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EFFECT OF DIETS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIO FOR FATTENING OF LOHI LAMBS
M. A. JABBAR AND M. I. ANJUM1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different forage to concentrate ratios for fattening of Lohi lambs. For this purpose, 75 lambs were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B and C, with 25 lambs in each group. Berseem fodder was supplemented with concentrate at different ratios (forage to concentrate) as 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 and fed to groups A, B and C, respectively for a period of 66 days. The feed intake of lambs of group C (1938 ± 135g) was the highest, followed by group A (1723 ± 156g) and group B (1628 ± 152g). Daily body weight gain averaged 105 ± 12, 144 ± 09 and 168 ± 14g and feed conversion ratio averaged 16.41, 11.30 and 11.53, for groups A, B and C, respectively. Statistically, differences in feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among lambs of three groups were significant (p<0.05). Dressing percentage averaged 46.80 ± 1.5, 46.93 ± 1.4 and 48.88 ± 1.5 for the respective diets. Dressing percentage was higher (p<0.05) in group C compared to groups A and B, however, no difference was observed between the latter two groups. Similarly, no differences were found in percent of crude protein, fats and total ash in carcasses of all three groups. Feed cost for one kg body weight gain averaged Rs.74, 61 and 55 for groups A, B and C respectively. These results indicated that forage to concentrate ratio of 25:75 is most appropriate for economical mutton production form Lohi lambs.
Qualidade da carne de cordeiros confinados recebendo diferentes rela??es de volumoso: concentrado na dieta
Pinheiro, Rafael Silvio Bonilha;Jorge, André Mendes;Mour?o, Raphael de Castro;Polizel Neto, Angelo;Andrade, Ernani Nery de;Gomes, Helen Fernanda Barros;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612009000200028
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the meat quality of lambs terminated in confinement and fed diets with different concentrate contents. 18 non-castrated ? ile de france ? santa inês lambs were used. their initial weight was approximately 15 kg and they were divided into two separate groups represented by treatment 1 (t1) - animals fed with diets containing the ratio voluminous:concentrate 35:65 - and treatment 2 (t2) - lambs fed with diets containing the ratio voluminous:concentrate 65:35 until reaching 32 kg of body weight in confinement, which is the pre-established weight for slaughtering. t1 and t2 lambs presented similar values for ph, shear force, losses due to cooking and water retention capacity; the average values found were 5.70, 1.03 kgf/cm2, or 35.20, and 59.31%, respectively. the voluminous:concentrate ratio did not influence the centesimal quality of meat of lambs fed with more concentrated or more voluminous diets for humidity, protein, ethereal extract, and mineral matter. it can be concluded that lambs terminated in confinement fed with different concentrate contents diets presented similar meat quality; therefore, the diet choice depends on the cost of the ingredients at the time of the confinement.
Influences of Total Mixed Diets with Different Concentrate-Roughage Ratio on pH and Activity of Digestive Enzymes in Alimentary Canal of Fattening Lambs at Tibetan Plateau
Jian-Bin Liu,Fa-Di Li,Fan Wang,Xia Lang,Jian Guo,Xiao-Ping Sun,Yao-Jing Yue,Rui-Lin Feng,Bo-Hui Yang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.2129.2137
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of concentrate-roughage ratio in diets on concentration of VFA in rumen liquid, pH and digestive enzyme activities in different sections of alimentary canal. The 48 weaned male lambs of Ganjia sheep weighing (23.18±2.16) kg at the age of 3-5 months were divided similarly into three groups which each group included 16 lambs. Lambs were fed diets with a concentrate-roughage ratio of 40:60 (A), 50:50 (B) and 60:40 (C). Digestible energy and crude protein levels were 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 times the NRC-recommended levels during the 60 days experimental period. About 12 lambs from each group were slaughtered for sampling at the end of the regular feeding period. The results showed that concentration of Total VFA (TVFA) in rumen liquid of lambs from Group C was obviously higher than those from Group A and B (p<0.05); the pH of rumen liquid, homogenates of mucosa and contents in posterior segment-jejunum and of contents in ileum were affected significantly by the concentrate-roughage ratio of diets (p<0.05); there were non-uniform pattern ranked of activities of various digestive enzyme along small intestine with concentrate-roughage ratio of the diets; the highest activities of chymotrypsin in content and those of lipase in mucosa homogenate and content occurred in the middle piece-jejunum, activity of trypsinase in contents of posterior segment-jejunum was the highest and the highest activities of α-amylase were noted in content of duodenum and posterior segment-jejunum. It was concluded that still acetic acid pattern of rumen fermentation was kept in lambs fed total mixed diet with higher concentrate-roughage ratio; the pH of contents in rumen and abomasums of mucosa and contents in posterior segment section of small intestine were affected by the concentrate-roughage ratio of the diets; there was also higher activity of α-amylase in duodenum.
Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass
Voltolini, Tadeu Vinhas;Moraes, Salete Alves de;Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal de;Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902011000100027
Abstract: use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. the objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages) of lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight). forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ± 2.0 kg of initial body weight, distributed in four groups. experimental design was a completely randomized with ten replicates. concentrate levels did not influence the final body weight, the average daily gain, total weight gain and cold and hot carcass weights. however, the increase of concentrate levels promoted higher cold and hot carcass yields.
Desenvolvimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia abatidos em diferentes pesos
Santos-Cruz, Cristiane Leal dos;Pérez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga;Muniz, Joel Augusto;Cruz, Christian Albert Carvalho da;Almeida, Thais Romano de Vasconcelos e;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000500020
Abstract: this study had the objective of verifying the differential growth of carcass organs and visceras in relation to the empty body weight of santa ines and bergamacia lambs. thirty-six non-castrated male lambs, 24 santa ines breed and 12 bergamacia breed, slaughtered at 15, 25, 35 and 45 kg of live weight under feedlot system receiving a diet with forage:concentrate ratio of 20:80 were used. the study of the relative growth of internal organs, fats, carcass non-integrant parts, carcass parts and components of the abdominal and thoracic cavities was carried out by means of the non-linear model of the potency equation y = αxβ, linearly transformed into a linear model, lny = lnα + βlnx. liver, pancreas, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and thoracic cavity are parts of the empty body of the animals that presented early development, while spleen, abdominal cavity, carcass integrant and non-integrant parts presented isogonic growth (β=1); the fat stores presented negative heterogonic growth (β<1). the omasum and rumen/reticulum of santa inês lambs growth early, while in bergamácia lambs, it grows late. liver, pancreas, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine and thoracic cavity in both breeds present early development and spleen, abdominal cavity, carcass integrant and non-integrant parts present isogonic growth in relation to the weight of the empty body.
Performance of Santa Ines lambs fed diets of variable crude protein levels
Rocha, Márcia Helena Machado da;Susin, Ivanete;Pires, Alexandre Vaz;Fernandes Jr., Jalme de Souza;Mendes, Clayton Quirino;
Scientia Agricola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162004000200003
Abstract: differences among dietary protein levels suggested in the literature point out to the need for better evaluation of protein requirements of growing lambs, raised in drylot on a high-concentrate diet. this study evaluates the influence of crude protein (cp) levels in high concentrate diets on performance and carcass traits of ram lambs, confined for 56 days. forty eight (48) santa ines lambs (initial body weight 18.4 ± 0.4 kg; 86 ± 2 days old) were fed 4 experimental diets containing 14, 16, 18 or 20% cp, in a completely randomized block design. diets consisted of 80% concentrate and 20% sugarcane bagasse. there were no differences in average daily gain: values of 228, 220, 230 and 231 g d-1 were obtained for diets containing 14, 16, 18 and 20% cp, respectively. there were no differences in dry matter intake and feed conversion: values were 1.03; 1.02; 1.08 and 1.10 kg d-1; 4.19; 4.28; 4.35 and 4.44 kg dm kg-1 gain for diets with 14, 16, 18 and 20% cp, respectively. plasma urea nitrogen concentrations increased linearly as diets contained more cp. there were no differences in carcass traits.
Performance of Santa Ines lambs fed diets of variable crude protein levels  [cached]
Rocha Márcia Helena Machado da,Susin Ivanete,Pires Alexandre Vaz,Fernandes Jr. Jalme de Souza
Scientia Agricola , 2004,
Abstract: Differences among dietary protein levels suggested in the literature point out to the need for better evaluation of protein requirements of growing lambs, raised in drylot on a high-concentrate diet. This study evaluates the influence of crude protein (CP) levels in high concentrate diets on performance and carcass traits of ram lambs, confined for 56 days. Forty eight (48) Santa Ines lambs (initial body weight 18.4 ± 0.4 kg; 86 ± 2 days old) were fed 4 experimental diets containing 14, 16, 18 or 20% CP, in a completely randomized block design. Diets consisted of 80% concentrate and 20% sugarcane bagasse. There were no differences in average daily gain: values of 228, 220, 230 and 231 g d-1 were obtained for diets containing 14, 16, 18 and 20% CP, respectively. There were no differences in dry matter intake and feed conversion: values were 1.03; 1.02; 1.08 and 1.10 kg d-1; 4.19; 4.28; 4.35 and 4.44 kg DM kg-1 gain for diets with 14, 16, 18 and 20% CP, respectively. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations increased linearly as diets contained more CP. There were no differences in carcass traits.
Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with fat and vitamin E
Pinto, Adriana Paiva Paula;Furusho-Garcia, Iraides Ferreira;Leopoldino Júnior, Izac;Olalquiaga Pérez, Juan Ramón;Alves, Nadja Gomes;Pereira, Idalmo Garcia;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011001200039
Abstract: this experiment aimed to determine the influence of diets with inclusion of protected fat and vitamin e on performance, yield and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs with different weights. thirty-two non-castrated santa ines lambs were fed diets with a ratio of 40% forage and 60% concentrate ad libitum, with presence or absence of protected fat and/or vitamin e, in a total of four diets. two weights of early containment were also considered: between 20 and 25 kg and between 30 and 35 kg. all animals were slaughtered at 84 days of confinement. animals fed diets without addition of protected fat, regardless of the use of vitamin e, had the highest intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash, and decreased intake of ether extract. the variables investigated did not affect daily weight gain and total gain. feed conversion was better for the lighter confined animals not fed protected fat. the heavier feedlot lambs fed diets with vitamin e showed higher cold carcass. the warm carcass for the lighter animals confined fed with vitamin e, and the heavier ones, fed with protected fat and vitamin e, showed the best yields of cold carcass. objective measures of the carcass cold had the highest mean for heavier feedlot lambs. the addition of fat in the diet reduces the intake of dry matter and increases the ether extract. although the inclusion of vitamin has no effect on intake of nutrients, it protects the carcasses from losses during cooling, and weight differences at containment directly reflect the measures of the carcasses.
Early weaning and concentrate supplementation on the performance and metabolic profile of grazing lambs
Fernandes, Sergio Rodrigo;Monteiro, Alda Lúcia Gomes;Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli;Salgado, Jordana Andrioli;Silva, Cláudio José Araújo da;Silva, Marina Gabriela Berchiol da;Beltrame, Olair Carlos;Pinto, Pedro Henrique Nicolau;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000500029
Abstract: this study was designed to investigate the effect of early weaning and concentrate supplementation on performance and metabolic profile of lambs in four production systems on pasture: suckling lambs not supplemented until slaughter; suckling lambs supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding until slaughter; early weaned lambs not supplemented until slaughter; early weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate until slaughter. performance was assessed by average daily gain (adg) and body condition score (bcs) measurements. metabolic profile was delineated by measuring serum albumin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose and aspartate aminotransferase. weaning reduced adg by 92 g/d and the adg for weaned and suckling lambs were 113 g/d and 205 g/d, respectively. supplementation increased adg by 117 g/d and the adg was 99 g/d for non-supplemented and 216 g/d for supplemented lambs. body weight and bcs at the end of trial were lower in weaned and non-supplemented animals (20.7 kg and 1.5 points), and higher in those on creep feeding (35.3 kg and 3.3 points). weaning decreased serum levels of albumin, cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase. supplementation increased serum albumin and decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase. serum urea was not affected by weaning or supplementation and remained high during the trial. serum creatinine and glucose were lower in weaned and non-supplemented lambs. early weaning generates unsuitable metabolic profile and low performance and may not be recommended as single strategy to produce lambs on pasture. concentrate supplementation has similar response to suckling on the performance and metabolic profile of animals, and may be considered an efficient strategy to improve the nutritional status of early weaned lambs.
Desempenho de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas completas contendo feno de mani?oba
Castro, Jacilene Maria da Cunha;Silva, Divan Soares da;Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de;Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982007000300022
Abstract: the objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of concentrate (c) to ceara rubbertree hay (crh; manihot glaziovii muell. arg.) on performance of lambs. thirty two intact santa inês lambs averaging 70 days of age and 16.02±2.371 kg of body weight were fed one of the following four treatments as total mixed rations: 80c:20crh (diet a), 60c:40crh (diet b), 40c:60crh (diet c), or 20c:80crh (diet d) in a completely randomized design (eight repetitions/treatment). increasing levels of crh in the diet had no significant effect on the intakes of dry matter, crude protein, and total carbohydrates which averaged 1.214, 0.201, and 0.816 kg/day, respectively. however, intake of neutral detergent fiber increased linearly while the opposite was observed for intakes of metabolizable energy and nonfiber carbohydrates by increasing the proportion of crh in the diet. the average daily gain was significantly affected by the different dietary ratios of c:crh averaging 290.84, 293.62, 253.35, and 208.48 g/d, respectively, for diets a, b, c, and d. significant linear effects were also observed for feed conversion (y = 3.332 + 0.028x) and feed efficiency (y = 0.28-0.0013x) when the proportion of crh was increased from diet a to diet d. the profit:cost ratio and the cost per kg of carcass averaged, respectively, 1.49, 1.57, 1.69, and 1.84 and r$3.68, r$3.49, r$3.23, and r$2.98 with 20, 40, 60 and 80% of crh hay in the diet. it can be concluded that the c:crh ratio of 20:80 (diet d) resulted in satisfactory performance and improved income of santa inês lambs.
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