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Evolu??o da mortalidade infantil na regi?o metropolitana de S?o Paulo, 1980-2000
Holcman,Marcia Moreira; Latorre,Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Santos,Jair Lício Ferreira;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102004000200005
Abstract: objective: to analyze imr evolution in the s?o paulo metropolitan area (spma) between 1980 and 2000, in terms of spatial, age and, causal differences. methods: spma municipalities were divided into 5 groups, based on their 1980 imrs: 390? lb (group 1); 70-89? lb (group 2); 50-69? lb (group 3); <50? lb (group 4). group 5 comprised the municipality of s?o paulo itself (imr=51? lb). the analysis of trends was carried out using exponential regression models. results: imr and its components showed a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05), with coefficients of determination between 66 and 98%, indicating goodness of fit of the exponential model to all the time series analyzed. spma imr fell 69.4%, from 55.2 to 16.9? lb, and groups 1-5 showed reductions of 83.9%, 76.2%, 71.3%, 58.7%, and 68.8%, indicating that the groups with highest imrs also showed the greatest reductions during the studied period. conclusions: imrs were homogenized at around 18? lb in all municipality groups in the spma. one-half of all deaths were concentrated within the first week of life, and were due primarily to conditions originating in the perinatal period, indicating that greater care during the pre- and post-delivery periods will be required if the imr in the spma is to descend to levels compatible with those of developed countries.
Tendências de mortalidade por cancer de boca e orofaringe no Município de S?o Paulo, Brasil, 1980/2002
Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye;Castellanos, Roberto Augusto;Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira;Michel-Crosato, Edgard;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2006001000016
Abstract: the current study assessed trends in oral cancer mortality in the city of s?o paulo, brazil, from 1980 to 2002. the official mortality information system supplied data on deaths whose underlying cause was classified as oral cancer, stratified by sex, age, and anatomic site. death rates were estimated and adjusted by the direct method, using population data supplied by national censuses from 1980, 1991, and 2000 and a population count performed in 1996. there was an upward trend in overall cancer mortality, at a yearly rate of 0.72%. accounting for more than one third of these deaths, tongue cancer was the main mortality category. labial, gengival, and retromolar cancer showed a downward trend, while oropharyngeal cancer and cancer in unspecified parts of the mouth and oropharynx showed increasing mortality. monitoring the magnitude and trends in cancer mortality can assist the planning of health initiatives aimed at reducing the disease burden from oral cancer in brazil.
Tendência da mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil, 1980 a 2004
Bierrenbach,Ana Luiza; Duarte,Elisabeth Carmen; Gomes,Adriana Bacelar Ferreira; Souza,Maria de Fátima Marinho de;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000800004
Abstract: objective: to analyze the current profile and trends of tuberculosis mortality in brazil between 1980 and 2004. methods: descriptive study of tuberculosis as underlying or associate cause of death based on secondary data from the brazilian mortality information system. results: an irregular reduction in the number of tuberculosis deaths and mortality rates along the study period, from 5.8 in 1980 to 2.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004, was seen. an accelerated reduction in mortality trend was seen until 1985 mostly in the states of rio de janeiro and s?o paulo. there was a trend towards mortality occurring in older ages. in 2004, 4,981 tuberculosis cases were notified as underlying cause of death in brazil but it would increase by 50% if tuberculosis as associate cause and tuberculosis sequelae as underlying cause of death were added. in 2004, the highest mortality rates were found in the states of pernambuco (5.4) and rio de janeiro (5.0) and in state capitals such as recife (7.7) and belém (5.8). conclusions: given the well-known association between tuberculosis and aids, the impact of aids epidemic indirectly reflects on the mortality trends of tuberculosis.
Mortalidade compensada por doen?as cardiovasculares no período de 1980 a 1999 - Brasil
Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes;Silva, Nelson Albuquerque Souza e;Klein, Carlos Henrique;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2005001800002
Abstract: objective: to compare trends in mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases (cvd), ischemic heart diseases (ihd) and cerebrovascular diseases (cbvd) in the states of rio de janeiro (rj), s?o paulo (sp) and rio grande do sul (rs) and respective capitals from 1980 to 1999. methods: data regarding cvd deaths were obtained from datasus, and those regarding populations were obtained from ibge. crude and sex and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using the direct method (standard population: state of rio de janeiro's population twenty years of age or older in 2000). because of the relevant increase in mortality from ill-defined causes in the city and state of rj as of 1990, the deaths were balanced prior to adjustments. the trends were analyzed using linear regressions. results: annual declines of balanced and adjusted mortality ranged from -11.3 cvd deaths/100,000 inhabitants in the city and state of rj to -7.4 in the city of sp. ihd mortality rates were similar in the state and city of rj and in porto alegre, and lower in the city of sp (-2.5 deaths/100,000 inhabitants). cbvd mortality rates ranged from -6.0 to -2.8 deaths/100,000 inhabitants in the state of rj and in porto alegre, respectively. conclusion: a decline in balanced and adjusted cvd, ihd and cbvd mortality rates was observed from 1980 to 1999 in the three states and capitals. in the state and city of rj declines in ihd were clear as of 1990, whereas declines in cbvd occurred throughout the period studied.
