oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
P2RX7: Expression Responds to Sleep Deprivation and Associates with Rapid Cycling in Bipolar Disorder Type 1  [PDF]
Lena Backlund, Catharina Lavebratt, Louise Frisén, Pernilla Nikamo, Dzana Hukic Sudic, Lil Tr?skman-Bendz, Mikael Landén, Gunnar Edman, Marquis P. Vawter, Urban ?sby, Martin Schalling
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043057
Abstract: Context Rapid cycling is a severe form of bipolar disorder with an increased rate of episodes that is particularly treatment-responsive to chronotherapy and stable sleep-wake cycles. We hypothesized that the P2RX7 gene would be affected by sleep deprivation and be implicated in rapid cycling. Objectives To assess whether P2RX7 expression is affected by total sleep deprivation and if variation in P2RX7 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar patients. Design Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers and case-case and case-control SNP/haplotype association analyses in patients. Participants Healthy volunteers at the sleep research center, University of California, Irvine Medical Center (UCIMC), USA (n = 8) and Swedish outpatients recruited from specialized psychiatric clinics for bipolar disorder, diagnosed with bipolar disorder type 1 (n = 569; rapid cycling: n = 121) and anonymous blood donor controls (n = 1,044). Results P2RX7 RNA levels were significantly increased during sleep deprivation in PBMCs from healthy volunteers (p = 2.3*10?9). The P2RX7 rs2230912 _A allele was more common (OR = 2.2, p = 0.002) and the ACGTTT haplotype in P2RX7 (rs1718119 to rs1621388) containing the protective rs2230912_G allele (OR = 0.45–0.49, p = 0.003–0.005) was less common, among rapid cycling cases compared to non-rapid cycling bipolar patients and blood donor controls. Conclusions Sleep deprivation increased P2RX7 expression in healthy persons and the putatively low-activity P2RX7 rs2230912 allele A variant was associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. This supports earlier findings of P2RX7 associations to affective disorder and is in agreement with that particularly rapid cycling patients have a more vulnerable diurnal system.
Saccadic Performance and Cortical Excitability as Trait-Markers and State-Markers in Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder: A Two-Case Follow-Up Study  [PDF]
Jennifer Malsert,Nathalie Guyader,Alan Chauvin,Mircea Polosan,David Szekely,Christian Marendaz
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00112
Abstract: Background: The understanding of physiopathology and cognitive impairments in mood disorders requires finding objective markers. Mood disorders have often been linked to hypometabolism in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, and to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission dysfunction. The present study aimed to discover whether saccadic tasks (involving DPLFC activity), and cortical excitability (involving GABA/Glutamate neurotransmission) could provide neuropsychophysical markers for mood disorders, and/or of its phases, in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorders (rcBD). Methods: Two rcBD patients were followed for a cycle, and were compared to nine healthy controls. A saccade task, mixing prosaccades, antisaccades, and nosaccades, and an evaluation of cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation were performed. Results: We observed a deficit in antisaccade in patients independently of thymic phase, and in nosaccade in the manic phase only. Cortical excitability data revealed global intracortical deficits in all phases, switching according to cerebral hemisphere and thymic phase. Conclusion: Specific patterns of performance in saccade tasks and cortical excitability could characterize mood disorders (trait-markers) and its phases (state-markers). Moreover, a functional relationship between oculometric performance and cortical excitability is discussed.
Bipolar Disorder in Women  [PDF]
Sermin Kesebir,Leman Inanc,Cigdem Hazal Bezgin,Fatma Cengiz
Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/cap.20130514
Abstract: The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.
