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Epidemiological review of the Onchocerciasis in Latin America
Guadalupe C. Rodríguez C,Cristian Lizarazo O
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública , 2010,
Abstract: The onchocerciasis is a disease that affects only human beings. It is characterized by itching, skin lesions and ocular damage which can lead to blindness. The endemic areas are limited to zones with optimum latitude, temperature and humidity for the development of the parasite and vector insect. Those zones are found in West Africa, Yemen and some Latin America countries, with Mexico among them. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a blackfly of the genus Simulium, which inoculates parasite larvae while feeding with blood. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (o e p a) was created in order to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Its strategy is by means of administrating ivermectina and nodulectomy
Examination of the environmental consequences of trade regimes in Latin America  [cached]
Diego Alejandro Martínez Ballesteros
Revista Opera , 2009,
Abstract: Since the 1990s, Latin America has experienced an expansion of trade and investment regimes that suggest important challenges for environmental management. Th is document argues that, in order to favour export oriented sectors and attract foreign investment, these trade regimes may: i) Infl uence environmental management to refl ect the needs of the trade community; ii) Superimpose investment rights and protection measures upon public environmental concerns and national environmental laws; iii) Erode the capacity of governments and the willingness of decision-makers to approach key environmental problems that result from trade and investment activities. Th e representative cases of NAFTA and Mercosur are analysed.
Prevalence estimates for hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean: are they useful for surveillance?
Ordú?ez,Pedro; Silva,Luis Carlos; Rodríguez,María Paz; Robles,Sylvia;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892001001000002
Abstract: objective. to apply a recently proposed model and assessment tool created by the authors for critically evaluating the data available on the prevalence of hypertension in lac and assessing their usefulness for surveillance. methods. a bibliographic search to identify all publications that estimated the prevalence of hypertension was performed. each of the papers located was assessed using a critical appraisal tool. results. of the 58 studies published between 1966 and 2000, only 28 of them (48%) met the critical threshold to be considered useful for surveillance purposes. the distribution of the 28 studies in terms of their usefulness for surveillance was as follows: minimally useful, 16 studies; useful, 8 studies; and very useful, 4 studies. several methodological shortcomings were identified, from inadequate sampling procedures and sample size to the poor quality of the primary data for planning purposes. discussion. published studies on the prevalence of hypertension in latin america and the caribbean have, as a whole, limited usefulness for surveillance activities.
Prevalence estimates for hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean: are they useful for surveillance?  [cached]
Ordú?ez Pedro,Silva Luis Carlos,Rodríguez María Paz,Robles Sylvia
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Objective. To apply a recently proposed model and assessment tool created by the authors for critically evaluating the data available on the prevalence of hypertension in LAC and assessing their usefulness for surveillance. Methods. A bibliographic search to identify all publications that estimated the prevalence of hypertension was performed. Each of the papers located was assessed using a critical appraisal tool. Results. Of the 58 studies published between 1966 and 2000, only 28 of them (48%) met the critical threshold to be considered useful for surveillance purposes. The distribution of the 28 studies in terms of their usefulness for surveillance was as follows: minimally useful, 16 studies; useful, 8 studies; and very useful, 4 studies. Several methodological shortcomings were identified, from inadequate sampling procedures and sample size to the poor quality of the primary data for planning purposes. Discussion. Published studies on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean have, as a whole, limited usefulness for surveillance activities.
Cutaneous melanoma in Latin America: the need for more data
Schmerling,Rafael A; Loria,Dora; Cinat,Gabriela; Ramos,Wilmer E; Cardona,Andrés F; Sánchez,Jorge L; Martinez-Said,Hector; Buzaid,Antonio C;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892011001100005
Abstract: objective: to identify the scientific literature on cutaneous melanoma in latin america and compile all available epidemiologic data to demonstrate the need for reliable regional and country-specific data on incidence and mortality estimates. methods: literature searches were conducted in pubmed, embase, lilacs, and google scholar databases for epidemiologic studies from 1 january 2000 to 31 october 2010 related to melanoma in argentina, brazil, colombia, mexico, puerto rico, and venezuela. a final search on melanoma cases was carried out using country-specific population-based cancer registries. no statistical analyses were conducted. results: for all six countries, most epidemiological research on cutaneous melanoma consists of hospital-based or case-control studies. very few studies report incidence and mortality rates. attempts to estimate disease rates have relied on national incidence and mortality data and information extracted from cancer registries. while predominance of european ancestry is a known risk factor for developing melanoma, the association of melanoma and ethnicity is not well-documented in some of the populations reviewed. latin americans are frequently exposed to ultraviolet (uv) radiation due to the tropical weather, high altitude, and thinning ozone layer in some regions. tanned skin is viewed as healthy and beautiful. while melanoma public health campaigns have been under way in latin america for decades, increasing melanoma awareness remains imperative. conclusions: there is an urgent need to collect accurate epidemiologic melanoma data in latin america. future research in the region should include more comprehensive, countryspecific, population-based studies to allow for comparative evaluation of incidence and mortality rates
Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy
Moncayo, álvaro;Silveira, Antonio Carlos;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000900005
Abstract: chagas disease, named after carlos chagas, who first described it in 1909, exists only on the american continent. it is caused by a parasite, trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and via blood transfusion. chagas disease has two successive phases: acute and chronic. the acute phase lasts six-eight weeks. several years after entering the chronic phase, 20-35% of infected individuals, depending on the geographical area, will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, oesophagus and colon, and of the peripheral nervous system. data on the prevalence and distribution of chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980s as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies in countries where accurate information was not previously available. a group of experts met in brasilia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human t. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. thanks to a coordinated multi-country programme in the southern cone countries, the transmission of chagas disease by vectors and via blood transfusion was interrupted in uruguay in 1997, in chile in 1999 and in brazil in 2006; thus, the incidence of new infections by t. cruzi across the south american continent has decreased by 70%. similar multi-country initiatives have been launched in the andean countries and in central america and rapid progress has been reported towards the goal of interrupting the transmission of chagas disease, as requested by a 1998 resolution of the world health assembly. the cost-benefit analysis of investment in the vector control programme in brazil indicates that there are savings of us$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the programme is a health investment with very high return. many well-known research institutions in latin america were key elements of a worldwide network of
LIBRARIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA
Edgardo Civallero
Trends in Information Management , 2007,
Abstract: The paper reviews experiences on library services to indigenous people developed in Latin America, from Argentina to Mexico. It provides a brief introduction to the reality of native communities all around the continent, and points out the outstanding projects on this issue. Since native populations are subjected to serious problems -such as discrimination, social exclusion, diseases, unemployment, loss of identity, endangered languages and cultural pressure-it argues that libraries can become an option to the recovery of culture and a way to guarantee the egalitarian access to strategic information, a resource that is vital for a balanced development and progress. KEYWORDS: Indigenous People; Latin America-Libraries; Latin America-Culture
Conditional Cash Transfer Program Effects on Anthropometric Index from Children in Latin America: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Larissa Grace Nogueira Serafim de Melo, Severina Alice da Costa Uchoa, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, José Vilton Costa, Antonio José do Nascimento Gouveia Costa, Isabella Tarciana Pinheiro de Gois, Mirella Cristina Silveira Gomes
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.87070
Abstract: Introduction: To compare the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, the “Bolsa Família” with the similar programs found in Latin America regarding its effects in the children’s growth and development. Methods: The systematic review contemplated the Scopus, Embase, Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs data bases. The inclusion criteria were epidemiological quantitative, observational, descriptive and analytical studies that had as target public children contemplated by the income transfer program with health conditionalities in Latin America. Narrative reviews related to the research theme were excluded as well as systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis related to the research theme. Results: The titles and abridgements review from 1007 articles resulted in the selection of 17 complete studies. After the quality analysis of these, as well as the application of the inclusion criteria, 10 articles were included in this review. Among the types of epidemiologic studies selected to compose this systematic review, 3 are cohort analytical studies. Conclusion: Studies carried out in Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador and Nicaragua were selected and indicated the positive effects that the conditional income transfer brought to the anthropometric index from beneficiary children in the researched countries.
Control of type 2 diabetes mellitus among general practitioners in private practice in nine countries of Latin America
Lopez Stewart,Gloria; Tambascia,Marcos; Rosas Guzmán,Juan; Etchegoyen,Federico; Ortega Carrión,Jorge; Artemenko,Sofia;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892007000600002
Abstract: objectives: to better understand how diabetes care and control are being administered by general practitioners/nonspecialists in private practice in nine countries of latin america, and to identify the most significant patient- and physician-related barriers to care. methods: a multicenter, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was conducted in nine countries in latin america: argentina, brazil, chile, costa rica, ecuador, guatemala, mexico, peru, and venezuela. general practitioners in private practice were asked to provide care and control data for patients 18 to 75 years of age with type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm), including demographics, medical and medication history, laboratory exams, and information on the challenges of patient management. results: of the 3 592 patient questionnaires returned by 377 physicians, 60% of the patients had a family history of diabetes, 58% followed a poor diet, 71% were sedentary, and 79% were obese or overweight. poor glycemic control (fasting blood glucose > 110 mg/dl) was observed in 78% of patients. the number of patients with hba1c < 7.0% was 43.2%. glycemic control decreased significantly with increased duration of t2dm. comorbid conditions associated with t2dm were observed in 86% of patients; insulin use and comorbid conditions, especially those associated with microvascular complications, increased significantly disease duration. ensuring compliance with recommended diet and exercise plans was the most-cited patient management challenge. conclusions: blood glucose levels are undercontrolled in t2dm patients in the private health care system in latin america, particularly among those who have had the disease the longest (>15 years). considering the differences between private and public health care in latin america, especially regarding the quality of care and access to medication, further studies are called for in the public setting. overall, a more efficient and intensive program of t2dm control is required, including
Proliferación de escuelas de medicina en Latinoamérica: causas y consecuencias Proliferation of medical schools in Latin America: Causes and consequences  [cached]
Alejandro Goic G
Revista médica de Chile , 2002,
Abstract: Significant changes in university education have occurred in Latin America, caused by the strategic importance that it has on economical and social development. The educational system expanded and science, technology and informatics, experienced an important development. The eighties were characterized by a reduction in government expenditures, a more efficient use of resources, an increase in the number and variety of universities and university students. The creation of new universities, mostly private, was favored by a highly unregulated market. In Latinamerica, more new universities were created during the eighties than in the previous one hundred years. Since 1981, the number of universities in Chile increased from 8 to 60, the type of institutions was diversified, the government financing of public universities decreased substantially and the regulatory role of the market was emphasized. These changes have been quantitatively understandable but qualitatively unsatisfactory. Since 1981, the number of university students between 19 and 24 years old has triplicated. The number of medical schools and the annual admission of students has duplicated. In most Latin American countries, there is an insufficient number of physicians (Chile has one physician per 783 inhabitants). Since the decade of the nineties, an effort has been made to regulate the market, to introduce new barriers for the acceptance of new educational institutions, to improve the transparency of the system and to preserve the quality of teaching. The quality control of medicine and health is one of the most serious problems in Latin American countries. This includes accreditation of medical schools, health centers and specialists. In Chile there have been some progress in these topics but quality control is still unsatisfactory (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 917-24).
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