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Biochemical Changes of Cubiu Fruits (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, Solanaceae) According to Different Tissue Portions and Ripening Stages  [PDF]
Moacir Couto de Andrade Júnior, Jerusa Souza Andrade, Suely de Souza Costa
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.712111
Abstract: Cubiu fruits (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, Solanaceae) are known for their high nutritional value and low caloric content. This work aimed at evaluating biochemical indices of cubiu fruits according to different tissues (peel, pulp and placenta) and ripening stages (green, turning, ripe and fully ripe). The fruits were randomly harvested to investigate sensory aspects (colorimetry, blanching effect, pigments) and biochemical indices (moisture and dry matter, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), pH, Titratable Acidity (TA), TSS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, Alcohol-Insoluble Solids (AIS), pectinesterase activity and pectin content). The analyses were performed at the laboratory of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil. The blanching process preserved pulp colors at all ripening stages. Chlorophylls were higher in green peels; flavonoids and carotenoids, in fully ripe peels. Anthocyanins were entirely absent. Pulp (turning fruits) showed the highest moisture content (91.05), followed by ripe pulp (90.70) and fully ripe pulp (90.62). Pulp TSS changed little whereas placenta TSS declined and were associated with increased TA and pH reduction (fully ripe fruits). Pulp pH and TA varied little whereas placenta pH was notably low and TA was remarkably high (fully ripe fruits). Pulp TSS/TA ratio showed predominance of TSS while in placenta, there was predominance of organic acids. AIS, precursors of pectin, were stable during ripening. The statistical analysis of dietary fiber content showed one modal value in the AIS. In pulp, pectinesterase activity correlated inversely with pectin content. Cubiu fruits were significant sources of bioactive compounds, e.g. chlorophylls, flavonoids and carotenoids, predominantly in the peel and the pulp; soluble functional fibers, e.g. pectin (g/100 g fresh weight), particularly in the green peel (1.00) and the fully ripe pulp (1.12), and other versatile molecules, e.g. ascorbic acid (mg/100 g fresh weight), especially in the fully ripe peel (32.45) and placenta (24.84) and the turning placenta (21.27). Cubiu fruits are rich in ascorbic acid and should be included in the human diet.
Márcio Dias Pereira,Sebasti?o Martins Filho
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2010, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v40i3.5608
Abstract: Cubiu is a native plant of the Amazon that has attracted attention due to its nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. The objective of this study was to adequate the methodology of accelerated aging test for vigor evaluation of solanum sessiliflorum seeds. Four seed lots of solanum sessiliflorum were tested for germination, first counting, plantule length, emergence and germination speed index. For accelerated aging, the temperatures 41oC, 42oC, and 45oC were tested for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The accelerated aging test was efficient for vigor evaluation of solanum sessiliflorum seeds, with results similar to those found for first germination counting, plantule length, emergence and germination speed index, especially when conducted at 41oC, for 72 or 96 hours. KEY-WORDS: Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal; physiological quality; vigor; deterioration. O cubiu é uma planta nativa da Amaz nia, que tem despertado interesse pelas suas características nutricionais e farmacêuticas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo adequar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, para a avalia o do vigor de sementes de cubiu. Para isto, sementes de quatro lotes foram submetidas a testes de germina o, primeira contagem, comprimento de plantula, emergência e índice de velocidade de germina o (IVG). Para o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, foram testadas as temperaturas de 41oC, 42oC e 45oC, durante os períodos de 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado foi eficiente para avalia o do vigor das sementes de cubiu, fornecendo informa es semelhantes às obtidas na primeira contagem de germina o, comprimento de plantula, emergência e IVG, principalmente quando conduzido a 41oC, por 72 ou 96 horas. P
Quantifica??o de macro e micro nutrientes em algumas etnovariedades de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal)
Yuyama, Lúcia K. O.;Macedo, Sonja H. M.;Aguiar, Jaime P. L.;S. Filho, Danilo;Yuyama, Kaoru;Fávaro, Déborah I. T.;Vasconcellos, Marina B. A.;
Acta Amazonica , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672007000300014
