sintética las actividades realizadas por la Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica posteriormente al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de Febrero del 2010, en la zona sur y centro de Chile. Dentro de éstas se presenta la coordinación de capacitaciones a psicólogos y equipos de salud que trabajaron en terreno, preparación de material escrito que fue entregado a la población en la ciudad de Santiago y el trabajo conjunto con la Policía de Investigaciones en la difusión de información al público en la zona cero de Talcahuano. Finalmente se reflexiona acerca de la necesidad de encontrarnos preparados para actuar frente a situaciones de desastre natural, especialmente dada la constitución geográfica de nuestro país. Se hace evidente desde allí incorporar en las mallas curriculares de las diversas escuelas de psicologías, cursos o al menos unidades centradas en estrés post traumático, sus abordajes y tratamientos, así como situaciones de emergencias, catástrofes y acciones orientadas a su afrontamiento.
Lezioni dal grande terremoto e dallo tsunami del marzo 2011 in Giappone orientale
Shunji Murai
GEOmedia , 2012,
Abstract: Questo rapporto riassume ciò che abbiamo imparato dal disastro del Gran Terremoto e Maremoto nell’Est del Giappone che avvenne l’11 marzo 2011 su una vasta area. Include le descrizioni delle perdite dovute al disastro, le lezioni dai disastri passati e presenti, un focus su ciò che è stato fatto correttamente e cosa è andato storto, l'incidente nucleare della Centrale Nucleare di Fukushima (NPS, Nuclear Power Station) e le opinioni dell’autore. Lessons from the Disaster of East Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami 311 The report summarizes what we have learnt from the disaster of the East Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami which oc-curred on March 11, 2011 over a wide area of East Japan. It includes descriptions of the losses due to the disaster, lessons from the past and present disasters with focus on what was done correctly and what went wrong, the accident at Fuku-shima Nuclear Power Station (NPS) and my views.
Factores Ambientales y Psicosociales Vinculados a Síntomas de Ataque de Pánico Después del Terremoto y Tsunami del 27 de Febrero de 2010 en la Zona Central de Chile
Marcelo C. Leiva,Gonzalo R. Quintana
Terapia Psicológica , 2010,
Abstract: La presente investigación proporciona una primera evaluación de síntomas de ataque de pánico y su relación con algunas variables asociadas con la magnitud del da o sufrido por las personas expuestas al terremoto del 27 de Febrero de 2010 en la zona central de Chile. Un total de 150 habitantes de diversas localidades fueron evaluados para determinar la presencia de síntomas de ataque de pánico dentro de las dos semanas posteriores a la catástrofe. Los resultados indican más síntomas de crisis de pánico en aquellas personas que sufrieron pérdidas de bienes y en aquellos que estuvieron expuestos al tsunami o riesgo de tsunami. Se discute la necesidad de evaluar otros trastornos (p.e., estrés post-traumático) y poblaciones (p.e., ni os), así como también la importancia de crear indicadores cuantitativos del impacto de estas catástrofes, basados en la combinación de variables tales como la intensidad del sismo y la magnitud del da o personal.
Reduction of tsunami inundation by coastal forests in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a numerical study  [PDF]
W. Ohira,K. Honda,K. Harada
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-85-2012
Abstract: Coastal forests are known to protect coastal areas from environmental degradation. In this paper, we examined another important role of coastal forests – to mitigate tsunami devastations to coastal areas. Using a two-dimensional numerical model (Harada and Imamura model, 2005), we evaluated the damping effects of a coastal forest to resist tsunami inundation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the simulations, we set up a two-km long control forest with a representative topography of the study site and experimented its damping performance sensitivity under various width configurations, e.g. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 200 m. The initial tsunami wave was set such that the inundation depth at the front edge of the forest would not exceed 4 m (tree fragility limit). The forest variables such as species, density, DBH, height and canopy size were determined from a typical forest of the site (Casuarina plantation, 4 trees/100 m2, Diameter at Breast Height = 0.20 m). The results showed that coastal forest with 100 m width reduced inundation flux, depth and area by 17.6, 7.0 and 5.7%, respectively. Exponential models were found to describe the relationships between forest width and tsunami inundation transmission. An additional experiment was performed using actual topography and a forest plantation plan with 100 m width for 2.46 km2. In this experiment, the results showed that the plan would reduce inundation flux by 10.1%, while the exponential model estimated it to be 10.6%, close to the numerical model results. It suggests that statistical models of forest width and damping effects are useful tools for plantation planning, as it allows for quicker evaluation of the impact of coastal forest without simulation modeling that requires a lot of data, time and computing power.
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