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Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges
Barbara Stilwell, Khassoum Diallo, Pascal Zurn, Mario R Dal Poz, Orvill Adams, James Buchan
Human Resources for Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-1-8
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed.The paper is divided into six sections. In the first, the different types of migration are reviewed. Some global trends are depicted in the second section. Scarcity of data on health worker migration is one major challenge and this is addressed in section three, which reviews and discusses different data sources. The consequences of health worker migration and the financial flows associated with it are presented in section four and five, respectively. To illustrate the main issues addressed in the previous sections, a case study based mainly on the United Kingdom is presented in section six. This section includes a discussion on policies and ends by addressing the policy options from a broader perspective.Migration can be analysed and understood from many perspectives. It has been interpreted by sociologists, economists, demographers and particular professional groups within labour markets. While its complexity means avoiding tempting but simplistic solutions, the rapidly increasing number of highly skilled migrants calls urgently for policies and strategies to manage outflows ethically and attempt to ensure a balance between winners and losers.The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed.The migration of highly skilled workers represents a large component of total migration [1,2] and although medical practitioners and nurses make up only a small proportion of professional migrants, the loss of health human resources for developing countries usually results in a loss of capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably. Howeve
Carlo Devillanova,Walter García Fontes
Investigaciones Económicas , 2004,
Abstract: This paper uses Social Security records to study internal migration in Spain. This is the first paper that uses this data source, which has some advantages with respect to existing data sources: it includes only job-seeking migrants and it allows to identify temporary migration. Within the framework of an extended gravity model, we estimate a Generalized Negative Binomial regression on gross migration flows between provinces. We quantify the effect of local labor market imbalances on workers mobility and discuss the equilibrating role of internal migration in Spain. Our results suggest that the effect of employment pportunities have increased during the sample period: after 1984 migrants seem to be more responsive to economic conditions. Consistently with previous studies for the Spanish labor market, our analysis also confirms the larger internal mobility of highly qualified workers.
Software Engineering Challenges of Migration Projects  [PDF]
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Organisations often face the challenges of migration from legacy systems to new target systems. Such migration efforts represent a complex engineering problem. This paper describes migration planning, identifies influencing factors, outlines a set of migration planning activities and offers a set of guidelines for the migration planning
The Peculiarities of Knowledge Workers Migration in Europe and the World
Rasa Daug?lien?
Engineering Economics , 2007,
Abstract: The problem of knowledge workers migration is ex-tremely important in the knowledge economy conditions. Scientific researches point out the probability to assess the consequences of knowledge workers migration to the source country’s economy. However there are many mis-understandings in knowledge workers definitions. Con-sidering this the conception of knowledge workers is crystallised in this article. The basic theoretical findings are made on knowledge workers migration as well. There are analysed migration theories which should be used explaining the reasons and consequences of high skilled migration. Positive and negative effects of knowledge workers migration for “source” and “purpose” countries are highlighted in the article as well. The practical find-ings are based on analysis of knowledge workers migra-tion’s tendencies in Europe and the World. As the out-come of theoretical analysis the determinants affecting knowledge worker’s decision to migrate are systemised. The methods how to avoid or control the knowledge workers migration are suggested in the article.
Possible Challenges of Developing Migration Projects  [cached]
S. Geetha
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Organisations often face the challenges of migrating from legacy systems to new target systems. Open Source Software (OSS) is being suggested as a solution to a lot of computing problems. This paper presents an overview of Open Source Software migration and suggests criteria for assessing migration challenges. The Challenges are legacy system inflexibility, lack of scalability, lack of wider data access, shortage of skills, high cost of maintenance and unreliability. Couple this with continually changing technologies, and organizations are faced with the need to assess these new technologies and applications to power those technologies. The main objective of this paper is for software engineers, IT executives and others who are considering migration as a solution to their business challenges
Labour Force Migration Effects within European Union
Carmen Mihaela Tudorache
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2006,
Abstract: Within the EU, there is no common policy on migration; there are common policies on certain aspects of migration. The Member States fear of migration, but their economies and societies will further need migrant workers. Labour force migration have positive, but also negative consequences for all parties involved: receiving countries, origin countries and migrant workers. Within this framework, a common approach of the migration management and the harmonization of the economic migration policies of the Member States represent already one of the most important challenges for the European Union and will be further emphasized.
