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Comportamiento de algunos factores biosociales en la lactancia materna en los menores de un a o Behavior of some biosocial factors related to breastfeeding in babies aged less than 1 year
María Marlen Avalos González
Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral , 2011,
Abstract: INTRODUCCIóN: El abandono progresivo de la lactancia materna se ha considerado "una nueva enfermedad propia de los siglos XX y XXI", en la cual han influido una serie de factores de muy diversa índole. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el comportamiento de los factores biosociales en la lactancia materna en los menores de un a o. MéTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en un universo de 158 nacimientos ocurridos en el 2008 del área de salud "Aleida Fernández Chardiet". Se empleó el estudio bibliográfico, documental y la contrastación de criterios de diferentes autores como procedimiento teórico, además de procedimientos empíricos. RESULTADOS: Solo en el 55,7 % de los lactantes estudiados, se logró una lactancia materna exitosa, cifras por debajo de las recomendaciones internacionales. El destete precoz ocurrió en el 44,3 % y el motivo más frecuente fue la hipogalactia materna. CONCLUSIONES: El motivo más frecuente del destete precoz, fue sustentado por el criterio de las madres de que era insuficiente la producción y obtención de leche. INTRODUCTION: The progressive neglect of breastfeeding has been considered a "new disease own of XX and XXI centuries"where a series of very diverse factors have been influenced. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the behavior of biosocial factors related to breastfeeding in babies aged less than 1 year. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 158 births occurred in 2008 in "Aleida Chardiet"health area. Authors used the bibliographic, documentary study and the criteria contrast from different authors as a theoretical procedure, in addition to the empirical ones. RESULTS: Only in the 55.7 % of study infants it was possible to achieve a successful breastfeeding, figures under the international recommendations. The early wean occurred in the 44.3 % and the more frequent reason was the mother hypogalactia. CONCLUSIONS: The more frequent reason for the early wean was supported by the mother criterion related to a insufficient milk production and obtaining.
Guidance for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected infants less than 1 year of age
An advisory message from Paediatric Sub-Committee, Southern African HIV Clinicians Society
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Forty per cent of HIV-infected children die before they reach their first year of life, mainly in the first 6 months. Data from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) study indicate that even when infants appear well and their CD4 counts are >25% there is a 75% increased risk of mortality when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is deferred until threshold CD4 depletion occurs or clinical criteria are met.1 Even after starting ART, young infants have excess mortality within the first year of life. Every effort should therefore be made to identify HIV-infected infants as early as possible so that ART can be initiated without delay. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 9 (4) 2008: pp. 34-35
Pleuropulmonary blastoma in a 3-year-old male child with recurrence in less than two months time  [cached]
Reyaz Ahmad Lone,Mohd Lateef Wani,Shadab Nabi Wani,Abdul Gani Ahangar
Chest Disease Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/cdr.2012.e9
Abstract: Pleuropulmonary blastoma is a rare childhood neoplasm accounting for less than one percent of all primary malignant lung tumours of children less than six years of age. Meta - stasis to central nervous system, orbit and iris, bone, contralateral lung and rarely adrenalglands, liver, kidney and pancreas has been described. We present a case of pleuropulmonary blastoma in a 3-year-old child who had a recurrence in less than three months, after surgical resection.
Características de los cuidadores de personas en situación de cronicidad. Cartagena (Colombia): Un estudio comparativo
Montalvo Prieto,Amparo; Flórez Torres,Inna E;
Revista Salud Uninorte , 2008,
Abstract: context: the increased rates of the non transmissible chronic diseases as an answer to the epidemiological pattern in the region and the country is reflected in all the age groups. with the total cost of the illness' chronic course, comes the increasing phenomenon of wearing out and the weigth of those who have to take care of another person: the family caregiver. it requires research in nursing that permits the knowledge of the experience and issues related in different contexts. object: to compare the characteristics of the family caregivers, whose patients suffer critical diseases in cartagena, colombia. methodology: cross sectional study was carried out to compare the characteristics of the patients' caregivers with alzheimer, children in disability situations, and cerebro-vascular illnesses and the characteristic of careg"ivers of people with hiv-aids. for characterization of caregivers, we used the survey called caracterización de los cuidadores", which was well-documented by the care team from universidad nacional de colombia. results: a total of 294 caretakers took part in the study: 85 caretakers of patients with alzheimer, 96 of children in disability, 58 with cerebro-vascular disease and 55 people with hiv-aids. conclusions: differences were found between the characteristics of caregivers whose patients are infected with hiv-aids and three groups of caretakers remaining in the city of cartagena.
