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The Impact of Alcohol Consumption on Excess Male Mortality in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Sweden
Willner, Sam
Hygiea Internationalis : an Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health , 2001,
Abstract: The article discusses the importance of alcohol consumption for gender differences in mortality in 19th and early 20th century Sweden. Administrative measures, socio-economic and cultural factors affecting drinking habits will be tentatively discussed. The analyses corroborate the hypothesis of an alcohol boom during early 19th century. The cultural acceptance of drinking has been much more restricted for women than men. Periods of social transitions appear to have contributed to a climate stimulating excessive drinking, particularly among men. The study supports the idea that fluctuations in alcohol consumption had a considerable impact on excess male mortality among adults in mortality in nineteenth and early twentieth century Sweden. The results of the analyses further suggest that administrative measures affecting availability of alcohol have been effective in regulating consumption levels and consequently have affected excess male mortality.
An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century
Ruxandra Cesereanu
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2006,
Abstract: The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is the mechanism by which, in the twentieth century, torture has been reintroduced particularly for political prisoners - that means torture for ideas and conscience, torture as a technique of power and not merely as a technique of punishment. What torture destroys first is the dignity and privacy of the victim; only then does it destroy the victim's freedom and integrity. For this reason, every torture is an act of rape, even a symbolic one. I mean this in psychological terms, not as a demonstration of feminist vocabulary. Every touching of the victim's body is rape, emphasizing the "virility" of the torturer. First of all, the torturer wants to become a master of his victim's body, and only later, a master of the tortured person's mind. I include imagination in the concept of torture, imagination being one of the tools of the act of torturing. In torture, imagination becomes, in my demonstration, a never-ending weapon.
An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century  [cached]
Ruxandra Cesereanu
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2006,
Abstract: The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is the mechanism by which, in the twentieth century, torture has been reintroduced particularly for political prisoners - that means torture for ideas and conscience, torture as a technique of power and not merely as a technique of punishment. What torture destroys first is the dignity and privacy of the victim; only then does it destroy the victim's freedom and integrity. For this reason, every torture is an act of rape, even a symbolic one. I mean this in psychological terms, not as a demonstration of feminist vocabulary. Every touching of the victim's body is rape, emphasizing the "virility" of the torturer. First of all, the torturer wants to become a master of his victim's body, and only later, a master of the tortured person's mind. I include imagination in the concept of torture, imagination being one of the tools of the act of torturing. In torture, imagination becomes, in my demonstration, a never-ending weapon.
Remarks on the structure of twentieth century philosophy  [cached]
Rockmore, Tom
Ars Disputandi : the Online Journal for Philosophy of Religion , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper, the author reviews recent developments in twentieth century philosophy. Three important movements emerged independently, movements which for different reasons rapidly came to dominate the debate: American pragmatism, so-called continental philosophy, and Anglo-American analytic philosophy. Each of these tendencies has its own undeniable charms. It would be mistaken to think that one has a decisive advantage over its philosophical competition. The author argues that these three movements of the past century need to be understood against the prior historical background, above all as reactions to Kant.
Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question  [cached]
David B MacDonald
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2007,
Abstract: Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.
Twentieth-century English Bible translations
J.A Naudé
Acta Theologica , 2005,
Abstract: The twentieth century has emerged as a major period of Bible translations and publications. The article explores both the cultural and social circumstances under which the English Bible translations of the twentieth century were produced and aspects relating to the translation process and reception. It offers insights into the underlying objectives and qualities of translations as well as the tradition from which they stem. The primary concern for meaning and readability has influenced the nature of Bible translation of this period, breaking down the socio-cultural distance between modern readers and the original contexts of the Bible.
The State of Native America at the End of the Twentieth Century  [cached]
J. Kelly Robison
American Studies Journal , 2007,
Abstract: When stereotypes of modern Native Americans are brought forward, these usually manifest themselves in visions of poor Indians living on reservations, which are on lands no one else wanted. Modern Native Americans are often stereotyped as drunks or succumbing to the pressure of gamblers to open their reservations to casinos. One place to start in order to disprove these stereotypes is the statistical data. What follows is not an interpretive essay in the classic scholarly vein, but an informative one that provides a picture of the state of Native America at the end of the Twentieth Century based on current statistical data.
The Political History of Twentieth-Century Portugal  [cached]
Manuel Bai?a,Paulo Jorge Fernandes,Filipe Ribeiro de Menezes
E-Journal of Portuguese History , 2003,
Abstract: The political history of twentieth-century Portugal has recently become the focus of intense research by historians of that country. This article attempts both to summarise the political developments of the period and to provide an English-language readership with an introduction to the on-going debate. This debate is driven to a great extent by the attempt to explain the reasons for the longevity of Salazar's New State and by the attempt to place it within a broader European context. As a result, the regime immediately preceding the New State, the First Republic, has been somewhat neglected by Portuguese historians.
Multiple Contexts in the first decades of the twentieth century  [PDF]
Mary Eagle
Journal of Art Historiography , 2011,
Abstract: Although national histories and art museums gather the history of Australian art into one story, the sources of inspiration of the works of art tell another story altogether, about a multitude of creative crossovers. The ‘tradition’ made by the icons of Australian art fuses academic, amateur, urban, outback, ceremonial, commissioned, and impromptu works, natural science, visitor’s chance impressions, soliloquies, arrangements, personal adornment, wall decoration, and addresses the viewer in mixtures of many cultural languages — English, German, Scottish, Chinese, Yolgnu, Yuat, Wiradjuri and a hundred others. This chapter (from a thesis) is about art produced in the early 1900s by a Yuat man William Monop (originally from East Victoria Plains in Western Australia) and a woman Margaret Preston (originally from Adelaide) and their creative engagement with ethnographer Daisy Bates (from Ireland) and anthropologist Alfred Radcliffe Brown (from England).
Theories of Authorship and Intention in the Twentieth Century. An Overview  [cached]
Dario Compagno
Journal of Early Modern Studies , 2012,
Abstract: This article discusses some of the most important theories about authorship and the author’s intentions developed during the last century. It argues that initially Husserl, Croce and the New Criticism firmly divided private intentions on the one side and verbal meanings (constituting an ideal subject) on the other. Then, it introduces Derrida and Barthes who suggested a radical change in perspective by confuting the existence of an ideal conscious subject, of ideal meanings and of private intentions. Subsequently, Booth and Foucault looked for a surrogate of the author and found it in a discursive instance showing the reader a path to the author’s intentions. Lastly, Anscombe and Eco formulated a new concept of public and open intention completely redefining the whole issue. This article, in conclusion, suggests that, in spite of all statements about the ‘death of the author’, it is precisely thanks to the twentieth-century debate that the author was born.
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