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Dentofacial morphology of mouth breathing children
Faria, Patrícia Toledo Monteiro;Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira;Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane;Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T.;Pereira, Fabiana C.;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402002000200010
Abstract: the relationship between dentofacial morphology and respiration has been debated and investigated from various approaches. the aim of this study was to verify the skeletal and dental relationship of mouth and nose breathing children. thirty-five children, 7 to 10 years of age, were submitted to orthodontic and otorhinolaryngologic evaluations and were separated into 2 groups: 15 nose breathers and 20 mouth breathers. each subject underwent a cephalometric radiograph analysis. statistical analysis (mann-whitney u test) indicated that changed mode of breathing was associated with 1) maxillo-mandibular retrusion in relation to the cranial base in the mouth breathers; 2) the sngogn and nsgn angles were greater in the mouth breathing group; 3) incisor inclination in both jaws and the interincisal angle were not different between groups. there was no statistically significant difference in the maxillary and mandibular molar heights between the nose breathers and mouth breathers.
Dentofacial morphology of mouth breathing children  [cached]
Faria Patrícia Toledo Monteiro,Ruellas Antonio Carlos de Oliveira,Matsumoto Mírian Aiko Nakane,Anselmo-Lima Wilma T.
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2002,
Abstract: The relationship between dentofacial morphology and respiration has been debated and investigated from various approaches. The aim of this study was to verify the skeletal and dental relationship of mouth and nose breathing children. Thirty-five children, 7 to 10 years of age, were submitted to orthodontic and otorhinolaryngologic evaluations and were separated into 2 groups: 15 nose breathers and 20 mouth breathers. Each subject underwent a cephalometric radiograph analysis. Statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U test) indicated that changed mode of breathing was associated with 1) maxillo-mandibular retrusion in relation to the cranial base in the mouth breathers; 2) the SNGoGn and NSGn angles were greater in the mouth breathing group; 3) incisor inclination in both jaws and the interincisal angle were not different between groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the maxillary and mandibular molar heights between the nose breathers and mouth breathers.
The Relationship between mouth breathing and nocturnal diurnal enuresis in children
Niaki E.A.,Farbod M.
Journal of Dental Medicine , 1999,
Abstract: Enuresis during childhood disturbs children both physically and emotionally. It reduces their"nself-confidence and so causes many personal and social problems."nDifferent ways of treating this problem have been suggested and carried out, but none of them have been"na total success. But one way is to change from mouth breathing to nose breathing."nEnuresis in 6 Patient out often was totally cured and in three other patients who's mouth breathing all"naltered to mouth- nose breathing it was reduced, approximately to the extended of a half."nOne who's mouth breathing was not subject to any change enuresis was not remedied either."nOn the whole, it could be concluded that the conversion of mouth breathing to nose breathing would"nsolve enuretic difficulties to a certain extend.
Postural alterations in children with mouth breathing assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry
Lima, Luciane Capelasso de Oliveira;Baraúna, Mario Ant?nio;Sologurem, Maria José Junho;Canto, Roberto Sérgio de Tavares;Gastaldi, Ada Clarisse;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572004000300014
Abstract: objectives: to determine and compare the posture of children with obstructive (omb) and functional mouth breathing (fmb) and children with nasal breathing (nb) using computerized biophotogrammetry, as well as to determine the viability and efficacy of this method. methods: evaluative and personalized methods were used for the capture and analysis of angle images obtained from 19 nb, 26 fmb and 17 omb children of either gender aged 8 to 10 years on anterior, posterior and profile views. the nonparametric kruskal-wallis test was applied to analyze the three groups as a whole and the mann-whitney test was used for pairwise comparison of the groups (p = 0.05). results: the angle related to the lateral knee condyle, lateral ankle malleolus and 5th metatarsal diaphysis (kam) was significantly greater in nb than in fmb children. with respect to the angle related to the nasal external acoustic meatus and pogonion (gmm), nasal external acoustic meatus and manubrium (gme), and 2nd cervical vertebra, major cervical curvature point and 7th cervical vertebra (c2c7), significantly higher values were observed for the omb group compared to nb children. the angle formed by the 2nd thoracic vertebra, the major prominent thoracic point and the 9th thoracic vertebra (t2t9) was significantly greater in fmb than in omb children. conclusions: computerized biophotogrammetry was found to e a safe and reliable technique, allowing comparison between the children analyzed, as well as the detection of postural alterations in mouth breathing children.