Abstract: considering the wide genetic variability of cubiu (solanum sessiliflorum dunal), its chemical composition was quantified in order to contribute to the chemical composition table of typical amazonian foods. the cubiu fruit was collected at alejo von der pahlen (eeh) experimental station from national research institute of amazonia (inpa). eight ethno varieties of cubiu identified as 2 i, 3 i, 6, 7, 12, 14, 17, 29 i and iii were analyzed. all samples used were ripe. the mineral content was determined by neutron activation analysis technique and alimentary fiber by the enzymatic-gravimetric method. the results showed that cubiu is a hypo caloric food source (mean of 33 kcal and total fiber of about 1.6%). regarding macronutrients, ethnovariety 6 showed high potassium (513.5 ± 3.1 mg) and calcium (18.8 ± 0.6 mg) concentration. ethnovariety 21, had high fe (564 ± 58 μg) and cr (99 ± 8 μg) concentrations. low concentrations of k (229.0 ± 4.5 mg), na (53.7 ± 5.5 μg) and zn (89.3 ± 4.7 μg) were found for ethnovariety 12. although the cubiu fruit presents great variation of its mineral contents due to different ethnovarieties, it could still contribute as a diet supplement to reach the minimum nutrient requirements for the amazonian population.
Amadurecimento de frutos de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) tratados com Etefon
Stefanello, Suzana;Schuelter, Adilson Ricken;Scapim, Carlos Alberto;Finger, Fernando Luiz;Pereira, Giselda Maria;Bonato, Carlos Moacir;Rocha, Andressa Camilo de Souza;Silva, Jaqueline Manzatti;
Acta Amazonica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672010000300003
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to evaluate postharvest quality of cubiu (solanum sessiliflorum) fruits during ripening after ethephon treatment. fruits from the varieties santa luzia and thais were harvested at green-mature stage, washed and sprayed until run off with ethephon (0 e 1000 mg l-1). at every three days, during 12 days, the following analyses were performed: pericarp firmness, ph, total soluble solid content, total titratable acidity (att), water content and ashes. co2 and ethylene production were evaluated daily for 12 days, together with the loss of fresh matter and color evolution, at every three days, always the same fruit group. the experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design. data were examined by analysis of variance and regression analysis. there was loss of pericarp firmness with time of postharvest storage, with decrease in ph, increase in att and loss of fresh matter. ethephon promoted small changes in the internal quality of fruits, whereas it was efficient to induce degreening of fruit peel, which can be verified by the lower color angles and higher chromaticity and brightness. respiration rates and ethylene production of the fruit suggest that cubiu has non-climateric behavior.
Caracteriza??o e avalia??o do potencial agron?mico e nutricional de etnovariedades de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) da Amaz?nia
Silva Filho, Danilo Fernandes da;Yuyama, Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki;Aguiar, Jaime Paiva Lopes;Oliveira, Maslova Carmo;Martins, Lúcia Helena Pinheiro;
Acta Amazonica , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672005000400003
Abstract: cubiu (solanum sessiliflorum dunal), is an important genetic resource for the amazonian people, because its fruit is traditionally usede for food, medicine and cosmetics. as na excellent product for agribusiness, it is important to study the species to contribuite to regional development. the agronomic and nutritional potential of different cubiu ethnovarietes (etns) was characterized and evaluated., in an experiment at inpa's horticulture experimental station, manaus, amazonas, brazil, on a sandy textured, low fertility, alic, red-yellow podzol, in an experimental design of randomized blocks, with 28 treatments (the etns) and four repetitions, the following fruit agronomic and chemical composition characteristics were evaluated: fruit number, shape, length, diameter, weight, pulp thickness, potassium, zinc, manganese, sodium, iron, magnesium and calcium. there were significant differences among the etns for all characteristics. the 28 etns were could be classified into nine different fruit shape. fruit number/plant varied from 4 to 89, and mean fruit weight from 18.5 to 301g. among the macroelents, potassium had the highest concentration in all 28 etns (varying from 54.6 to 563.5 mg in 100 g fresh pulp). the etn from lábrea (am) produced the fruits with highest concentrations of this element. among the microelements, iron varied from 97.3 to 352 mcg and the etn from barcelos (am) had the highest concentration. in general, the etns presented ample genetic variability to be exploited in a cubiu improvement program.
