Abstract:
We construct symplectic integrators for Lie-Poisson systems. The integrators are standard symplectic (partitioned) Runge--Kutta methods. Their phase space is a symplectic vector space with a Hamiltonian action with momentum map $J$ whose range is the target Lie--Poisson manifold, and their Hamiltonian is collective, that is, it is the target Hamiltonian pulled back by $J$. The method yields, for example, a symplectic midpoint rule expressed in 4 variables for arbitrary Hamiltonians on $\mathfrak{so}(3)^*$. The method specializes in the case that a sufficiently large symmetry group acts on the fibres of $J$, and generalizes to the case that the vector space carries a bifoliation. Examples involving many classical groups are presented.

Abstract:
The shearing sheet is a model dynamical system that is used to study the small-scale dynamics of astrophysical disks. Numerical simulations of particle trajectories in the shearing sheet usually employ the leapfrog integrator, but this integrator performs poorly because of velocity-dependent (Coriolis) forces. We describe two new integrators for this purpose; both are symplectic, time-reversible and second-order accurate, and can easily be generalized to higher orders. Moreover, both integrators are exact when there are no small-scale forces such as mutual gravitational forces between disk particles. In numerical experiments these integrators have errors that are often several orders of magnitude smaller than competing methods. The first of our new integrators (SEI) is well-suited for disks in which the typical inter-particle separation is large compared to the particles' Hill radii (e.g., planetary rings), and the second (SEKI) is designed for disks in which the particles are on bound orbits or the separation is smaller than the Hill radius (e.g., irregular satellites of the giant planets).

Abstract:
We show that symplectic Runge-Kutta methods provide effective symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems with index one constraints. These include the Hamiltonian description of variational problems subject to position and velocity constraints nondegenerate in the velocities, such as those arising in sub-Riemannian geometry and control theory.

Abstract:
We suggest a numerical integration procedure for solving the equations of motion of certain classical spin systems which preserves the underlying symplectic structure of the phase space. Such symplectic integrators have been successfully utilized for other Hamiltonian systems, e. g. for molecular dynamics or non-linear wave equations. Our procedure rests on a decomposition of the spin Hamiltonian into a sum of two completely integrable Hamiltonians and on the corresponding Lie-Trotter decomposition of the time evolution operator. In order to make this method widely applicable we provide a large class of integrable spin systems whose time evolution consists of a sequence of rotations about fixed axes. We test the proposed symplectic integrator for small spin systems, including the model of a recently synthesized magnetic molecule, and compare the results for variants of different order.

Abstract:
We present a symplectic integrator, based on the canonical midpoint rule, for classical spin systems in which each spin is a unit vector in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Unlike splitting methods, it is defined for all Hamiltonians, and is $O(3)$-equivariant. It is a rare example of a generating function for symplectic maps of a noncanonical phase space. It yields an integrable discretization of the reduced motion of a free rigid body.

Abstract:
In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, \Delta=\Delta(t). In this case, backwards error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities arise because of resonance between oscillations of \Delta(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables \Delta=\Delta(q,p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable \tau with dt=\Delta(q,p) d\tau. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus are not guaranteed to be stable even when integrated using a method which is symplectic for constant \Delta. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

Abstract:
I show that the basic structure of symplectic integrators is governed by a theorem which states {\it precisely}, how symplectic integrators with positive coefficients cannot be corrected beyond second order. All previous known results can now be derived quantitatively from this theorem. The theorem provided sharp bounds on second-order error coefficients explicitly in terms of factorization coefficients. By saturating these bounds, one can derive fourth-order algorithms analytically with arbitrary numbers of operators.

Abstract:
Symplectic integrators constructed from Hamiltonian and Lie formalisms are obtained as symplectic maps whose flow follows the exact solution of a "sourrounded" Hamiltonian K = H + h^k H_1. Those modified Hamiltonians depends virtually on the time by h. When the numerical integration of a Hamiltonian system involves more than one symplectic scheme as in the parallel-in-time algorithms, there are not a simple way to control the dynamical behavior of the error Hamiltonian. The interplay of to different symplectic integrators can degenerate their behavior if both have different dynamical properties, reflected in the number of iterations to approximate the sequential solution. Considered as flows of time-dependent Hamiltonians we use the Hofer's geometry to search for the optimal coupling of symplectic schemes. As a result we obtain the constraints in the Parareal method to have a good behavior for Hamiltonian dynamics.

Abstract:
Using a Newtonian model of the Solar System with all 8 planets, we perform extensive tests on various symplectic integrators of high orders, searching for the best splitting scheme for long term studies in the Solar System. These comparisons are made in Jacobi and Heliocentric coordinates and the implementation of the algorithms is fully detailed for practical use. We conclude that high order integrators should be privileged, with a preference for the new $(10,6,4)$ method of (Blanes et al., 2012)

Abstract:
This paper is a fusion of a survey and a research article. We focus on certain rigidity phenomena in function spaces associated to a symplectic manifold. Our starting point is a lower bound obtained in an earlier paper with Zapolsky for the uniform norm of the Poisson bracket of a pair of functions in terms of symplectic quasi-states. After a short review of the theory of symplectic quasi-states, we extend this bound to the case of iterated Poisson brackets. A new technical ingredient is the use of symplectic integrators. In addition, we discuss some applications to symplectic approximation theory and present a number of open problems.