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Male Circumcision in the General Population of Kisumu, Kenya: Beliefs about Protection, Risk Behaviors, HIV, and STIs  [PDF]
Matthew Westercamp,Robert C. Bailey,Elizabeth A. Bukusi,Michele Montandon,Zachary Kwena,Craig R. Cohen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015552
Abstract: Using a population-based survey we examined the behaviors, beliefs, and HIV/HSV-2 serostatus of men and women in the traditionally non-circumcising community of Kisumu, Kenya prior to establishment of voluntary medical male circumcision services. A total of 749 men and 906 women participated. Circumcision status was not associated with HIV/HSV-2 infection nor increased high risk sexual behaviors. In males, preference for being or becoming circumcised was associated with inconsistent condom use and increased lifetime number of sexual partners. Preference for circumcision was increased with understanding that circumcised men are less likely to become infected with HIV.
Women's Beliefs about Male Circumcision, HIV Prevention, and Sexual Behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya  [PDF]
Thomas H. Riess, Maryline M. Achieng', Robert C. Bailey
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097748
Abstract: It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC) as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.
Triple-Antiretroviral Prophylaxis to Prevent Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission through Breastfeeding—The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: A Clinical Trial  [PDF]
Timothy K. Thomas ,Rose Masaba,Craig B. Borkowf,Richard Ndivo,Clement Zeh,Ambrose Misore,Juliana Otieno,Denise Jamieson,Michael C. Thigpen,Marc Bulterys,Laurence Slutsker,Kevin M. De Cock,Pauli N. Amornkul,Alan E. Greenberg,Mary Glenn Fowler,for the KiBS Study Team
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001015
Abstract: Background Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. Methods and Findings HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34–36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm3 were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%–12.0%) and 4.1% (1.8%–8.8%), respectively (p = 0.06); the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%–7.8%) and 8.7% (6.1%–12.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants) were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%–19.4%). Conclusions This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These findings are consistent with those from other trials using maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens during breastfeeding in comparable settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00146380 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Drug abuse in Kisumu town western Kenya
AO Otieno, AVO Ofulla
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: This was a cross sectional study designed to determine the factors associated with drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, western Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and peer influence on drug abuse and to establish the reasons why students abuse drugs. Nine schools were randomly selected for the study. A total of 458 students (243 males and 215 females) were interviewed using a closed ended questionnaire. The data were then categorized into non-abusers and abusers and the degree of association between the variables was tested using Chi-square test. A total of 458 students (243 males and 215 females), were interviewed using a close-ended questionnaire. The results showed that 265 (57.9%) of the respondents had consumed alcohol at least once in their lives, 159 (34.7%) had abused tobacco, 84 (18.3%) had abused cannabis, 106 (23.1%) had abused khat and 24 (5.2%) had used inhalants and/or cocaine. The age group most at risk was 16-18 years, the age at which most students are in secondary school. The reasons given for the abuse of the drugs were: experimentation 92 (38.2%), enjoyment of the feeling they experience 114 (47.3%), influence from friends 21 (8.7%), influence from relatives 5 (2.1%) and for treating stomach ailments 7 (2.9%). More boys were found to be abusing drugs (36.9%, n = 169) compared to girls (27.3%, p = 0.007). Also, drug abuse was found to be higher in students living in low socioeconomic class areas of the town (30%, n = 122) compared to high-class areas (21.6%, n = 94, p =0.004) and peer influence had no effect on drug abuse (p = 0.249). From this study it was concluded that drug abuse was widespread in secondary schools in Kisumu and although it affected both sexes boys were more involved in the practice than girls. The study therefore recommends that early intervention should target school attendees at early age with the aim of preventing drug abuse in secondary schools in Kisumu town, western Kenya.