Mouth breathing children have cephalometric patterns similar to those of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Juliano, Maria Ligia;Machado, Marco Antonio Cardoso;Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin de;Prado, Lucila Bizari Fernandes do;Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2009000500015
Abstract: objective: to determine whether mouth breathing children present the same cephalometric patterns as patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (osas). method: cephalometric variables were traced and measured on vertical lateral cephalometric radiographs. the cephalometric measurements of 52 mouth and 90 nose breathing children were compared with apneic patients. the children had not undergone adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy and had not had or were not receiving orthodontic or orthopedic treatment. results: mouth breathing children showed same cephalometric pattern observed in patients with osas: a tendency to have a retruded mandible (p=0.05), along with greater inclination of the mandibular and occlusal planes (p<0.01) and a tendency to have greater inclination of the upper incisors (p=0.08). the nasopharyngeal and posterior airway spaces were greatly reduced in mouth breathing children, as observed in patients with apnea (p<0.01). conclusion: mouth breathing children present abnormal cephalometric parameters and their craniofacial morphology resembles that of patients with osas.
A Study on Incidence and Risk factors of Mouth-Breathing Pre-School Children in Tabriz
Mojgan Kachoei,Mahsan Moghimi,Verrisheh Rastin
Journal of Isfahan Dental School , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Mouth breathing has been noticed as an etiologic factor for malocclusion. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing among children aged 5-6 years living in Tabriz city during autumn 2006.Materials and Methods: In this study with clustered sampling manner, 550 subjects of preschool children from five different districts of Tabriz city with age group of 5-6, were evaluated. The collected questionnaires completed by their parents. After recognition of the children with mouth breathing signs, they were referred to the ear, throat and nose specialist for clinical examination. The collected data were analyzed on a computer using SPSS. Descriptive statically analysis was used to data evaluation.Results: The Prevalence of mouth breathing problem in this population was at least 18/32%. Most important risk factors were reported as follows: Allergy 80%, adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy 15%, other risk factors like deviation of the nasal septum and anatomic disorders about 5%. Allergy was devoted to allergic rhinosinositis with prevalence of 54%. Conclusion: The results of this survey demonstrated that there is about 18/32% prevalence of the mouth breathing among the preschool children in Tabriz city and the most distinguished risk factors is allergy. Since allergy is a treatable disease and had the highest prevalence in the present study, its proper treatment could be effective in decreasing mouth breathing. Early recognition of the mouth breathing can prevent its adverse effects on dentofacial growth, and its treatment can prevent from its more complications. Key words: Mouth breathing, allergy, prevalence, malocclusion
Malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children from public schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul  [PDF]
Clarissa Flores Oliveira,Angela Ruviaro Busanello,Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva
RGO : Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To verify the occurrence and types of malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children at public schools.Methods: An evaluation was made of 219 children of both genders, between 5 and 12 years of age, attending two public schools in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; with 121 mouth breather children being selected for this study. Orthodontic and phonoaudiological evaluation were made to verify the breathing mode and presence or absence of malocclusion and articulation disorders.Results: It was observed that 100% of the mouth breather children presented malocclusion, 49.60% being Angle’s Class II, 48.76% ClassI and 1.65% Class III. It was also verified that 18.2% of the mouth breather children presented articulation disturbance. Conclusion: All mouth breathing children presented some type of malocclusion, the majority being Angle’s Class II, followed by Class I. The articulation disorders most frequently observed was anterior lisping.