Migrant Workers Lives and Experiences Amidst Malaysian Transformations
Yusuf Abdulazeez,Ismail Bab,Sundramoorthy Pathmanathan
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2011.332.343
Abstract: This study demonstrates that movement of people across periods, places and among people has not only existed for centuries but it has also been gaining a significant global attention through the prevailing debates on migration-development thesis in recent years. Most human mobility emanates from various, real and imagined, positive and negative changes and concerns that hit sending communities including the development in the destinations as evidenced in Malaysia, a newly industrialized nation, member of New Tigers, indeed migrants recipient country of South-East Asia. Malaysia has been experiencing gradual reduction in mortality rate, increase in fertility and influx of migrants for decades but the latter is tied to her positive changes and sending areas negative changes. It is less arguable that increasing entry of foreign workers into Malaysia exacerbated her economic progress as the origins profit from migrant remittances. The skills acquired by migrants and their exposure to a wide range of socio-cultural practices in Malaysia are beneficial to their sources, especially if they returned home. The payments for goods and services; transit visas, lodging, foods, drinks and transport fares by migrants at transit areas have had influence on the transit economies. Yet, migrants involvement in breach of rules and regulations are headaches to Malaysia s social order and their readiness to offer cheap labor limit the chances of locals to bargain for and secure high wages and salaries. At times, undocumented migrants rising volume poses security threat, stresses social amenities earmarked for locals and constitutes extra social and economic costs to government. The degrading treatments unleashed on migrant workers by officials, recruiting agents and employers often stain identity of host among comity of nations. Restructuring Malaysia s regulations on labor migrants, empowering local job-seekers, checking excesses of private industries and reducing migrant workers are needed for addressing these challenges and sustainable economy.
Challenges for the EU on Migration Issues: Cooperation with Third States
Gracia Abad
UNISCI Discussion Papers , 2007,
Abstract: The European Union is confronted with two main challenges as far as migration issues are concerned: the difficulties to achieve a common approach on these issues and the impossibility to address them within the narrow limits of one of the EU pillars. As a response to the second of these challenges the EU has designed the so called "global approach". The article analyses the EU cooperation with third states as well as its importance for the global approach and the difficulties entailed by such cooperation.
Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa
Erhabor Sunday Idemudia,John K. Williams,Gail E. Wyatt
Journal of Injury and Violence Research , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life’s challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. METHODS: Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. RESULTS: Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration), during the immigration journey (mid-migration), and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration). While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed. Recommendations advocating for culturally congruent mental health research, the training of culturally competent researchers and clinicians, and the development of policies that could influence the quality of life of Zimbabwean refugees are provided. 2011 KUMS, All right reserved.
The Impact of Labor Migration on Job Concerns of the Jordanian Migrant Workers  [PDF]
Hussein Farhan Ramzoun
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine how labor migration (as a process) can affect the job stability and concerns of the Jordanian migrant workers who worked in the Arab Oil Countries. Such an effect will include changes in income resources, investment, health insurance, new skills and job stability. A questionnaire was designed and given to a random sample of 180 migrant workers who worked in the Arab Oil Countries for more than three years before they came back to Jordan. The results indicated a sharp decrease in health insurance among returned migrants, a considerable decline in the ratio of employed workers against a similar increase in the ratio of workers working in trade or private owned shops, far from their original skill or profession. The highest investment among migrant workers, however, was in the areas of housing, trade and education, far from their original profession or area of interest.
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