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Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em macieira
Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt;Souza, Alexandre de;Belli, Edson Luiz;Silva, Ranyse Barbosa Querino da;Zucchi, Roberto Antonio;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452004000100045
Abstract: apple leaf roller, bonagota cranaodes (meyrick) is native from south america and it is one of the most important apple pests in brazil. its control is exclusively done by insectides and biological control isn't frequently applied. in this way is necessary to know the parasitoids associated with apple leaf roller. the objective of this study was to detect the parasitism occurrence on b. cranaodes eggs in the state of santa catarina (brazil). from january 2000 to november 2001; 1,700 masses were collected on leaves of apple tree, hydrangea macrophyla and hedera sp. in fraiburgo, santa catarina state. during this period egg parasitism was registered in 6.6% of masses where 22.3% of the eggs suffered parasitism. the parasite identified was trichogramma pretiosum. this is the first record of parasitizing of trichogramma pretiosum in b. cranaodes eggs in commercial apple orchards in brazil.
Desenvolvimento e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Fonseca, Fabiana L. da;Kovaleski, Adalecio;Foresti, Josemar;Ringenberg, Rudiney;
Neotropical Entomology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2005000600011
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the development of trichogramma pretiosum riley on eggs of bonagota cranaodes (meyrick) under different temperatures. b. cranaodes eggs were maintained under seven constant temperatures (14, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28 and 30oc), 70 ± 10% r.h. and, 14 h l. forty replicates with 20 parasitized eggs each were kept in glass tubes (8.5 x 2.5 cm) covered with a plastic film. the method of hyperbole was used to calculate the temperature threshold (tb) and the thermal constant (k). the tb obtained was 11.9oc and to thermal constant was 153,4 dd. the most favorable temperature range was from 25oc to 30oc, at which the shortest egg-adult development period and the highest survivorship were observed.
Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) "linhagem bonagota" criado em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)
Pastori, Patrik Luiz;Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt;Botton, Marcos;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262008000300024
Abstract: the biology of trichogramma pretiosum riley (hymenoptera, trichogrammatidae) "strain bonagota" reared in eggs of bonagota salubricola (meyrick) (lepidoptera, tortricidae) was studied in laboratory estimating the thermal requirements and the number of annual generations in some apple production regions of the rio grande do sul and santa catarina states. eggs of b. salubricola were submitted to parasitism by t. pretiosum for 24h, and transferred to incubators regulated to 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32oc. the duration of the biological cycle (egg-adult) was influenced by temperature ranging from 8.18 to 18.12 days at 32 and 18°c, respectively. the parasitoid emergency was higher (66.2%) at 22°c. the sex ratio of t. pretiosum ranged from 0.61 to 0.72 being not influenced by temperature. the highest relation of parasitoids/egg was found at 30°c (1.41). the thermal constant (k) and the threshold temperature (tb) was 187.7 degrees days and 7.42oc, respectively. the number of annual generations estimated for t. pretiosum for fraiburgo and s?o joaquim, sc and vacaria, rs was 17.5; 11.6 and 16.8, respectively.
Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas
Pastori, Patrik L.;Monteiro, Lino B.;Botton, Marcos;Pratissoli, Dirceu;
Neotropical Entomology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000600015
Abstract: the parasitism capacity of trichogramma pretiosum riley strain bonagota on bonagota salubricola (meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32oc. the number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. in the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32oc) to 8.8 (22oc) eggs of b. salubricola. accumulated egg parasitism of b. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20oc to 32oc, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18°c. temperatures from 18°c to 22°c were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. t. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18°c and 32oc, respectively. the results showed that t. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18°c to 22oc.
Controle químico da lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) na cultura da macieira
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2000001100003
Abstract: apple leafroller, bonagota cranaodes meyrick (lepidoptera: tortricidae), is one of the major apple pests in southern brazil. laboratory and field experiments were conducted with chlorpyriphos-ethyl (lorsban 480 ce - 72 g of a.i./100 l), methidathion (supracid 400 - 60 g of a.i./100 l), phosmet (imidan 50 pm - 100 g of a.i./100 l), trichlorphon (dipterex 500 - 150 g of a.i./100 l), tebufenozide (mimic 240 sc - 21.6 g of a.i./100 l), fenitrothion (sumithion 500 ce - 75 g of a.i./100 l) and carbaryl (sevin 850 pm - 153 g of a.i./100 l) to control the pest in apple orchards. in laboratory, all insecticides caused 100% of mortality on first-instars larvae while fourth and fifth instar larvae were satisfactorily controlled only using chlorpyriphos-ethyl, tebufenozide and trichlorphon. chlorpyriphos-ethyl application after peaks of b. cranaodes males capture in pheromone traps resulted in less than 1% of fruit damage at harvest, while tebufenozide resulted in 4.6% compared to 9.8% in a non-treated area.
