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Differences in the Volume of Pharmaceutical Advertisements between Print General Medical Journals  [PDF]
Jennifer Gettings, Braden O'Neill, Dave A. Chokshi, James A. Colbert, Peter Gill, Gerald Lebovic, Joel Lexchin, Navindra Persaud
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084790
Abstract: Background Pharmaceutical advertisements have been argued to provide revenue that medical journals require but they are intended to alter prescribing behaviour and they are known to include low quality information. We determined whether a difference exists in the current level of pharmaceutical advertising in print general medical journals, and we estimated the revenue generated from print pharmaceutical advertising. Methods Six print general medical journals in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom were sampled between 2007 and 2012. The number of advertisements and other journal content in selected issues of the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), Canadian Family Physician (CFP), Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), British Medical Journal (BMJ), and Lancet were determined. Revenue gained from pharmaceutical advertising was estimated using each journal's 2013 advertising price list. Findings The two Canadian journals sampled (CMAJ, CFP) contained five times more advertisements than the two American journals (JAMA, NEJM), and two British journals (BMJ, Lancet) (p<0.0001). The estimated annual revenue from pharmaceutical advertisements ranged from £0.025 million (for Lancet) to £3.8 million (for JAMA). The cost savings due to revenue from pharmaceutical advertising to each individual subscriber ranged from £0.02 (for Lancet) to £3.56 (for CFP) per issue. Conclusion The volume of pharmaceutical advertisements differs between general medical journals, with the two Canadian journals sampled containing the most advertisements. International and temporal variations suggest that there is an opportunity for all general medical journals to reduce the number of pharmaceutical advertisements, explore other sources of revenue, and increase transparency regarding sources of revenue.
Adequacy of pharmacological information provided in pharmaceutical drug advertisements in African medical journals.  [cached]
Oshikoya KA,Senbanjo IO,Soipe A
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2009,
Abstract: Pharmaceutical advertisement of drugs is a means of advocating drug use and their selling but not a substitute for drug formulary to guide physicians in safe prescribing. Objectives: To evaluate drug advertisements in Nigerian and other African medical journals for their adequacy of pharmacological information. Methods: Twenty four issues from each of West African Journal of Medicine (WAJM), East African Medical Journal (EAMJ), South African Medical Journal (SAMJ), Nigerian Medical Practitioner (NMP), Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine (NQJHM) and Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal (NPMJ) were reviewed. While EAMJ, SAMJ and NMP are published monthly, the WAJM, NQJHM and NPMJ are published quarterly. The monthly journals were reviewed between January 2005 and December 2006, and the quarterly journals between January 2001 and December 2006. The drug information with regards to brand/non-proprietary name, pharmacological data, clinical information, pharmaceutical information and legal aspects was evaluated as per World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Counts in all categories were collated for each advertiser.Results: Forty one pharmaceutical companies made 192 advertisements. 112 (58.3%) of these advertisements were made in the African medical journals. Pfizer (20.3%) and Swipha (12.5%) topped the list of the advertising companies. Four (2.1%) adverts mentioned generic names only, 157 (81.8%) mentioned clinical indications. Adults and children dosage (39.6%), use in special situations such as pregnancy and renal or liver problems (36.5%), adverse effects (30.2%), average duration of treatment (26.0%), and potential for interaction with other drugs (18.7%) were less discussed. Pharmaceutical information such as available dosage forms and product and package information {summary of the generic and proprietary names, the formulation strength, active ingredient, route of administration, batch number, manufactured and expiry dates, and the manufacturer on both the container and pack of the drug} were mentioned in 65.6% and 50% adverts, respectively. The product and package descriptions were provided in 57 (72.2%) Nigerian medical journals, which was significantly higher than in other African medical journals 39 (37.9%) (P<0.001).Conclusions: None of the drug advertisements in the journals adequately provided the basic information required by the WHO for appropriate prescribing. More guidance and regulation is needed to ensure adequate information is provided.
