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Development Policies Favoring Non-Agricultural Income Do Not Improve Caloric Intake of Rural Mayan Families in Campeche, Mexico
L.A. Pat-Fernandez,L. Garcia-Barrios,J. Nahed-Toral,M.R. Parra-Vazquez,A. Nazar-Beutelspacher
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.371.380
Abstract: Designers of recent international policies expect positive food-security effects of non-agricultural employment and income in poor rural areas. Researchers examine the effects of non-agricultural income sources on caloric intake of rural Mayan families of Northern Campeche, Mexico. Nutritional, economic and social information was obtained from a 2007 census of 237 families in four communities and daily per Capita Caloric Intake was estimated per family (CSI). Results show that only agricultural income based on mechanized maize cultivation and associated productive subsidies increased CSI. Rural income based on non-productive poverty subsidies, maquila factories, the construction industry and self-employment led to lower CSI.
DO AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS IN MEXICO ALLEVIATE POVERTY?: EVIDENCE FROM THE EJIDO SECTOR
CORD,LOUISE; WODON,QUENTIN;
Cuadernos de economía , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-68212001011400006
Abstract: following the economic and legal reforms of the early 1990s, the government of mexico has developed new agricultural support programs that promote productivity and facilitate the adjustment process, while not interfering with the market economy put into place by the reforms. in this paper, we use a panel survey for the the ejido sector for the years 1994 and 1997 to analyze the impact on poverty of two programs: procampo, a cash transfer per hectare of cultivated land, and alianza, a matching grant program for investments in agriculture. our evaluation method takes into account the endogeneity of placement. we find that participation in procampo significantly reduces the likelihood that a ejido household will be poor, but that alianza has no significant impact on poverty. it is also shown that procampo may have a positive multiplier effect on household income.
DO AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS IN MEXICO ALLEVIATE POVERTY?: EVIDENCE FROM THE EJIDO SECTOR  [cached]
LOUISE CORD,QUENTIN WODON
Cuadernos de Economía , 2001,
Abstract: Following the economic and legal reforms of the early 1990s, the Government of Mexico has developed new agricultural support programs that promote productivity and facilitate the adjustment process, while not interfering with the market economy put into place by the reforms. In this paper, we use a panel survey for the the ejido sector for the years 1994 and 1997 to analyze the impact on poverty of two programs: PROCAMPO, a cash transfer per hectare of cultivated land, and ALIANZA, a matching grant program for investments in agriculture. Our evaluation method takes into account the endogeneity of placement. We find that participation in PROCAMPO significantly reduces the likelihood that a ejido household will be poor, but that ALIANZA has no significant impact on poverty. It is also shown that PROCAMPO may have a positive multiplier effect on household income. Después de las reformas económicas y legales de principios de los a os 90, el gobierno de México ha desarrollado un nuevo apoyo agrícola a los programas que promueven la productividad y facilitan el proceso de ajuste, mientras no interfieran con la economía de mercado que pusieron en marcha las reformas. En este trabajo usamos una encuesta de panel para el sector del ejido para los a os 1994 y 1997, para analizar el impacto en la pobreza de dos programas: PROCAMPO, una transferencia al contado por hectárea de tierra cultivada, y ALIANZA, un programa de fondos (matching) para inversiones en la agricultura. Nuestro método de evaluación toma en cuenta la endogeneidad de la colocación. Encontramos que la participación en PROCAMPO reduce significativamente la posibilidad de que una familia del ejido sea pobre, pero que ALIANZA no tiene un impacto significativo sobre la pobreza. Se muestra también que PROCAMPO puede tener un efecto multiplicador positivo en el ingreso familiar.
Small Scale Farming and Agricultural Products Marketing for Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria  [cached]
J. A. Bamiduro,Rotimi Ayodele Gbadeyan
Canadian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720110703.020
Abstract: Agricultural productions in developing countries have largely been on subsistence basis. The farmers only produce for their families and quantity of food produced are grossly inadequate for the growing population. There is increase widespread in the level of poverty amongst the people, most especially those living in the rural areas. Small scale farming has become one of the ways to tackle the problem of lack and poverty amongst these people. The paper therefore, examines how Small Scale farming assists in alleviating poverty in both rural and urban cities; most especially through marketing of agricultural products to the people. Relevant data were sought from the 356 respondents selected for the study through the Key Informant Interviews (KII). The Student T test and Chi square statistical techniques were further employed to test the Hypotheses stated in the study. Result of the finding reveals the importance of Small Scale Farming and Agricultural Products Marketing in poverty alleviation, most especially among the rural dwellers. It also indicated lack of access to fund as the major problem facing Small Scale Farming and increase cost of transportation as the major problem facing marketing of agricultural products. The Paper recommends that Individuals and Government can combat some of these challenges facing Small Scale Farming by providing adequate basic social infrastructures; make available more funds to the farmers and create more employment opportunities amongst others. The paper concludes that Agriculture no doubt, is an important sector that needs to be given attention in any developing economy. Key words: Small scale farming; Marketing; Rural dwellers; Key interview guide; Agricultural products and poverty Résumé: Les productions agricoles dans les pays en voie de développement étaient principalement sur la base de subsistance. Les agriculteurs ne produisent que pour leurs familles et la quantité des aliments produits est nettement insuffisante pour la population croissante. Il y a une augmentation généralisée de la pauvreté parmi la population, plus particulièrement ceux vivant dans les zones rurales. L'agriculture à petite échelle est devenue l'une des fa ons pour s'attaquer au problème du manque et de la pauvreté parmi cette population. L'article examine donc comment l'agriculture à petite échelle aide à soulager le problème de la pauvreté dans les villes rurales et urbaines; plus particulièrement à travers la commercialisation des produits agricoles. Des données pertinentes ont été recueillies auprès des 356 répondants sélectionnés pour l
CLIMATE CHANGE AND LABOR MIGRATION IN THE MEXICAN SOUTHERN BORDER  [PDF]
