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Sedative Effects of Acepromazine and Xylazine in Horses: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Twenty two trials were conducted on 5 horses to compare the sedative effects of acepromazine and xylazine under same experimental conditions. Acepromazine was administered in the doses of 0.05 mg kg-1 I.V., where as xylazine was used in the doses of 0.5 mg kg-1 I.V. Acepromazine produced light to moderate sedation with an average sedation score of 1.55. Xylazine, on the other hand, produced moderate to deep sedation with an average sedation score of 2.45. Acepromazine produced less but longer-lasting sedation than xylazine. Acepromazine was also slower than xylazine to produce an effect. The sedation after acepromazine injection started on average at 19.55 min and maximum sedation was achieved at 33.64 min. The recovery from sedation started on average at 61.82 min but most animals still showed light sedation at the time of the last recording at 90 min after acepromazine administration. Xylazine produced immediate sedation (within 2 to 3 min of the start of injection). Recovery from sedation started on average at 27.73 min and full recovery was noted in 69.54 min. No sedation was noted 24 h after injection of both drugs. There was more individual variation in response to the onset of sedative effect of acepromazine than xylazine. It was concluded that the quality of sedation produced by xylazine was better than acepromazine and animals under the effect of xylazine responded less to visual stimuli/noise than after acepromazine.
Sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of acepromazine, midazolam, butorphanol, acepromazine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol on propofol anaesthesia in goats  [cached]
T.B. Dzikitia,G.F. Stegmanna,L.J. Hellebrekers,R.E.J. Auer
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v80i1.162
Abstract: The sedative, propofol-sparing and cardiopulmonary effects of acepromazine, midazolam, butorphanol and combinations of butorphanol with acepromazine or midazolam in goats were evaluated. Six healthy Boer - Indigenous African crossbreed goats were by randomised cross-over designated to 6 groups: Group SAL that received saline, Group ACE that received acepromazine, Group MID that received midazolam, Group BUT that received butorphanol, Group ACEBUT that received acepromazine and butorphanol and Group MIDBUT that received midazolam and butorphanol as premedication agents intramuscularly on different occasions at least 3 weeks apart. The degree of sedation was assessed 20 minutes after administration of the premedication agents. Thirty minutes after premedication, the dose of propofol required for induction of anaesthesia adequate to allow placement of an endotracheal tube was determined. Cardiovascular, respiratory and arterial blood-gas parameters were assessed up to 30 minutes after induction of general anaesthesia. Acepromazine and midazolam produced significant sedation when administered alone, but premedication regimens incorporating butorphanol produced inconsistent results. The dose of propofol required for induction of anaesthesia was significantly reduced in goats that received midazolam alone, or midazolam combined with either acepromazine or butorphanol. The quality of induction of anaesthesia was good in all groups, including the control group. Cardiovascular, respiratory and blood-gas parameters were within normal limits in all groups and not significantly different between or within all groups. In conclusion: sedation with midazolam alone, or midazolam combined with either acepromazine or butorphanol significantly reduces the induction dose of propofol with minimal cardiopulmonary effects in goats.
A Comparison of the Effects of Fentanyl and Remifentanil on Nausea, Vomiting, and Pain after Cesarean Section
Mitra Jabalameli,Safoura Rouholami,Fatemeh Gourtanian
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The effects of different opioids on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain have not been conclusively determined. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fentanyl, remifentanil or fentanyl plus morphine on the incidence of PONV and pain in women subjected to cesarean section under general anesthesia. Methods: The study was a randomized clinical trial recruiting 96 parturients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II. They scheduled for cesarean section under general anesthesia using sodium thiopental, succynylcholine, and isoflurane O2/N2O 50/50 mixture. After clamping the umbilical cord, the patients were given fentanyl (2 μg/kg/h), remifentanil (0.05 μg/kg/h), or fentanyl (2 μg/kg) pulse morphine (0.1 mg/kg) intravenously. Visual analog scale for pain and nausea, frequency of PONV, meperidine and metoclopramide consumption were evaluated at recovery, and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. Results: There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of frequency of nausea, vomiting, and mean nausea and pain scores at any time points. None of the patients required the administration of metoclopramide. However, the mean VAS for pain in remifentanil-treated group was insignificantly more than that in fentanyl- or fentanyl plus morphine-treated group at recovery or 4 hours after the surgery. The mean mepridine consumption in remifentanil-treated group was significantly (P=0.001) more than that in fentanyl- or fentanyl plus morphine-treated group in 24 hours after the surgery respectively. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters of the three groups in all measurements after the surgery. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that early postoperative analgesia was better with fentanyl, and postoperative meperidine consumption was significantly less with fentanyl than with remifentanil or combined fentayl and morphine. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201010232405N5
