oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Macrolides Antibiotics in Odontostomatological Practice: Past, Present and Future
G.A. Scardina,A. Ruggieri,F. Carini,V. Valenza,P. Messina
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Macrolides are considered the second choice in the odontostomatological practice especially in case of allergic reactions to the most important and well-known group of a-lactams. This group of antibiotics are more diffused in the daily practice of dentistry but during the time macrolides have shown a big potential in constant increasing. In this study, we report a review of the major features of these antibiotics which have become in the time farmacological choice effective and reliable versus bacterial infections supported by a-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, enterococci, mycoplasma, mycobacteria, some rickettsia and chlamydia. Furthermore, we refer about the recent researches that show the anti-inflammatory potentiality of the macrolides and the recent discoveries on the new pharmacological targets to exceed the problem of the bacterial resistance: the efflux pumps. Finally, we expose about a new class of antibiotic derived directly by the macrolides: Ketolides. They represent the future of the macrolides.
Macrolides Antibiotics in Odontostomatological Practice: Past, Present and Future
G.A. Scardina,A. Ruggieri,F. Carini,V. Valenza
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Macrolides are considered the second choice in the odontostomatological practice especially in case of allergic reactions to the most important and well-known group of a-lactams. This group of antibiotics are more diffused in the daily practice of dentistry but during the time macrolides have shown a big potential in constant increasing. In this study, we report a review of the major features of these antibiotics which have become in the time farmacological choice effective and reliable versus bacterial infections supported by a-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, enterococci, mycoplasma, mycobacteria, some rickettsia and chlamydia. Furthermore, we refer about the recent researches that show the anti-inflammatory potentiality of the macrolides and the recent discoveries on the new pharmacological targets to exceed the problem of the bacterial resistance: the efflux pumps. Finally, we expose about a new class of antibiotic derived directly by the macrolides: Ketolides. They represent the future of the macrolides.
Use of antibiotics and about quinolones in veterinary therapy (ro)  [PDF]
Romeo T. Cristina,Alexandru O. Doma,Crina L. Mosneang
Medicamentul Veterinar , 2012,
Abstract: In Romania are being done extensively efforts in the veterinarians education to emphasize the importance and the European regulations familiar behavior, relating to veterinary drugs prescribing, the issues of residues, of antibacterial resistance and of judicious use of the veterinary conditionigs. In this respect, the present synthesis presents an overview, a useful and necessary bibliographical remembrance to veterinary practitioner about antibiotics and quinolones in particular. Are summarized: bacterial antagonism, methods for studying the effectiveness of antibiotics, the mode of action of antibiotics, the phenomenon of resistance to antibiotics and toxic secondary phenomena caused by antibiotics, continued by information about quinolone-carbonic acid derivatives (quinolones) them action mechanism, classification and presentation of the main representatives, indications and contraindications, etc. Referate is conceived in two parts about antibiotics and about quinolones.
Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics  [PDF]
Cristina d'Urso de Souza Mendes,Adelaide Maria de Souza Antunes
Antibiotics , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics2040500
Abstract: Many approaches are used to discover new antibiotic compounds, one of the most widespread being the chemical modification of known antibiotics. This type of discovery has been so important in the development of new antibiotics that most antibiotics used today belong to the same chemical classes as antibiotics discovered in the 1950s and 1960s. Even though the discovery of new classes of antibiotics is urgently needed, the chemical modification of antibiotics in known classes is still widely used to discover new antibiotics, resulting in a great number of compounds in the discovery and clinical pipeline that belong to existing classes. In this scenario, the present article presents an overview of the R&D pipeline of new antibiotics in known classes of antibiotics, from discovery to clinical trial, in order to map out the technological trends in this type of antibiotic R&D, aiming to identify the chemical classes attracting most interest, their spectrum of activity, and the new subclasses under development. The result of the study shows that the new antibiotics in the pipeline belong to the following chemical classes: quinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, oxazolidinones, tetracyclines, pleuromutilins, beta-lactams, lipoglycopeptides, polymyxins and cyclic lipopeptides.
Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study
Alper G?zübüyük, Berkant ?zpolat, Ali ?i?ek, Hasan ?aylak, Orhan Yücel, Kuthan Kavakl?, Sedat Gürk?k, Onur Gen?
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-5-128
Abstract: Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination.Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0,0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042).Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in humans may be related to these changes as were observed in our rat model, and like talc, oxytetracycline must be used cautiously in patients with limited respiratory function.Chemical pleurodesis is used to create fibrosis between pleural layers and obliterating pleural spaces to prevent fluid accumulation in malign diseases or benign diseases such as recurrent pleural effusion in cardiac failure, cirrhosis, nephritic syndrome, and chylothorax. It is also used in recurrent pneumothorax [1].Talc is the most commonly tested and used agent for pleurodesis worldwide. Its use was first reported in 1935 by Bethune [2]. It is cheap, widely available, easy to use, and nearly 90% effective [3]. However, the success of this br
In vitro activity of fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin) and seven other antibiotics against Streptococcus pneumoniae
Nicodemo, A.C.;Mendes, C.M.F.;Oplustil, C.P.;Sinto, S.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702001000200001
Abstract: in recent years, the level of resistance of s. pneumoniae to beta-lactam and/or macrolides has increased around the world including some countries in south america. because of this resistance, it is necessary to test the therapeutic alternatives for treating this pathogen, including the newer quinolones. this study was carried out in order to compare the in vitro activity of fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin, to penicillin g, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cufuroxime sodium, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and clarithromycin, against 300 strains of s. pneumoniae. of the 300 samples tested, 18.6% were not susceptible to penicillin (56 strains) and 7% (21 strains) were resistant to the second generation cephalosporin. among the macrolides, resistance ranged from 6.7% for clarithromycin to 29.6% for azithromycin. susceptibility to the newer quinolones was 100% including the 56 strains not susceptible to penicillin. among the 10 antibiotics evaluated, the fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin displayed high levels of in vitro activity against s. pneumoniae.