Effects of peeling methods on the quality of cubiu fruits
Caceres, Luty Gomez;Andrade, Jerusa Souza;Silva Filho, Danilo Fernandes da;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612012005000039
Abstract: cubiu (solanum sessiliflorum dunal) is an amazonian basin native fruit. its importance comes from its high contents of pectin. currently, processing technologies are necessary for the substitution of the traditional system (small crops and small-scale processing) for a larger scale system and thus increase the use of biodiversity and promote the implementation of local productive arrangements of agribusiness in the amazon. this research aims to evaluate the methods of peeling cubiu. ripe fruits were divided into lots (150 each) and subjected to the following treatments: immersion in 2.5% naoh boiling solution for 5 minutes, exposure to water vapor, and immersion in water at 96 oc for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. the peel released during heat treatment and immediately removed under running tap water. in the control treatment, the fruits were manually peeled (unheated) with a stainless steel knife. the treatments were evaluated for completeness and ease of peeling, tissue integrity, texture, and peroxidase activity. the immersion in 2.5% naoh boiling solution (5 minutes) stood out as the best treatment since it inhibited the enzymatic browning and intensified the natural yellow color of the cubiu fruit and easily and fully peeled the whole fruit more rapidly without damaging its tissues. this treatment was chosen as the most advantageous because it can promote simultaneous peeling and bleaching. therefore, it is recommended for cubiu industrial processing.
Desenvolvimento e aceitabilidade de geléia dietética de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal)
Yuyama, Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki;Pantoja, Lílian;Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki;Aguiar, Jaime Paiva Lopes;Silva, Socorro Barreto da;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612008000400026
Abstract: with the aim of improving utilization of amazonian fruits and satisfying the growing demand for new products in the market, we formulated a low calorie cubiu jam with xylitol as a sucrose substitute, and evaluated its shelf life and acceptability. the cubiu fruits from the experimental station of the national research institute of amazonia (inpa) were harvested, bleached, pealed, ground, sieved, and stored in plastic bags at -20 ± 1 °c until their utilization. at the same time, triplicate samples of the cubiu pulp were analysed for humidity, protein, lipids, soluble and insoluble fibers, ash, ph, total acidity, total and reducing sugars, and phenolic compounds. the conventional and the xylitol-based jams were prepared with a 1:1 proportion of pulp:sucrose or pulp:xylitol, respectively. the mixture was concentrated up to 65° brix with ph adjustment and pectin addition. the jams were analyzed for protein, lipids, ash, ph, acidity, sugar, and phenolic compounds. the shelf life was evaluated through monthly physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses for a period of 180 days. the results showed no statistical difference between the acceptability of conventional and xylitol-based jams and presented the same physicochemical, microbiological stability during storage. xylitol can be a viable sucrose substitute for the preparation of cubiu jams.