Adequacy of pharmacological information provided in pharmaceutical drug advertisements in African medical journals
Oshikoya,Kazeem A.; Senbanjo,Idowu O.; Soipe,Ayo;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552009000200006
Abstract: pharmaceutical advertisement of drugs is a means of advocating drug use and their selling but not a substitute for drug formulary to guide physicians in safe prescribing. objectives: to evaluate drug advertisements in nigerian and other african medical journals for their adequacy of pharmacological information. methods: twenty four issues from each of west african journal of medicine (wajm), east african medical journal (eamj), south african medical journal (samj), nigerian medical practitioner (nmp), nigerian quarterly journal of hospital medicine (nqjhm) and nigerian postgraduate medical journal (npmj) were reviewed. while eamj, samj and nmp are published monthly, the wajm, nqjhm and npmj are published quarterly. the monthly journals were reviewed between january 2005 and december 2006, and the quarterly journals between january 2001 and december 2006. the drug information with regards to brand/non-proprietary name, pharmacological data, clinical information, pharmaceutical information and legal aspects was evaluated as per world health organisation (who) criteria. counts in all categories were collated for each advertiser. results: forty one pharmaceutical companies made 192 advertisements. 112 (58.3%) of these advertisements were made in the african medical journals. pfizer (20.3%) and swipha (12.5%) topped the list of the advertising companies. four (2.1%) adverts mentioned generic names only, 157 (81.8%) mentioned clinical indications. adults and children dosage (39.6%), use in special situations such as pregnancy and renal or liver problems (36.5%), adverse effects (30.2%), average duration of treatment (26.0%), and potential for interaction with other drugs (18.7%) were less discussed. pharmaceutical information such as available dosage forms and product and package information {summary of the generic and proprietary names, the formulation strength, active ingredient, route of administration, batch number, manufactured and expiry dates, and the manufacturer
Adherence of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals to FDA Guidelines and Content for Safe Prescribing  [PDF]
Deborah Korenstein, Salomeh Keyhani, Ali Mendelson, Joseph S. Ross
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023336
Abstract: Background Physician-directed pharmaceutical advertising is regulated in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); adherence to current FDA guidelines is unknown. Our objective was to determine adherence rates of physician-directed print advertisements in biomedical journals to FDA guidelines and describe content important for safe prescribing. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional analysis of November 2008 pharmaceutical advertisements within top U.S.-based biomedical journals publishing original research. We excluded advertisements for devices, over the counter medications, and disease awareness. We utilized FDA guideline items identifying unique forms of advertisement bias to categorize advertisements as adherent to FDA guidelines, possibly non-adherent to at least 1 item, or non-adherent to at least 1 item. We also evaluated advertisement content important for safe prescribing, including benefit quantification, risk information and verifiable references. All advertisements were evaluated by 2 or more investigators, with differences resolved by discussion. Twelve journals met inclusion criteria. Nine contained pharmaceutical advertisements, including 192 advertisements for 82 unique products; median 2 per product (range 1–14). Six “teaser” advertisements presented only drug names, leaving 83 full unique advertisements. Fifteen advertisements (18.1%) adhered to all FDA guidelines, 41 (49.4%) were non-adherent with at least one form of FDA-described bias, and 27 (32.5%) were possibly non-adherent due to incomplete information. Content important for safe prescribing was often incomplete; 57.8% of advertisements did not quantify serious risks, 48.2% lacked verifiable references and 28.9% failed to present adequate efficacy quantification. Study limitations included its focus on advertisements from a single month, the subjectivity of FDA guidelines themselves, and the necessary subjectivity of determinations of adherence. Conclusions Few physician-directed print pharmaceutical advertisements adhere to all FDA guidelines; over half fail to quantify serious risks. The FDA could better protect public health by creating new more objective advertisement guidelines requiring transparent presentation of basic safety and efficacy information.
Accuracy of drug advertisements in medical journals under new law regulating the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Switzerland
Macarena Santiago, Heiner C Bucher, Alain J Nordmann
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-8-61
Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, two independent reviewers screened all issues of six major Swiss medical journals published in the year 2005 to identify all drug advertisements for analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and evaluated all drug advertisements referring to at least one publication. The pharmaceutical claim was rated as being supported, being based on a potentially biased study or not to be supported by the cited study according to pre-specified criteria. We also explored factors likely to be associated with supported advertisement claims.Of 2068 advertisements 577 (28%) promoted analgesic, psychopharmacologic or gastrointestinal drugs. Among them were 323 (56%) advertisements citing at least one reference. After excluding multiple publications of the same drug advertisement and advertisements with non-informative references, there remained 29 unique advertisements with at least one reference to a scientific study. These 29 advertisements contained 78 distinct pairs of claims of analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and referenced studies. Thirty-seven (47%) claims were supported, 16 (21%) claims were not supported by the corresponding reference, and 25 (32%) claims were based on potentially biased evidence, with no relevant differences between drug groups. Studies with conflict of interest and studies stating industry funding were more likely to support the corresponding claim (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07–2.17 and RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.98–2.28) than studies without identified conflict of interest and studies without information on type of funding.Following the introduction of new regulations for drug advertisement in Switzerland, 53% of all assessed pharmaceutical claims published in major medical journals are not supported by the cited referenced studies or based on potentially biased study information. In light of the discrepancy between the new legislation and the endorsement of these regulations, physicians should not tru
Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Indian Scientific Journals: Analysis of Completeness of Information Content  [PDF]
Dr. Jignesh K Ved,,Dr. Sagar S Jagtiani,,Dr. Kunal A Chitnis
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: In India, pharmaceutical advertising is governed by ‘The Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954’, and ‘The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945’. These acts do not specify the ‘minimum essential information requirements’ for an dvertisement, keeping this area ill-defined. The ‘Organization ofPharmaceutical Producers of India (OPPI)’, in its ‘Code of Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices’, provides a guideline for the information requirements in advertisements. Our study is intended to analyze the ‘completeness of information content’, in pharmaceutical advertisements, published in 2009-10 in Indian Scientific journals, in the context of OPPI code. Method: Indian Scientific Journals (2009-10 issues) were surveyed for pharmaceutical advertisements.Advertisements were classified as ‘Full’ or ‘Reminder’ advertisements and were separately analyzed for the presence of information on ‘Brand name’; ‘Active ingredient(s)’; ‘Marketer’s Name and Address’; ‘Date of Production of advertisement’; ‘Abbreviated Prescribing Information (only for Full advertisements)’ and ‘Overall completeness’. Data was expressed as absolute numbers and percentage.Results: Full advertisements (n=34) demonstrated 41.2% of ‘Overall completeness’. ‘Date’ was missing in 52.9%, while ‘Marketer’s Name and Address’ in 17.6% of advertisements. ‘Active ingredient’ was mentioned in all, while ‘Abbreviated Prescribing Information’ was complete in 97.1% of Full advertisements. Reminder advertisements (n=134) demonstrated 10.4% of ‘Overall completeness’. ‘Date’ was issing in 88.1%, ‘Marketer’s Name and Address’ in 29.1% and ‘Active ingredient’ in 8.2% of Reminder advertisements.Conclusion: Low percentage of completeness, as observed in our study, indicates a lack of adherence to OPPI code and need for mandatory regulations, to ensure information completeness in pharmaceutical advertisements.