Analgesic Efficacy of Interpleurally Administered Morphine and Fentanyl After Posterolateral Thoracotomy
Shideh Dabir,Tahereh Parsa,Badiozaman Radpay,Saviz Pozhhan
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2007,
Abstract: Pain control is a major concern in post-thoracotomy patients. The current prospective randomized double-blind study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of morphine and fentanyl given interpleurally after posterolateral thoracotomy. Thirty patients undergoing elective posterolateral thoracotomy in a teaching hospital in Tehran were divided into 3 groups with equal number of patients. Patients in group IPM, IPF1 and IPF2 received 0.1 mg/kg morphine sulfate, 5 μg/kg fentanyl and 2.5 μg/kg fentanyl in a total volume of 40 ml injected via an intrapleural catheter placed in the pleural space before the closure of chest. Subsequent doses of interpleural injections were administered at 4 and 8 h after operation. The intensity of pain was evaluated at rest and with coughing just before each interpleural injection and 30 min afterwards using a 10 point visual analogue scale (VAS). If patients needed additional analgesia, indomethacin suppository and intravenous morphine were given during the 20-h postoperative study period. In all of the 3 study groups VAS scores were significantly reduced 30 min after interpleural administration of the study solutions (p<0.05). However, inter-group comparisons revealed no significant differences for VSA scores, supplemental analgesic usage and systemic side effects. Briefly, interpleural morphine and fentanyl following thoracotomy produce equal analgesia without major side effects.
Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Thoracic Epidural Morphine and Fentanyl  [cached]
G?nül Sa??ro?lu
Balkan Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare epidural morphine and fentanyl analgesia and the side effects in post-thoracotomy pain management. Material and Methods: Forty patients, planned for elective thoracotomy were included. Bupivacain- morphine was administered through an epidural catheter to the patients in Group-M while bupivacain-fentanyl was given in Group-F. Pain assessment was carried out with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and VAS-I and VAS-II were assessed in 0, 4, 16 and 24th hour in the postoperative unit. Adverse effects were recorded after the 24th hour. Statistical analyses were performed by using Two-sample independent-t test, Mann Whitney-U test, Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Pearson chi-squared tests. Results: Although, the VAS-I and VAS-II scores were lower in Group-M than Group-F, the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05). When other hours were compared with initial states, beginning from the 4th hour, in both groups there was a statistically significant drop in VAS-I and VAS-II scores at all times (p<0.001). Comparing the complications between the groups, in Group-M nausea-vomiting (p<0.015) and bradycardia (p<0.012) were found significantly more frequently than in Group-F. Conclusion: We concluded that, in pain management after thoracic surgery, either morphine or fentanyl may be chosen in thoracal epidural analgesia but, especially in the early postoperative hours, close follow-up is necessary due to the risk of bradycardia development.
Cancer Pain: Comparison of Oral Morphine and Transdermal Fentanyl Treatment
Samir Husic,Dzenita Ljuca
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2011, DOI: 10.5457/ams.176.10
Abstract: Aim: The aim of the research is to compare the efficiency of equianalgesic dosages of transdermal fentanyl and oral morphine in severe cancer pain treatment in patients with or without bone metastasis. Patients and methods. 80 patients who were treated with transdermal fentanyl due to severe cancer pain (from 7 to 10 on the NRS scale) and oral morphine were examined by a prospective research conducted at the Palliative care centre (hospice) of University Clinical Centre Tuzla. In the statistical analysis T-test, Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon test and χ2 tests were used. The difference between samples was considered important if p < 0.05. Results. The Karnofsky score for all 80 patients upon admission was 47.13 ± 11.05 and 51.25 ± 11.73 upon dismissal (p = 0.0005). In patients with bone metastasis compared to those without bone metastasis, neurophatic pain is dominant (p = 0,02). Mean pain intensity in all patients on the first day of treatment was 9.00 (from 7.00 to 10.00) which is statistically significantly more (p < 0.0001) compared to pain intensity on the tenth day of treatment. Higher pain intensity was noted in patients with bone metastasis in all 10 days or research. Conclusion. During the first three days of study pain intensity was lower in patients from the control group, and on the fourth day lower pain intensity was noted in patients who were treated with transdermal fentanyl.
