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G Raja, Ivvala Anand Shaker,Inampudi sailaja,R Swaminathan,S Saleem Basha,Kondaveeti Sureshbabu
International Journal of Bioassays , 2012,
Abstract: Natural antioxidants can protect the human body from free radicals and retard the progress of many chronic diseases as well as lipid oxidative rancidity in foods. The role of antioxidants has protected effect against free radical damage that may cause many diseases including cancer. Primary sources of naturally occurring antioxidants are known as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Several studies suggest that regular consumption of nuts, mostly walnuts, may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The role of antioxidants has attracted much interest with respect to their protective effect against free radical damage that may cause many diseases including cancer. Juglans regia L. (walnut) contains antioxidant compounds, which are thought to contribute to their biological properties. Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of Leaves, Stems and Nuts extract of Juglans regia L. as evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, Nitric acid, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation and total oxidation activity were determined. The antioxidant activities of Leaves, Stems and Nuts extract of Juglans regia L. were concentration dependent in different experimental models and it was observed that free radicals were scavenged by the test compounds in all the models.
Two new glucosides from the pellicle of the walnut (Juglans regia)
Le Cai,Chuan-Shui Liu,Xiao-Wei Fu,Xiao-Jing Shen,Tian-Peng Yin,Ya-Bin Yang,Zhong-Tao Ding
Natural Products and Bioprospecting , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13659-012-0009-0
Abstract: A new α-tetralonyl glucoside, 6′-O-acetyl-juglanoside E (1), and a new dihydrophaseic acid glucoside, dihydrophaseic acid 1-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucopyranoside (2), together with two known ones, juglanoside E (3) and dihydrophaseic acid (4), were isolated from the pellicle of the walnut (Juglans regia). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR data.
Cristinel Putinica
Soil Forming Factors and Processes from the Temperate Zone , 2012,
Abstract: Walnut tree (Juglans regia) is one of the cultivated tree species that was known and cultivated for a long time. The paper presents the optimum conditions for walnut growth, and attempts to elaborate qualityevaluation criteria, according to the Romanian system of land quality classification for different crops. Quality scores are attributed according to the specific landscape conditions. The system is evaluated with the help of three case studies.
Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Somaye Javidanpour,Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabtabaei,Amir Siahpoosh,Hasan Morovati
Veterinary Research Forum , 2012,
Abstract: There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV) injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.
Determination of Apomictic Fruit Set Ratio in Several Romanian Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2012,
Abstract: Apomixis, a natural process that allows clonal propagation by seed, is an important feature of walnut (Juglans regia L.). This study was carried out to determine the ability of apomictic fruit setting in twelve Romanian walnut cultivars. ‘Sibisel 44’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Germisara’, ‘Muscelean’, ‘Sarmis’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Orastie’ and ‘Argesean’ cultivars were used in the experiment. Female flowers were isolated with pergament paper bags and the apomictic fruit set was determined 8 weeks after anthesis. The apomixis degree was determined as the number of fruit calculated in relation to the number of isolated flowers. The percentage of apomictic fruit set without pollination in cultivars analyzed is low, ranging from 7.86% (‘Orastie’ cultivar) up to 12.46% (‘Jupanesti’ cultivar). The results indicated that apomictic fruit set is insufficient for economical seed and crop production in these Romanian walnut cultivars.
Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Leaf Nutrient Status of Walnut (Juglans regia L.)  [PDF]
B. P. Bhattarai,C. S. Tomar
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2825
Abstract: The study was conducted at 10 - years- old walnut orchard at Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan(H.P.) to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on leaf nutrient status of walnut ( Juglans regia L.). There were 13 different treatment combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Treatments were applied on per tree basis. Among the treatments recommended dose of NPK +50kg vermicompost and three fourth recommended dose of NPK+68.75kg vermicompost were effective for improvement of leaf nutrient status. Key words: NPK; Neem cake; Vermicompost; Leaf nutrient DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2825 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Volume 10, 2009 December Page: 63-67 ? ?
Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.)
Cutini A,Giannini T
Forest@ , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/efor0553-006
Abstract: Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel.) on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut); 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI), leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR) and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.
Occurrence of Shallow Bark Canker of Walnut (Juglans regia) in Southern Provinces of Iran  [PDF]
F. Yousefikopaei,S.M. Taghavi,Z. Banihashemi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: From April 2001 to November 2002, samples of walnut branches and trunks with symptoms of shallow bark canker were collected from Fars and Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyerahmad provinces. Symptoms of the disease were small cracks in the bark of the trunk and scaffold branches of mature trees with dark watery exudates which stained the affected trunk or limb. By removal of phelloderm, extensive necrosis of the underlying tissues was observed. In some cases, necrosis extended to cambium and outer xylem. Sixty-one strains of a bacterium were isolated from infected tissues using EMB and YDC media. On the basis of standard biochemical and physiological tests the bacterium was identified as Brenneria nigrifluens. The pathogen was found to be wide-spread in the provinces. Isolates were compared by physiological and biochemical characters, antibiotic sensitivity and protein electrophoretic pattern. Most of the strains were fairly similar in phenotypic features and electrophoretic profiles of whole-cell proteins were similar to each other and to reference strain (B. nigrifluens 5D313). Inoculation of 1-2 years-old walnut seedlings in May and June produced blackening symptoms and the bacterium survived for long period in infected tissues. This is the first report of the shallow bark canker of walnut in southern Iran.
Fatty acid composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L. ) cultivars from east Anatolia
Dogan, Mahmut,Akgul, Attila
Grasas y Aceites , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, the fatty acid composition of different walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars grown in Adilcevaz in east Anatolia was determined. The total oil content of the walnuts ranged from 65.00 ± 0.06 to 70.00 ± 0.58 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 22.63 to 27.27 % of the total fatty acids while the linoleic acid and linolenic contents ranged from 49.93 to 54.41 % and 14.32 to 17.82 % respectively. The palmitic acid content of the walnuts ranged from 5.61 % to 5.82 % while there was a trace amount of miristic acid (<0.1 %) in the samples. Finally, the fatty acid results indicated that walnut cultivars from east Anatolia were distinctive in terms of their linolenic acid profile. These results might be significant for selection studies in order to better identify walnut varieties for healthy diets. En este estudio se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos de diferentes cultivos de nueces ( Juglans regia L.) producidos en Adilcevaz en el Este de Anatolia. El contenido de aceite total de las nueces osciló entre 65.00 ± 0.06 y 70.00 ± 0.58 %. El contenido en ácido oleico varió desde 22.63 a 27.27 % respecto a los ácidos grasos totales mientras que los contenidos en ácido linoleico y linolénico variaron desde 49.93 hasta 54.41 % y desde 14.32 hasta 17.82 % respectivamente. El contenido en ácido palmítico de las muestras de nueces estuvo comprendido entre 5.61 y 5.82 % mientras que de ácido miristico solo se encontraron trazas ( < 0.1 %). Finalmente, los resultados de los ácidos grasos indicaron que los cultivos de nueces del Este de Anatolia son distintos en cuanto a su perfil de ácido linolenico. Estos resultados pueden ser significativos para estudios de selección en orden a identificar mejor las variedades de nueces para dietas saludables.
T Karadeniz
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: The study determines the graft take of walnut in Ordu province located in the East Black Sea Region. Grafting studies were carried out in nursery conditions in late August from 1993 to 2000. During these years, a total of 87 264 applied grafts were evaluated by using patch-grafting method. The graft take varied from 29% to 64 % depending on years. Relations between the graft take and climate conditions were also considered. Graft take under nursery conditions was affected by especially relative moisture (%) in addition to the mean and maximum temperature (°C) in August and September months.
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