Child Deaths Due to Injury in the Four UK Countries: A Time Trends Study from 1980 to 2010  [PDF]
Pia Hardelid, Jonathan Davey, Nirupa Dattani, Ruth Gilbert, the Working Group of the Research and Policy Directorate of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068323
Abstract: Background Injuries are an increasingly important cause of death in children worldwide, yet injury mortality is highly preventable. Determining patterns and trends in child injury mortality can identify groups at particularly high risk. We compare trends in child deaths due to injury in four UK countries, between 1980 and 2010. Methods We obtained information from death certificates on all deaths occurring between 1980 and 2010 in children aged 28 days to 18 years and resident in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Injury deaths were defined by an external cause code recorded as the underlying cause of death. Injury mortality rates were analysed by type of injury, country of residence, age group, sex and time period. Results Child mortality due to injury has declined in all countries of the UK. England consistently experienced the lowest mortality rate throughout the study period. For children aged 10 to 18 years, differences between countries in mortality rates increased during the study period. Inter-country differences were largest for boys aged 10 to 18 years with mortality rate ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.16, 1.64) for Wales, 1.68 (1.48, 1.91) for Scotland and 1.81 (1.50, 2.18) for Northern Ireland compared with England (the baseline) in 2006–10. The decline in mortality due to injury was accounted for by a decline in unintentional injuries. For older children, no declines were observed for deaths caused by self-harm, by assault or from undetermined intent in any UK country. Conclusion Whilst child deaths from injury have declined in all four UK countries, substantial differences in mortality rates remain between countries, particularly for older boys. This group stands to gain most from policy interventions to reduce deaths from injury in children.
Medical care and deaths due to coronary artery disease in Brazil, 1980-1999
Lessa, Ines;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2003001200001
Abstract: objective: to estimate the frequency of medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases (cad) in different brazilian regions and capitals and to describe trends in medical care from 1980 to 1999. methods: information on medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases/acute myocardial infarction in adults > 20 years from 1980 to 1999 was collected in the datasus, the databank of the brazilian health ministry. sex, states, and capitals selected for 1999 were analyzed in the study. medical care was stratified as follows: with, without, and ignored medical care. the descriptive analysis comprised frequencies, ratios of frequency, test for proportions, and increments or reductions in frequencies. results: acute myocardial infarction (ami) represented 75 to 85% of the cad in the period; the frequency of deaths with medical care ranged from 48.9 to 63%, and that of ignored medical care ranged from 27.2 to 41.5%. the frequency of other cad with medical care ranged from 56 to 76%. the frequency of deaths preceded by medical care decreased by 17.8%, and that with ignored medical care increased by 36.5% (rf=2). the values for the other cad were -20.2% and +64.6% (rf=44.4). deaths preceded by medical care were more frequent in females at all ages and in all brazilian regions. conclusion: the results show a high frequency of sudden death and suggest errors in diagnosis or codification and overestimation of the statistics about mortality. validation of the death certificate diagnosis and frequent surveillance are required.
Medical care and deaths due to coronary artery disease in Brazil, 1980-1999
Lessa Ines
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases (CAD) in different Brazilian regions and capitals and to describe trends in medical care from 1980 to 1999. METHODS: Information on medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases/acute myocardial infarction in adults > 20 years from 1980 to 1999 was collected in the DATASUS, the databank of the Brazilian Health Ministry. Sex, states, and capitals selected for 1999 were analyzed in the study. Medical care was stratified as follows: with, without, and ignored medical care. The descriptive analysis comprised frequencies, ratios of frequency, test for proportions, and increments or reductions in frequencies. RESULTS: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represented 75 to 85% of the CAD in the period; the frequency of deaths with medical care ranged from 48.9 to 63%, and that of ignored medical care ranged from 27.2 to 41.5%. The frequency of other CAD with medical care ranged from 56 to 76%. The frequency of deaths preceded by medical care decreased by 17.8%, and that with ignored medical care increased by 36.5% (RF=2). The values for the other CAD were -20.2% and +64.6% (RF=44.4). Deaths preceded by medical care were more frequent in females at all ages and in all Brazilian regions. CONCLUSION: The results show a high frequency of sudden death and suggest errors in diagnosis or codification and overestimation of the statistics about mortality. Validation of the death certificate diagnosis and frequent surveillance are required.