The relationship between primary occlusion characteristics and mouth breathing in pre-school children in Tabriz, Iran  [cached]
M Kachoei,M Moghimi,A Azizi
Journal of Isfahan Dental School , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Malocclusion is caused by genetic, environmental, and acquired factors. Respiratory disorders and decrease of air flow in nasopharynx are known as etiologies for malocclusion. The aim of this study was to examine occlusion characteristics of preschool children in Tabriz who suffer mouth breathing.Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional, descriptive and analytic study. Sixty four preschool children from five districts in the city of Tabriz were put into the case and the control groups. Impression from the samples were prepared and the casts were studied for arch symmetry, arch form, inter molar and inter canine width, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, posterior cross bite and crowding. Finally the data were analyzed and compared through SPSS .(α=0.05) Results: Although there were signs of malocclusion in the case group, occlusion indicators did not show any statistically significant differences between the case and the control group. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that mouth breathing does not have remarkable effects on occlusion characteristic during childhood. However, the intensity of nasal obstruction may have an influence on malocclusion.Key words: Mouth breathing, Occlusion, Malocclusion, Pre-school children.Full Text: XML PDF
Parametros espectrais da voz em crian as respiradoras orais Spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children  [cached]
Danieli Viegas,Flávia Viegas,Ciríaco Cristov?o Tavares Atherino,Heidi Elisabeth Baeck
Revista CEFAC , 2010,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: investigar parametros espectrais (f0 e formantes) descritivos da voz de crian as respiradoras orais, visando contribuir na caracteriza o desta popula o e, consequentemente, na efetividade do diagnóstico. MéTODOS: foram selecionadas 50 crian as respiradoras orais e 101 crian as com respira o nasal de ambos os gêneros entre cinco e dez anos. Os sinais de fala foram obtidos a partir das grava es de senten as-veículo e os segmentos das vogais orais [a], [i] e [u] do português falado no Brasil em posi o t nica foram selecionados para a estima o da frequência fundamental (f0) e da frequência dos três primeiros formantes (F1, F2 e F3). O software Praat foi utilizado para gravar, recortar e processar os sinais. RESULTADOS: a frequência fundamental das vogais [i] e [u] apresentou-se menor nos respiradores orais, enquanto que a frequência de F1 da vogal [u] foi mais elevada no mesmo grupo. CONCLUS O: a partir dos resultados expostos, concluiu-se que a frequência fundamental consiste em um parametro vocal que auxilia na diferencia o de crian as respiradores orais e respiradoras nasais, contribuindo, desta forma para uma caracteriza o mais efetiva do respirador oral. PURPOSE: to investigate spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children so as to contribute to the characterization of this population, thus to an efficient diagnosis. METHODS: fifty mouth-breathing children and one hundred and one nasal breathing children were selected among five and ten year old children of both genders. Recordings were obtained from carrier phrases and segments of the oral vowels [a], [i] and [u] of Brazilian Portuguese in the stressed syllable were selected to estimate the fundamental frequency (f0) and the frequency of the first three formants (F1, F2 e F3). The signals were recorded, cut out and processed using Praat software. RESULTS: the fundamental frequency for the vowels [i] and [u] showed lower frequency in the mouth-breathing group, while the frequency F1 of the vowel [u] was higher in the same group. CONCLUSION: our findings pointed out that the fundamental frequency is a vocal parameter that helps us to differentiate mouth-breathing children from nasal breathers, therefore contributing for a mouth breathing classification system.
Characterization of the voice of children with mouth breathing caused by four different etiologies using perceptual and acoustic analyses
Rosana Tiepo Arévalo,Luc Louis Maurice Weckx
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2005,
Abstract: Objective: To describe vocal characteristics in children aged fiveto twelve years with mouth breathing caused by four etiologies:chronic rhinitis, hypertrophy, hypertrophy + chronic rhinitis andfunctional condition, using perceptual evaluation and acousticanalysis. Methods: Voice recordings of 120 mouth breathers judgedby four speech pathologists using the software Multi-Speech.Results: The perceptual evaluation of the voice revealed highincidence of breathy and hoarse voices, especially in the rhinitisgroup. Most cases were moderate, with low pitch and normalloudness. Hyponasality was found in over 50% of sample, asexpected, but we also found high occurrence of laryngealresonance, especially in the rhinitis group. Mean fundamentalfrequency was 24.81Hz, SD = 15.02; jitter = 2.17; shimmer =0.44, and HNR = 2.11. Values did not show statistically significantdifference among the groups. Conclusion: Perceptual evaluation ofthe voice revealed that most mouth breathers presented hoarseand breathy voice, low pitch, normal loudness and hyponasal andlaryngeal resonance. However, the acoustic analysis did not resultin any significant condition.
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