Biology of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on seven natural foods
Bentancourt, Carlos M.;Scatoni, Iris B.;Gonzalez, Alvaro;Franco, Jorge;
Neotropical Entomology , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2004000300004
Abstract: the effect of seven natural diets on the development and reproduction of bonagota cranaodes (meyrick) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. the experiments were carried out at the temperature of 23 ± 1oc, with 70 ± 10% of rh and a photoperiod of 16:8h (l:d). the larvae were reared on apple, grapevine and honeysuckle (lonicera japonica). on the first two foods three types of diet were used: spring leaves, summer leaves and fruits. the number of instars varied from five to seven. the larvae reared on apple leaves had, in general, fewer instars than those reared on grapevine and honeysuckle leaves. the duration of larval development differed between diets. the larvae reared on spring apple leaves showed the shortest duration, and those on fruit the longest. the larvae survival was lower on fruit than on leaves, and on apples it was particularly low (17.8%). the female pupae reared on honeysuckle were heavier than those reared on the other diets. the cycle from the egg to the emergence of adults varied between 41 days on spring apple leaves and 60 days on apples. the females reared on honeysuckle and spring apple leaves were the most fecund, whereas the females on apples did not oviposit. honeysuckle and spring leaves were the most suitable foods. apples, on the other hand, were the least suitable diet, which leads one to think that larvae could hardly complete their whole cycle on this fruit.
Controle químico da lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) na cultura da macieira
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2000,
Abstract: A lagarta-enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), é considerada uma das principais pragas da macieira no Brasil. Com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas visando ao controle do inseto, experimentos de laboratório e campo foram conduzidos com clorpirifós-etil (Lorsban 480 CE - 72 g de i.a./100 L), metidatiom (Supracid 400 - 60 g de i.a/100 L), fosmet (Imidan 50 PM - 100 g de i.a./100 L), triclorfom (Dipterex 500 - 150 g de i.a./100 L), tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 21,6 g de i.a./100 L), fenitrotiom (Sumithion 500 CE - 75 g de i.a./100 L) e carbaril (Sevin 850 PM - 153 g de i.a./100 L). Todos os inseticidas provocaram 100% de mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas em laboratório, porém, o controle de lagartas de 4o e 5o ínstar, após seu estabelecimento nas plantas de macieira, somente foi satisfatório com clorpirifós-etil, tebufenozide e triclorfom. A pulveriza o de clorpirifós-etil, após picos de captura dos machos de B. cranaodes com armadilhas de ferom nio sexual resultaram em menos de 1% de frutos danificados na colheita em compara o com 4,6% com tebufenozide, e 9,8% na testemunha.
Efeito do raleio de frutos sobre o dano de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick, 1937) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em cultivares de macieira
Botton, Marcos;Nakano, Octávio;Kovaleski, Adalécio;
Ciência Rural , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782000000400027
Abstract: the effect of fruit thinning on apple leafroller bonagota cranaodes (meyrick, 1937) (lepidoptera: tortricidae) damage was evaluated in commercial orchards of fuji and gala cultivars. at harvest, appies produced in clusters of two, three or four fruits and isolated ones were evaluated for percentage of pest damage. a positive correlation between lhe number of fruits per cluster and percentage of appie leafroller damage was observed. the injury to fruits was higher during late season cultivar fuji (harvested in april) than early season gala (february). fruits produced in isolated floral buds were significativelly less damaged by the pest than in cluster, indicating that is possible io use apple thinning to reduce apple leafroller damage in commercial orchards.
Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimenta??o de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), em laboratório
Fonseca, Fabiana Lazzerini da;Manfredi-Coimbra, Silvana;Foresti, Josemar;Kovaleski, Adalecio;
Ciência Rural , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782005000600001
Abstract: adults of bonagota cranaodes (meyrick) (lepidoptera: tortricidae) were maintained in cages of transparent pvc without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°c and 70±10% of ru). the longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture) and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture). the viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. the mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of b. cranaodes. however, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents the best choice in laboratory for maintenance rearing of this insect.
Botton, Marcos;Nakano, Octávio;Kovaleski, Adalécio;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000200026
Abstract: a survey of parasitoids associated with apple leafroller bonagota cranaodes and the level of parasitism was evaluated in commercial apple orchards in vacaria, rs, brazil (28o30's/50o54w) by collecting eggs, larvae and pupae from january to june, 1997. three species of parasitoids (apanteles sp, earinus sp. and itoplectis brasiliensis) were found associated with b. cranaodes larvae and pupae. i. brasiliensis was the most frequent specie, with 51.7 % of insects collected. the average of parasitism was 1.7 %, with maximum of 6.7 % in the first week of may. no parasitoids were found associated with b. cranaodes eggs. mortality caused by parasitoids was not considered an important agent of control of the apple leafroller in commercial apple orchards of southern brazil.
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