Quality of pharmaceutical advertising and gender bias in medical journals (1998-2008): a review of the scientific literature
Cambronero Saiz,Belén; Ruiz Cantero,María Teresa; Papí Gálvez,Natalia;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2011.11.002
Abstract: objective: to review the scientific literature on pharmaceutical advertising aimed at health professionals in order to determine whether gender bias has decreased and the quality of information in pharmaceutical advertising has improved over time. methods: we performed a content analysis of original articles dealing with medical drug promotion (1998-2008), according to quality criteria such as (a) the number, validity and accessibility of bibliographic references provided in pharmaceutical advertising and (b) the extent to which gender representations were consistent with the prevalence of the diseases. databases: pubmed, medline, scopus, sociological abstract, eric and lilacs. results: we reviewed 31 articles that analyzed advertising in medical journals from 1975-2005 and were published between 1998 and 2008. we found that the number of references used to support pharmaceutical advertising claims increased from 1975 but that 50% of these references were not valid. there was a tendency to depict men in paid productive roles, while women appeared inside the home or in non-occupational social contexts. advertisements for psychotropic and cardiovascular drugs overrepresented women and men respectively. conclusions: the use of bibliographic references increased between 1998 and 2008. however, representation of traditional male-female roles was similar in 1975 and 2005. pharmaceutical advertisements may contribute to reinforcing the perception that certain diseases are associated with the most frequently portrayed sex.
Correction: Differences in the Volume of Pharmaceutical Advertisements between Print General Medical Journals  [PDF]
The PLOS ONE Staff
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091628
Abstract:
Content Analysis of Oncology-Related Pharmaceutical Advertising in a Peer-Reviewed Medical Journal  [PDF]
Kan Yonemori, Akihiro Hirakawa, Masashi Ando, Taizo Hirata, Mayu Yunokawa, Chikako Shimizu, Kenji Tamura, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044393
Abstract: Background The oncology market represents one of the largest pharmaceutical markets in any medical field, and printed advertising in medical journals is an important channel by which pharmaceutical companies communicate with healthcare professionals. The aim of the present study was to analyze the volume and content of and trends and changes in oncology-related advertising intended for healthcare professionals in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Information that could be included in advertisements to promote drug development and improve treatment strategies for cancer patients is discussed on the basis of the results of the analysis. Methods/Principal Findings Overall, 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages in a leading oncology medical journal published (by the American Society of Clinical Oncology) between January 2005 and December 2009 were analyzed. The advertisements targeting pharmaceuticals and clinical trials, in particular, were reviewed. A total of 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages were included in the analysis. For the years 2005–2009, the percentages of total journal pages dedicated to advertising were 24.0%, 45.7%, 49.8%, 46.8%, and 49.8%, respectively. Package insert information and efficacy and safety explanations appeared in more than 80% of advertisements intended for pharmaceutical promotion. From 2005 to 2009, the overall quantity of drug advertisements decreased by approximately 13%, whereas advertisements calling for the enrollment of patients into registration trials increased by approximately 11%. Conclusion/Significance Throughout the study period, oncology-related pharmaceutical advertisements occupied a considerable number of pages relative to other journal content. The proportion of advertisements on ongoing clinical trials increased progressively throughout the study period.
Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Kirsten E. Austad,Jerry Avorn,Aaron S. Kesselheim
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001037
Abstract: Background The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%–100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%–69%) were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%–71%) were more likely than preclinical students (29%–62%) to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs. Conclusions Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism about negative implications of these interactions. These results support future research into the association between exposure and attitudes, as well as any modifiable factors that contribute to attitudinal changes during medical education. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
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