Adverse Effects of Morphine and Fentanyl for Stomatitis in Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation—A Single Center Retrospective Analysis  [PDF]
Mayuko Koshino, Yasushi Okoshi, Naoki Kurita, Naoshi Obara, Kazumi Suzukawa, Yuichi Hasegawa, Shigeru Chiba
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2012.24015
Abstract: Opioids are widely used as analgesics for oral mucositis in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Their main adverse events are nausea, vomiting, constipation, psychological symptoms, and respiratory depression. In our institute, continuous intravenous morphine was generally used until 2007, followed by intravenous fentanyl as the first-line agent because of its potential fewer adverse events. We retrospectively analyzed 99 patients who underwent allo-HCT in the University of Tsukuba Hospital from 2004 to 2009. Out of 99 patients, 64 were treated with opioids (morphine, 32 and fentanyl, 32). The attending physicians were in charge of providing stable pain control. Median age, sex, stem cell source, preparative regimen, and GVHD prophylaxis were similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in psychological symptoms, drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting in both groups. Defecation ratio (the days having a bowel movement/the days taking opioids) was 63% and 94% in the morphine and fentanyl group, respectively (P < 0.0001). The percentage of patients who needed to use purgative drugs was 25% and 6% in the morphine and fentanyl group, respectively (P = 0.04). It is suggested that fentanyl has less adverse effects on gastrointestinal movement and is safer than morphine when used for oral mucositis in allo-HCT.
Morphine, Pethidine and Fentanyl in post-operative shivering control: a randomized clinical trial
Hoseinkhan Z,Behzadi M
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Postoperative shivering is a common postoperative complication. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of morphine, pethidine and fentanyl in postoperative shivering control. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, clinical trial, we enrolled 72 adults scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia at Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2003. All the patients were anesthetized in the same manner. After transferring the patients to the post-anesthesia care unit, shivering was noted and, in patients with a shivering score of one or more, morphine (2.5 mg), pethidine (25 mg), fentanyl (25 μg) or normal saline (all with a volume of 10 ml) was randomly administered intravenously by a two-minute injection. A second shivering score was recorded 10 minutes later. Results: Pethidine and fentanyl were significantly more effective than normal saline, but there was no significant difference between normal saline and morphine groups. Pethidine was more effective than two other drugs in shivering control. Conclusions: Pethidine was significantly more effective than two other drugs. Fentanyl decreases postoperative shivering less effectively than pethidine, but morphine had no effect on postoperative shivering with an effect comparable to normal saline.
CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION OF MORPHINE, FENTANYL, METHADONE, LIDOCAINE AND LIDOCAINE WITH EPINEPHRINE IN CATTLE  [PDF]
A. Tabatabaei Naeine, A. Rezakhani and J. Fazlinia
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2004,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy and clinical effects of morphine, fentanyl, methadone, lidocaine, lidocaine with epinephrine and saline (control) when injected epidurally into the caudal epidural space in cattle. Epidural analgesia was achieved in five cattle on five successive occasions at weekly intervals. Analgesia was defined as a lack of response to hemostat pressure and pinprick in the skin of the perineal area and ventral aspect of the tail. The results demonstrated that while epidural lidocaine and lidocaine with epinephrine decreased the response to hemostat and pinprick compared to control, there was no reduction in response after the administration of morphine, methadone or fentanyl. Heart rate, pulse and respiratory rates were not significantly altered by any of the drugs. Neither did the drugs produce any change in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of the animals.
Comparison of morphine and fentanyl in attenuation of Intra operative stress response under general anesthesia: A randomized double blinded study  [PDF]
R Krishna Prabu, P Rani, NP Madhu
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v5i4.9796
Abstract: Background: This randomized double blinded study was done to compare the effect of intravenous morphine and fentanyl in attenuation of stress response during surgeries under general anesthesia in adults. The attenuation of stress response was analyzed with changes in serum cortisol and glucose levels one hour after induction of anesthesia. Methods: Fifty consented healthy volunteers in age group 20-50, under ASA I and ASA II posted for elective surgery were included in the study. Two groups of 25 each, group M who received 0.2 mg/kg body weight of morphine and group F who received 2 microgram/kg body weight of fentanyl before anaesthetic induction were compared. The members of two groups were randomly allocated and double blinded using sealed envelope technique. Blood samples were collected for baseline glucose and cortisol in all the subjects. One hour after the administration of study drugs, which was given at the time of induction blood samples were collected for analysis of glucose and cortisol. The changes in blood glucose and serum cortisol levels were compared at the end of the study using independent samples ‘t’ test. Results: There was no significant difference in blood sugar levels in both groups at the end of 1 hour. But there was significant increase in serum cortisol levels in group F compared to group M. Conclusion: This study concludes that morphine is better than fentanyl in attenuation of Intraoperative stress by effectively controlling serum cortisol levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v5i4.9796 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 2014 Vol.5(4); 65-68
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