Tendência temporal e desigualdades na mortalidade por diarreias em menores de 5 anos
Melli, Lígia C. F. L.;Waldman, Eliseu A.;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572009000100005
Abstract: objective: to analyze the trend in mortality due to diarrhea among children under 5 in the town of osasco (sp), brazil, between 1980 and 2000. methods: this is a descriptive observational study with two different designs, the first using individuals as the unit of study, and the other ecological, using groups of individuals as units of observation and including time series analysis. data were obtained from the state of s?o paulo information system of deaths and the results of the 1980, 1991 and 2000 censuses. seasonal variations were described and log linear polynomial regression models were employed to analyze trends, using the sociodemographic characteristics of mothers and their children. analyses were carried out of the changes in the town's sociodemographic indicators from 1980 to 2000, the average mortality rates among under-5s due to diarrhea and the differences between districts during the 1990s. results: there were a total of 1,360 deaths, 94.3% of which were before 1 year of age and 75.3% of which were before 6 months. there was a 98.3% reduction in mortality and the period of peak mortality shifted from summer to autumn/fall. the median age at death increased from 2 months at the first three quinquenium of study to 3 months at the last. the residual deaths were among the children of mothers aged 20 to 29 years and of mothers who had spent less than 8 years in education. the relative risk between the worst-affected district and the average rate for the town reduced from 3.4 to 1.3 from the first 5 years of the 1990s to the second half of the decade. conclusions: our results demonstrate an increase in the age of greatest vulnerability and indicate that it is probable that the agent most often linked with mortality due to diarrhea has changed.
Mortalidade por todas as causas e por doen?as cardiovasculares em três estados do Brasil, 1980 a 2006
Soares,Gabriel Porto; Brum,Júlia Dias; Oliveira,Gláucia Maria Moraes de; Klein,Carlos Henrique; Silva,Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892010001000004
Abstract: objective: to evaluate mortality from all causes, diseases of the circulatory system (dcs), ischemic heart disease (ihd), and cerebrovascular diseases (cvd) from 1980 to 2006 in rio de janeiro, rio grande do sul, s?o paulo, and their capitals, taking into consideration the impact of deaths due to ill-defined causes. methods: population and mortality data were obtained from the unified health system's data bank (datasus). mortality from the diseases of interest and from ill-defined causes was adjusted by the direct method for adults older than 20 years of age. since the mortality rates from ill-defined causes increased markedly after 1990, proportional mortality rates from ill-defined causes were calculated. linear regression models were used for analysis of trends. results: a relevant decline in all-cause mortality was observed in the three states and capitals. rio de janeiro and its capital had the highest rates of all-cause mortality. dcs mortality declined more than all-cause mortality. proportional mortality from ill-defined causes in rio de janeiro and its capital was higher than in all other states and capitals starting in 1990. cvd mortality fell in the study period, especially in rio de janeiro and its capital. the state of rio de janeiro also had the highest ihd mortality rates until 1993. among the capitals, s?o paulo presented the highest ihd mortality rates starting in 1992. conclusions: the decline in all-cause mortality resulted mainly from the decline in dcs mortality. in turn, the decline in dcs mortality was partly due to the reduction in cvd mortality, especially in the state of rio de janeiro.
Time-trends and causes of infant, neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mexico, 1980-1990
VANDALE,SUSAN; DE LA LUZ KAGEYAMA,MARíA; RASCóN-PACHECO,RAMóN ALBERTO;
Salud Pública de México , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341997000100008
Abstract: objective. this article analyzes the time-trends and causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality in mexico during the 1980?s. material and methods. data on infant deaths came from yearly tabulations (1980 to 1990) published by the mexican government. time-trends of mortality rates were determined by simple linear regression models. the parallelism test was performed for evaluating similarities in trends in neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates by causes. results. during the 1980?s, infant mortality rates in mexico declined from 40.4 to 31.1/1 000 (?= -0.791). postneonatal mortality rates showed a strong decrease (?= -0.892), while neonatal mortality rates were almost stationary (?= 0.089). significant rate decreases were observed for intestinal infections, pneumonia and influenza and all other causes while certain perinatal problems, congenital defects and nutritional deficiencies increased. no changes were observed in acute respiratory infections. the neonatal proportional mortality showed an incremental trend accounting for 37.6% in 1980 and ascending to 48.8% in 1990 of the mortality in the first year of life. conclusions.this analysis indicates that the reduction in infant mortality in mexico during the 1980?s was due to declining postneonatal mortality while neonatal mortality rates remain almost unchanged.
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