RURAL – URBAN PROFILE OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SUDANESE CHILDREN LESS THAN TEN YEAR OLD: RURAL WESTERN KORDOFAN AND URBAN KHARTOUM STATE  [PDF]
Samir Mohammad Ali Alredaisy,Hashim Suleiman Ibrahim,Harm Omer El Hag Saeed
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: This paper objects to assess nutritional status of children less than ten year old in rural and urban Sudan as based upon two field surveys. The first one was carried out during 2005 in rural western Kordofan to assess the nutritional status of children less than 10 years old, andthe second one took place during February 2009 in the three central children hospitals in Khartoum State to assess nutritional status of children suffering anemia and night blindness.The main findings of the fieldwork in rural western Kordofan depicted an average contribution of each of the carbohydrates, protein and fat with 58.2%, 9.5%, and 32.3%, to the total energy with fat slightly higher and carbohydrates lower than the recommended values. Cereals products provided 45.7% of total consumption and 45.2% of total protein.About 58.3% of the children suffered from underweight and 72.8% were moderateunderweight while 80.6% suffered from severe underweight. Wasting prevalence was 37.9% (19.6% as moderate and 18.3% as severe). Stunting prevalence was 23.7% (12.3% moderate and 11.4% as severe). The second fieldwork in Khartoum State depicted that physical symptoms of anemia are loss of appetite (87.7%), paleness (93.5%), exhaust, and eating clay (29%), while for night blindness they were xerophthalmia (20%); Pinot spots (52%); karatomalacia (12%), and Cornea ulceration (4%). Severe malnutrition constituted 63% of cases of children suffering anemia and night blindness. Children suffering anemia and nightblindness distributed among different age groups have very low percent of hemoglobin concentration below 60% standard, confirming for prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia.Malnutrition was highest among children aged 1-3 year old, and females are less malnourished compared to males. There was low energy (calories), Iron and Vitamin A levelsof intake among these children. Both surveys depicted prevalence of malnutrition and confirms for a similar problem facing rural and urban Sudan. The authors suggested some recommendations to improve nutritional status of children in both geographic settings.
Efecto de la hospitalización sobre la mantención de la lactancia materna en ni os menores de 6 meses de edad Hospitalization and continuity of breastfeeding in infants less than 6 months of age
Ingrid Cardoso K,Francisca Jaime M,Daniela Carrillo V,María Soto B
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2012,
Abstract: Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la hospitalización por morbilidad aguda sobre la continuidad de la lactancia materna (LM) en menores de 6 meses de edad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte concurrente en pacientes ingresados al Hospital Sótero del Río, con seguimiento de lactancia materna al ingreso, a las 2 y 6 semanas post-alta. Resultados: 72 pacientes ingresaron al estudio. Al momento de la admisión, 91,7% de los pacientes recibía LM, de ellos, 19,4% era lactancia materna exclusiva (LME). A las 2 semanas post alta, LM y LME fue de 86% y 29% (p = NS), respectivamente. A las 6 semanas post alta, LM y LME fue de 80% (p = 0,021 respecto al ingreso), y 33% (p = NS) respectivamente. En los pacientes ingresados a sala, se observó un aumento en la LME entre la segunda y la sexta semana de seguimiento (29,7% y 40,5%, respectivamente, p = 0,008). Conclusiones: Posterior al alta, se observó una disminución en la prevalencia de LM similar a la caída observada en la Encuesta Nacional de Lactancia Materna. La hospitalización no afectó negativamente la mantención de la lactancia materna, al contrario, se observó un incremento en aquellos que recibían lactancia materna exclusiva, lo que podría explicarse por la educación en lactancia que reciben las madres durante la hospitalización. Objective: To assess the effect of hospitalization for acute morbidity on the continuity of breastfeeding. Patients and Method: Concurrent cohort study of infants under 6 month of age admitted to the Hospital Sótero del Río, with follow-up at 2 and 6 weeks post discharge. Results: 72 patients entered the study. At the time of admission, 91.7% of patients were receiving breastfeeding (BF); 19.4% of them was exclusive breastfeeding (BFe). At 2 weeks after discharge, BF and BFe was 86% and 29% (p = NS), respectively. At 6 weeks post discharge, BF and BFe was 80% (p = 0.021 compared to admission) and 33% (p = NS) respectively. In patients admitted to the pediatric unit, there was an increase in the BFe between the second and sixth week of follow up (29.7% and 40.5% respectively, p = 0.008). Conclusions: After discharge, there was a decrease in the prevalence of BF similar to that observed in the National Breast Feeding Survey. The hospitalization did not negatively affect the maintenance of breastfeeding, on the contrary, there was an increase in those receiving exclusive breastfeeding, which could be explained by the education on breast feeding that mothers received within the hospital.
Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ni?os escolares de Cartagena
Castro-Orozco,Raimundo; Villafa?e-Ferrer,Lucy M; álvarez-Rivera,Eduviges; Martínez De Arco,Melina; Rambaut-Donado,Carmen L; Vitola-Heins,Gina V;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642010000300011
Abstract: objective determining nasal carriers of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and associated risk factors for nasal colonisation in a school-aged population in the seaside city of cartagena, colombia. methods a cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out on 100 healthy schoolchildren to determine mrsa nasal carriage and its association with risk factors. bacteria were identified using conventional methods. antibiotic sensitivity was determined by the kirby bauer method. results a total of 36 isolates of s. aureus were identified in the school children. 25 % of the strains were oxacillin-resistant, 66.7 % oxacillin-sensitive and 8.3 % had intermediate susceptibility. 67 % of the mrsa strains isolated were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. one strain (mrsa-ant4) showed resistance to antibiotics having different mechanisms of action. conclusions this is the first study in cartagena which determined the frequency of s. aureus and mrsa strains nasal carriers in a school population (33 % and 9 %, respectively). all s. aureus oxacillin-resistant strains were cephoxitin-resistant, thereby leading to the presence of the meca gene being suspected. having used beta-lactam antibiotics during the last three months increased the likelihood of being an mrsa nasal carrier by around five times (or=4.72; 0.96-23.98 95 %cl; p<0.05). the antibiotypes (ant) found suggested the presence of community-acquired (multisensitive ca-mrsa,) and hospital-acquired-mrsa (multidrug resistant ha-mrsa,).
Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003
Cabrera Gustavo Alonso,Mateus Julio César,Girón Sandra Lorena
Colombia Médica , 2004,
Abstract: Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB) is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB) in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private) that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5%) women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to encourage EB in the city.
Identifica??o territorial, identifica??o étnica em Cartagena, Col?mbia
Cunin, Elisabeth;
Estudos Afro-Asiáticos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-546X2003000100006
Abstract: the main purpose of this article is to discuss the social-spatial processes of identification through the study of different ethnic-racial qualification of spaces and inhabitants of the city of cartagena, colombia. it consists on the analysis of the reciprocal reproduction mechanisms of the territories and the identities, revealing forms of relation with the other one and carriers of the citizenship aspirations and belonging to the city. three particular cases are discussed: the significance of the "mestizo cross-bred city" image, traditionally attributed to cartagena; the multiple interpretations referring to eradication, in the beginning of the 1970's decade, of the neighborhood of chambacú, situated on the entrance of the tourist and historic city; and the ways of the territorial appropriation by inhabitants that make the most of their ethnic identity in the context of the multiculturalism affirmations during the 1990s.
Aborto inducido en Cartagena, Colombia: estimación mediante la "Metodología de Complicaciones de Aborto Inducido"
Monterrosa-Castro,álvaro; Paternina-Caicedo,Angel J; Alcalá-Cerra,Gabriel;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642011000200007
Abstract: objective estimating induced abortion incidence in a reference hospital and the city of cartagena, colombia. methodology this was an ecological study that used abortion incidence complications methodology (aicm). data from the rafael calvo maternity clinic (cmrc) was used for estimating post-abortion attention in cartagena, colombia. induced abortion rates and ratios were estimated in the cmrc and the city of cartagena from cmrc data using the aicm model. results the estimated induced abortion ratio in cartagena was 261/1,000 births in 2005, 244 in 2006 and 259 in 2007. the estimated rate per 1,000 females aged 15-44 for induced abortion was 22 in 2005, 22 in 2006 and 21 in 2007. conclusions the estimated rate was similar to the rate found in previous research using colombian data from 1989. public health measures should be focused on reducing unwanted pregnancies and thereby reduce induced abortion rates.
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