LAURA ELENA RUIZ MEZA
Luna Azul , 2012,
Abstract: To the persistent poverty conditions existing in Mexico, manifestations of climate change, whose most significant impact is observed in the agricultural sector and in food sovereignty, are added. In Chiapas, southern Mexico, with the lowest human development index, the disasters caused by extreme weather events in recent years made worse the vulnerability of the population and significantly increased migration flows. Climate change has serious effects on employment and labor markets in the rural sector which is the most affected sector. In the context of the effects caused by climate variability and the crisis in the agricultural sector, the dynamics of migration has become more complex in recent years. This paper shows that international migration has had the border states of southern Mexico as destination, but increasingly they appear as transit regions and origin of migration to the United States of America, interrelated phenomena that have in common increased poverty because of climate change
Halving Poverty in Mexico
Chávez-Martín del Campo, Juan Carlos;Gómez, Manuel;
Economía mexicana. Nueva época , 2009,
Abstract: we estimate the required time and the minimum necessary growth rate to halve poverty incidence and poverty intensity in mexico's rural and urban areas for a series of counterfactual distribution and growth scenarios. results show that, given the current income distribution, per capita incomes in the rural area would have to grow faster -in some cases eight times faster- than they have done historically to shrink poverty by half by 2015. in contrast, income in the urban sector would have to grow around 1 per cent per year to reach the same goal, which seems a more reasonable outcome given its behavior in past years.
Interplay of Agriculture Deterioration and Poverty Incident
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20120201.04
Abstract: In Sudan agriculture is considered to be the leading economic sector forming typically over 40% of the GDP has lost much ground with a drop of its GDP share to 33% in 2007. Northern Sudan as one of the most important agricultural region is characterized by low and erratic rainfall and limited arable land. Agriculture in this district provides an employment for about 70% of population. More dramatic is the deterioration in the contribution of agriculture to the country’s exports, declining to about 3% in 2007 down from an average of 74% in the period 1996–1998. Further, a large portion (83%) of Sudan’s rural people today lives in highly vulnerable livelihood and degraded environments. This situation affected agricultural productivity severely through greater frequency of yield-diminishing. This study aims to assess the crop productivity deterioration to the poverty incident in rural area. In tracing differences in agricultural yield and returns, detailed calculations from the collected data were made to estimate the per capita rural income from agricultural activities in northern Sudan. The results suggest that the potential impacts of low yield and yield volatility especially in the conventional farming system extremely causes poverty incident in northern Sudan.
THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT AGRICULTURAL EXPENDITURE ON POVERTY IN ZIMBABWE
A. Mapfumo,A. Mushunje,C. Chidoko
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Global experience with pro-poor growth and empirical work spanning India, Benin and Malawi demonstrates the importance of agricultural expenditure for poverty reduction in poor rural areas, while also pointing to the need for complementary non farm sector growth. This paper proposes a simple methodology to estimate the agricultural spending that will be required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving poverty by 2015 (MDGs) in Zimbabwe. This method uses growth poverty and growth expenditure elasticities to estimate the financial resources required to meet the MDGs. The paper attempts to address a key knowledge gap by improving estimation of first MDG agricultural expenditure at country level.
Utilizing Sago to Reduce Poverty
Elsina Titaley
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101236
Abstract: Poverty reduction based on the theory of its effects has been carried out but the results seemed futile. In general, the rural poverty is due to limited natural resources, dysfunctional cultural values, and structural policy which cannot support the poverty reduction. Most of the people in Lumoli (92.67%), one of the villages in Maluku, are categorized poor and very poor. There is abundant sago and worthy cultural value but the research shows that the people are not capable enough to utilize these resources. By improving their skills, however, the poverty in Lumoli can be reduced and their future living is expected to be better.
Utilization of Adult and Non-Formal Education Programs in Combating Rural Poverty in Nigeria  [cached]
John Chinedu Ihejirika
World Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/wje.v2n3p25
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept of poverty and its causes in Nigeria and to analyze how adult and non-formal education programs can be utilized to reduce rural poverty in Nigeria. In spite of Nigeria's affluence in human and material resources, it is classified among countries with high level of poverty. Incidentally, the incidence of poverty in Nigeria assumes wider dimensions in rural areas where larger proportion of the population (about 70%) reside mainly as subsistence farmers, fishermen and women, retail traders, herdsmen, palm wine tappers, the aged and hunters whose cultural and occupational affiliations do not encourage them to migrate. The incidence of rural poverty in Nigeria is attributed to lack of adequate education/illiteracy, subsistence farming, protracted illness due to inadequate medical care services, lack of employment opportunities, and failure of government to provide basic social amenities. To ameliorate the extent and dimensions of rural poverty in particular, successive governments, over the years, have introduced various economic recovery programs, most of which failed due to official corruption, lack of proper mobilization and top-down nature of such programs/schemes. This paper advocates a revert to the use of adult and non- formal education programs to educate and train the rural poor outside the formal education system on how and what to do to come out of the stronghold of poverty. In this regard, the use of adult basic education and functional literacy, agricultural extension education, women education, health extension education and vocational skills acquisition programs are seriously indicated. It is strongly recommended that for poverty alleviation programs of government to succeed, community members particularly, the poor for whom the programs are meant, should be well mobilized as to make inputs in the planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation of such programs and schemes that concern them.
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