Treatment and prevention of mania in bipolar I disorder: focus on aripiprazole
David J Muzina
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2009,
Abstract: David J MuzinaCenter for Mood Disorders Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Neurological Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USAAbstract: Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique pharmacologic receptor profile that has efficacy in the treatment and prevention of mania in bipolar I disorder. This article reviews the evidence supporting treatment of adults with bipolar I disorder using aripiprazole as monotherapy or adjunctively during acute mania and its utility as an intramuscular agent for agitation in manic patients. Results from one of the longest bipolar maintenance trials which support aripiprazole as a prophylactic mood stabilizer, specifically against manic relapses, will be discussed as well as a post-hoc analysis that suggests efficacy for rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Safety and tolerability issues, patient-focused perspectives and aripiprazole’s place in therapy for bipolar mania will be covered.Keywords: bipolar disorder, mania, prevention, aripiprazole, rapid cycling
Bipolar Affective Disorder and Parkinson's Disease
Birk Engmann
Case Reports in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/154165
Abstract: Little is known about comorbidities of bipolar disorder such as Parkinson's disease. A case history and a literature survey indicate that bipolar disorder is linked with or influences Parkinson's disease and vice versa. Underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and, more importantly, no treatment options are established in such double diagnoses. The few data in comorbid Parkinson cases seem to point to a rapid cycling pattern of bipolar symptoms. With regard to therapeutic intervention, the literature supports pramipexole for treatment of both Parkinson and depressive symptoms in bipolar depression. Lithium, the mood stabilizer of choice for treating manic states, is problematical for use in Parkinson patients because of its side effects. Valproate might be an alternative, especially for treatment of rapid cycling.
Course and Outcome of Bipolar Affective Disorder in Children
Dullur Pravin,Ravi Philip Rajkumar,Mukesh Y Prabhuswamy,Shoba Srinath
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health , 2005,
Abstract: Systematic studies of juvenile bipolar disorder have been carried out only in recent decades. Initially, Kraepelin considered bipolar disorder to be a relatively benign illness, However, recent literature suggests that bipolar disorder may present as chronic episodes with persistent deficits. Various studies, mainly naturalistic in design, have been carried out to answer questions regarding the course and outcome of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Indian findings differ considerably from those in Western populations. Western data suggest poor recovery from index episodes, especially in prepubertal bipolar children, longer episode duration, high rates of chronicity and rapid cycling, and a high relapse rate. Data from India, however, suggest that there is good recovery from the index episode, shorter episode duration, lower rates of chronicity, and rapid cycling. However, a higher relapse rate has been reported from Indian studies as well. The effectiveness of lithium as a prophylactic agent for childhood onset bipolar disorder needs to be reviewed
Evidence for genetic association of RORB with bipolar disorder
Casey L McGrath, Stephen J Glatt, Pamela Sklar, Helen Le-Niculescu, Ronald Kuczenski, Alysa E Doyle, Joseph Biederman, Eric Mick, Stephen V Faraone, Alexander B Niculescu, Ming T Tsuang
BMC Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-9-70
Abstract: We genotyped 355 RORA and RORB SNPs in a pediatric cohort consisting of a family-based sample of 153 trios and an independent, non-overlapping case-control sample of 152 cases and 140 controls. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is characterized by increased stress reactivity and frequent episodes of shorter duration; thus our cohort provides a potentially enriched sample for identifying genes involved in cycling and switching.We report that four intronic RORB SNPs showed positive associations with the pediatric bipolar phenotype that survived Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons in the case-control sample. Three RORB haplotype blocks implicating an additional 11 SNPs were also associated with the disease in the case-control sample. However, these significant associations were not replicated in the sample of trios. There was no evidence for association between pediatric bipolar disorder and any RORA SNPs or haplotype blocks after multiple-test correction. In addition, we found no strong evidence for association between the age-at-onset of bipolar disorder with any RORA or RORB SNPs.Our findings suggest that clock genes in general and RORB in particular may be important candidates for further investigation in the search for the molecular basis of bipolar disorder.Bipolar disorder is often characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including decreased need for sleep and rapid cycling and switching. This appears to be particularly true among pediatric bipolar patients, where cycling and switching is more rapid than among adult bipolar patients [1-3]. Decreased sleep has even been noted as one of the earliest symptoms discriminating children with bipolar disorder from those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [4]. For these reasons, circadian rhythm abnormalities in general, and circadian clock genes in particular, have been proposed as possible mechanistic underpinnings for bipolar disorder, particularly for the phenomena of c
Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder  [PDF]