Contraception and sexuality among the youth in Kisumu, Kenya
Missie L. Oindo
African Health Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Background: A significant proportion of youth is infected by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections mainly through sexual intercourse, while the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies is rising. Objective: To describe knowledge, attitude and practice and factors influencing sexual relationships and contraceptive practice among the youth in Kisumu town in western Kenya. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and informal conversations was carried out. The sample population of 388 youth aged 15 24 years was determined by simple random cluster sampling. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS computer package. Results: The majority of the youth are sexually experienced (73.5%) with most of the first sexual experiences occurring within the 15-19 years age group. There is a high level of knowledge (99.2%) of contraceptive methods and a positive attitude towards contraception. However, the level of contraceptive use is relatively lower (57.5%) even for the sexually active. Factors influencing this practice are associated with the individuals background as well as health delivery systems and policy. Conclusion: There is a wide disparity between contraceptive knowledge and practice, which needs to be bridged. There is need to review policies and practices regarding reproductive health, sexuality and family life education. African Health Sciences 2002; 2(1): 33-39
Prevalence of Forced Sex and Associated Factors among Women and Men in Kisumu, Kenya
MK Adudans, M Montandon, Z Kwena, EA Bukusi, CR Cohen
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2011,
Abstract: Sexual violence is a well-recognized global health problem, albeit with limited population-based data available from sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to measure the prevalence of forced sex in Kisumu, Kenya, and identify its associated factors. The data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional survey. A two-stage sampling design was used: 40 clusters within Kisumu municipality were enumerated and households within each cluster selected by systematic random sampling. Demographic and sexual histories, including questions on forced sex, were collected privately using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of forced sex was 13% (women) and 4.5% (men). After adjusting for age and cluster, forced sex among women was associated with transactional sex (OR 2.33; 95%CI 1.38-3.95), having more than two lifetime partners (OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.20-3.30), having postprimary education (OR 1.49; 95%CI 1.04-2.14) and a high economic status (OR 1.87; 95%CI 1.2-2.9). No factors were significantly associated with forced sex among the male respondents. Intimate partners were the most common perpetrators of forced sex among both women (50%) and men (62.1%). Forced sex prevention programs need to target the identified associated factors, and educate the public on the high rate of forced sex perpetrated by intimate partners.
THE ROLE OF URBAN PARKS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: CASE STUDY OF KISUMU KENYA
Rose Susan RABARE,Roselyne OKECH,George Mark ONYANGO
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: Urban parks are now viewed as an important part of the broader structure of urban and neighborhood development rather than just recreation and leisure facilities. While most of the world has recognized the multifunctional use of urban parks for development; the parks in Kenya and Kisumu Township in particular are suffering from lack of attention, poor maintenance, lack of development and underutilization. Also evident in most parks of Kisumu Township is lack of activities and basic utilities like public toilets, litterbins, benches and notice boards. The stakeholders of Kisumu Town do not seem to realize that parks can contribute to enormous social, cultural and economic development of the poverty stricken region. The aim of the study was to assess the utilization, investigate the benefits and analyze the factors influencing use of urban parks in Kisumu. Descriptive, cross-section research design was used where multistage cluster sampling technique was applied in sampling households and park users within seven wards of Kisumu Township and seven urban parks respectively. The study indicates that the poor maintenance and lack of adequate facilities had hindered optimal social, economical, environmental and educational benefits of the parks.
Parental Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Grade Six Pupils in Kisumu City, Kenya  [cached]
Lazarus Ndiku Makewa,Elizabeth Role,Faith Otewa
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: The study sought to investigate selected parental factors that affect the academic achievement of grade six pupils in Kisumu City in Kenya. The study used a causal comparative research design. Two research instruments were used; questionnaires were administered to the grade six pupils and their parents. Document analysis was also used to determine the pupils’ academic performance. These were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The investigation targeted both public and private primary schools in the city, selected pupils of grade 6, and their parents. Out of the 115 schools in Kisumu City, a total of 12 public schools and 8 private schools were selected using stratified sampling technique. Four hundred (400) pupils of grade six and 400 parents were selected to participate in the research. The findings revealed that socio-economic status, parental level of education, family size, family type and parental involvement affect the academic performance of pupils.
Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya  [PDF]
Japhet Rugendo Kanoti, Daniel Olago, Norbert Opiyo, Christopher Nyamai, Simeon Dulo, Richard Ayah
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.114024
Abstract: Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.
Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Kisumu District, Kenya: Cross sectional study
Scheila Adhiambo Okoth, Mercy Ohingo
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Cereal grains are the basis of weaning gruel in Kenya yet they run a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. Children could be at a higher risk of dietary mycotoxin exposure than the rest of the population.. This paper presents information on the association between nutritional state of children and dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kisumu District. Weaning flour samples were collected randomly from 242 households in Kisumu District, Kenya. A questionnaire was used to collect information, from mothers whose flour were sampled, on the types of weaning foods, handling and storage. The nutritional status of the children in question was assessed and their weight and height measured. The flour samples were analyzed for aflatoxins by thin layer chromatography. Cultural studies of the flour were also done. Thirty one percent of the children were malnourished. The number of children who were wasting and were being fed on flour contaminated with mycotoxins was highly significant (P = 0.002). Seventy samples (29%) were positive for aflatoxins (concentration range 2-82 g/kg), some exceeding the advisory limit. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol.11(1&2) 2004: 43-54
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