In vitro activity of fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin) and seven other antibiotics against Streptococcus pneumoniae  [cached]
Nicodemo A.C.,Mendes C.M.F.,Oplustil C.P.,Sinto S.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2001,
Abstract: In recent years, the level of resistance of S. pneumoniae to beta-lactam and/or macrolides has increased around the world including some countries in South America. Because of this resistance, it is necessary to test the therapeutic alternatives for treating this pathogen, including the newer quinolones. This study was carried out in order to compare the in vitro activity of fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin, to penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cufuroxime sodium, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and clarithromycin, against 300 strains of S. pneumoniae. Of the 300 samples tested, 18.6% were not susceptible to penicillin (56 strains) and 7% (21 strains) were resistant to the second generation cephalosporin. Among the macrolides, resistance ranged from 6.7% for clarithromycin to 29.6% for azithromycin. Susceptibility to the newer quinolones was 100% including the 56 strains not susceptible to penicillin. Among the 10 antibiotics evaluated, the fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin displayed high levels of in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae.
Macrolides in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders
Abdullateef A. Alzolibani,Khaled Zedan
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/159354
Abstract: Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of anti-inflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed to assess the usefulness of macrolides in other inflammatory diseases including skin and hair disorders, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bullous pemphigoid, and pityriasis lichenoides. This paper summarizes a collection of clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of macrolides antibiotics in the treatment of selected dermatoses which have primarily been classified as noninfectious and demonstrating their potential for being disease-modifying agents.
The Role of Macrolides in Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis  [PDF]
Bruna de Campos Guimar?es e Figueiredo,Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina
Pulmonary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/751982
Abstract: Objective. The present study aims at reviewing the main publications on the use of macrolides as immunomodulators in patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Source of Data. The Medline database was our source of data for this research carried out until June 2011, using the key words: macrolides and bronchiectasis, while searching for original articles and reviews. Summary of Data. Seven clinical studies that evaluated the action of the macrolides in patients with bronchiectasis were found. There was the sputum volume, reduction in pulmonary exacerbation frequency, and in the use of antimicrobial treatment, in addition to pulmonary function improvement. Conclusions. Anti-inflammatory action and immunomodulatory effects can be attributed to macrolides when administered in low doses and on the long term. This use has been well established both in diffuse panbronchiolitis and in cystic fibrosis. Evidence indicates possible benefits in bronchiectasis. Future studies are needed, though, to establish the ideal dose and treatment duration and to understand the implications in the generation of microbial resistance. “When patients have bacteria that are resistant to all antibiotics, prescribe erythromycin, leave them on it for a long time, and they will do much better” Dr. Harry Shwachman, 1950 1. Introduction Macrolides have been known for their antimicrobial actions since 1952 [1]. Their mechanism of action consists of inhibiting protein synthesis by linking to the 50S ribosomal subunit of susceptible microorganisms [2]. Macrolides are widely used to treat infections of soft tissues and of the respiratory tract due to their efficacy against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including intracellular germs such as Chlamydia and Legionella [3–5]. They are considered safe and easily tolerable. Their main side effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, which become more evident when erythromycin is used in place of the other macrolides [6]. Transitory alteration of transaminases and association with ventricular arrhythmias are typically rare [2]. Mounting evidence suggests that macrolide antibiotics have both anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties and are thus beneficial to chronic pulmonary diseases such as diffuse panbronchiolitis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, and bronchiectasis. These properties were suspected upon the realization that erythromycin decreased the need for corticosteroids in asthma treatment [7]. It must be pointed out that immunemodulation is the suppression of inflammation and immune hyperactivation
Evolution of oral antibiotics requests without prescription in a community pharmacy / Evolución de la demanda de antibióticos orales sin receta en una farmacia comunitaria  [cached]
Barris D,Rodríguez Zarzuelo C,Sabio B,Garrido B
Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico , 2005,
Abstract: Objectives: To analyze the demand of oral antibiotics without prescription in an community pharmacy, and to compare this demand with 2000. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study in a community pharmacy at Benalmadena – Malaga Spain). From March to September 2004, all patients requesting an antibiotic without prescription were surveyed, gathering data about: age, gender, requested antibiotic, who is the antibiotic for, who advised the antibiotic, requesting cause (health problem), and pharmacist intervention result. Results: 279 requests for oral antibiotics without prescription were recorded. Age group more frequently requesting antibiotics is 31-45 years old (41.2%). Someone different from the user did 46.6% of requests. Self-medication reached 57.0% of total antibiotics, and medical prescription without a prescription form was 43.0%. Total antibiotics request by therapeutic group was: penicillins (49.1%), macrolides (17.2%), quinolones (6.8%), cefalosporins (6.1%), sulfamides (5.4%), and tetraciclins (3.2%). The main causes for requesting were throat problems (36.2%) and teeth problems (23.3%). In 55.4% of self-medication requests pharmacist could not persuade the patient to use a different drug or to visit the physician. Conclusions: In our health-care area, there exist evidence of high percentages of self-medication with antibiotics, and of prescriptions without a prescription form.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.