Subho Chakrabarti
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/306367
Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition. 1. Introduction The association between thyroid functions and behavioural disturbances has been known for the last several hundred years. Although the effects of thyroid hormones on the developing brain were recognised long ago, recent advances in biotechnology have led to an improved understanding of the impact of thyroid functions on the adult, mature brain [1]. This development has been particularly helpful in elucidating the role of thyroid hormones in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders. The primary focus of interest has been on the connection between thyroid functions and depressive disorders. However, abnormalities of thyroid functions may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder, but this area has received much less attention than it probably deserves. This paper attempts to explore the links between thyroid hormone physiology and the presentation and pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. It briefly covers several areas of overlap, beginning with the association of bipolar disorders with thyroid disease among clinical and epidemiological populations, as well as the evidence of hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis abnormalities among patients with bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling and other refractory forms of bipolar disorder have been particularly highlighted, since the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction appears to be greater in such forms of the disorder. The research relating to the widespread
A pilot study differentiating recurrent major depression from bipolar disorder cycling on the depressive pole
Marty Hinz,Alvin Stein,Thomas Uncini
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2010,
Abstract: Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, MN, USAPurpose: A novel method for differentiating and treating bipolar disorder cycling on the depressive pole from patients who are suffering a major depressive episode is explored in this work. To confirm the diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 bipolar disorder, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria require that at least one manic or hypomanic episode be identified. History of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes may be impossible to obtain, representing a potential blind spot in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Many bipolar patients who cycle primarily on the depressive side for many years carry a misdiagnosis of recurrent major depression, leading to treatment with antidepressants that achieve little or no relief of symptoms. This article discusses a novel approach for diagnosing and treating patients with bipolar disorder cycling on the depressive pole versus patients with recurrent major depression.Patients and methods: Patients involved in this study were formally diagnosed with recurrent major depression under DSM-IV criteria and had no medical history of mania or hypomania to support the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. All patients had suffered multiple depression treatment failures in the past, when evaluated under DSM-IV guidelines, secondary to administration of antidepressant drugs and/or serotonin with dopamine amino acid precursors.Results: This study contained 1600 patients who were diagnosed with recurrent major depression under the DSM-IV criteria. All patients had no medical history of mania or hypomania. All patients experienced no relief of depression symptoms on level 3 amino acid dosing values of the amino acid precursor dosing protocol. Of 1600 patients studied, 117 (7.3%) nonresponder patients were identified who experienced no relief of depression symptoms when the serotonin and dopamine amino acid precursor dosing values were adjusted to establish urinary serotonin and urinary dopamine levels in the Phase III therapeutic ranges. All of the 117 nonresponders who achieved no relief of depression symptoms were continued on this amino acid dosing value, and a mood-stabilizing drug was started. At this point, complete relief of depression symptoms, under evaluation with DSM-IV criteria, was noted in 114 patients within 1–5 days. With further dose adjustment of the mood-stabilizing drug, the remaining three nonresponders
Treatment and prevention of mania in bipolar I disorder: focus on aripiprazole
David J Muzina
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S3763
Abstract: eatment and prevention of mania in bipolar I disorder: focus on aripiprazole Review (5751) Total Article Views Authors: David J Muzina Published Date May 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 279 - 288 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S3763 David J Muzina Center for Mood Disorders Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Neurological Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Abstract: Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique pharmacologic receptor profile that has efficacy in the treatment and prevention of mania in bipolar I disorder. This article reviews the evidence supporting treatment of adults with bipolar I disorder using aripiprazole as monotherapy or adjunctively during acute mania and its utility as an intramuscular agent for agitation in manic patients. Results from one of the longest bipolar maintenance trials which support aripiprazole as a prophylactic mood stabilizer, specifically against manic relapses, will be discussed as well as a post-hoc analysis that suggests efficacy for rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Safety and tolerability issues, patient-focused perspectives and aripiprazole’s place in therapy for bipolar mania will be covered.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.