Germina??o de sementes de cubiu em diferentes substratos e temperaturas
Lopes, José Carlos;Pereira, Marcio Dias;
Revista Brasileira de Sementes , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31222005000200021
Abstract: the cubiu (solanum sessiliflorum dunal) is a native arbustiva solanacea of the amazon whose fruits present a high concentration citric acid. this study was carried to verify the effect of substrate and temperature on the germination capacity of cubiu seeds. this study was developed in the seed analysis laboratories at the agrarian science center at the universidade federal do espírito santo (cca-ufes), alegre-es, brazil. a cinpletely randomized design was used with four repetitions of 50 seeds, in a 6x6 factorial outline, with six substrates (on vermiculite (v); between sand (ea); on paper (sp); on sand (sa); on mixture soil+sand+esterco (tae) and paper roll (rp) and six temperatures (constant of 20, 25 and 30oc and alternated of 20-25; 25-30 and 20-30oc). the following characteristics were assessed: germination (%); emergency speed index(ive); hard and deteriorated seeds (%); normal and abnormal seedlings (%); seedlings height (mm) and canopy and root dry matter (mg). the results showed that the substrate on sand and between sand under 20-30oc were the best conditions for cubiu seed germination.
Germina o in vitro de gr os de pólen e efeito da prote o das plantas na frutifica o de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) = In vitro germination of pollen and effect of plant covering in the cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) frutification
Cristiane Leonardi da Luz,Adilson Ricken Schuelter,Cristiana Leonardi da Luz,Alexandre Dal’Maso
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2008,
Abstract: O tipo de reprodu o sexuada da planta cubiu é ainda discutido entre os pesquisadores. O trabalho teve como objetivos: avaliar o controle da poliniza o na frutifica o de cubiu, verificar o efeito do estádio de desenvolvimento do bot o floral e do horário na receptividade do estigma e na germina o in vitro de gr os de pólen. Anteras de flores de plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegeta o foram maceradas e os gr os de pólen inoculados em placas Petri para avalia o do efeito da concentra o de sacarose, do horáriode coleta e do estádio das flores na germina o in vitro. DNA de amostras de folhas jovens foram purificadas, amplificados por marcadores RAPD. Os resultados indicaram que o ambiente de cultivo interferiu na forma o de flores, inflorescências e frutos. O emprego de diferentes concentra es de sacarose n o promoveu modifica es no número médio de gr os de pólen germinados. Pela análise dos estigmas, verificou-se que a receptividade independe dos horários de coleta e do estádio das flores. Pelas análises de marcadores RAPD, verificou-se a ocorrência de variabilidade genética intra-varietal. Assim, conclui-se que o cubiu é uma planta alógama, porém pelas taxas de germina o dos gr os de pólen e pela receptividade do estigma há indícios de ocorrência de autofecunda o. The type of sexual reproduction of the species amazonic named cubiu is until discussed among researchers. Thus, the present work had the goal to evaluate the control of pollination in the fruiting of cubiu, to verify the influence of the developmental stage of the floral buds and time of pollination on the stigma receptivity, and in vitro germination of the pollen grain. Anthers from the flowers grown inthe greenhouse were grinded and the pollen grains were placed in Petri dishes to evaluate the influence of sucrose, time of harvest and stage of flower development on the germination. A DNA sample from young leaves was purified, amplified by the RAPD technique. The results pointed out that the environment of growth interfered in the flower formation, inflorescences and fruiting. The use of different concentrations of sucrose did not affect the number of germinated pollen grain. The stigma analyses showed that its receptivity was inde-pendent from the time of harvest and stage of flower development.The RAPD analysis showed occurrence of intra-variety genetic variability. Thus, the cubiu is alogamic plant, but based on the rate of pollen germination and stigma receptivity the plant may have occurrence of self pollination.
Cardona J,Juliana E. C; Cuca S,Luis E; Barrera G,Jaime A;
Revista Colombiana de Química , 2011,
Abstract: presence and structure (by using spectroscopic and chromatographic) of some secondary metabolites in three cocona morphotypes (solanum sessiliflorum dunal, solanaceae) grown in the guaviare department were established. they contain p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxidihidrocumaric acid, naringenin, methyl salicylate, fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters. some of these compounds are accumulated only in the fruit exocarp. comparison of volatile metabolites allowed to establish chemical differences between the three fruit morphotypes.
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