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Journal of Plant Development , 2011,
Abstract: New characteristics for morpho-taxonomy were devised to support the species concept in genus Gigaspora belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Three species viz. G. margarita, G. decipiens and unidentified Gigaspora sp. were studied for various characters viz. bulbous suspensor, sporophore, germ tube, presence of septum and presence or absence connecticle. The term “Connecticle” is newly introduced and is a region present between the base of bulbous suspensor and septum overlying the sporophore. The term “Germ pore” is also newly introduced. The present study reported that germ tube in Gigaspora is always attached to the spore through a pore which is now named as germ pore. In all, eight types of subtending hypha were recorded during the present study with variations in shape of bulbous suspensor and sporophore along with presence or absence connecticle. Presence of germ pore, septum and germ tube was common feature in Gigaspora species undertaken for the study. The location of septum was another new character devised for taxonomy in the present study. Thus the present study upholds the species concept in Gigaspora based on morpho-taxonomy.
Acclimatization of Tapeinochilos ananassae plantlets in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Oliveira, Jo?o Ricardo Gon?alves de;Morais, Thiago Alberto de Lima;Melo, Natoniel Franklin de;Yano?Melo, Adriana Mayumi;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2011000900018
Abstract: the objective of this work was to assess the potential of three isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to promote growth of micropropagated plantlets of tapeinochilos ananassae during acclimatization. the experiment was carried out in greenhouse, in a completely randomized block design, with four inoculation treatments: non?inoculated control and plants inoculated with glomus etunicatum, acaulospora longula or gigaspora albida, with ten replicates. after 90 days, the following parameters were evaluated: survival rate, height, leaf and tiller number, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, contents of macro? and micronutrients in the root and shoot, glomerospore number, and mycorrhizal colonization. the survival percentage was 100%, except for plants inoculated with g. albida (80%). the isolate g. etunicatum is more suitable for plant development, since it improves survival, growth, dry matter production, nutritional status, and vigor of t. ananassae micropropagated plants.
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: A Biocontrol Agent against Common Bean Fusarium Root Rot Disease  [PDF]
A.A. Al-Askar,Y.M. Rashad
Plant Pathology Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the protection of common bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against Fusarium root rot disease was investigated in the present study under natural conditions in pot experiment. A mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi consists of propagated units of Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora gigantea and Gigaspora margarita in suspension form (106 unit L-1 in concentration) was used at dilution of 5 ml L-1 water. The obtained results demonstrated that, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization significantly reduced the percentage of disease severity and incidence in infected bean plants. On the other hand, mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased the tested growth parameters and mineral nutrient concentrations. While, infection with Fusarium root rot disease negatively affected on the mycorrhizal colonization level in bean roots. Finally, mycorrhizal colonization led to a significant increase in the phenolic content and the activities of the investigated defense related enzymes (Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme). From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a biocontrol agent played an important role in plant resistance and exhibit greater potential to protect bean plants against the infection with F. solani.
Yield and Nutrients Uptake of Avena sativa as Influenced by Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM)
Irshad Ahmad Khan,Shahbaz Ahmad,Najma Ayub
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Inoculation effect of single and dual vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) with Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora and Glomus etunicatum + Glomus intraradices on the growth and nutrients uptake (NPK) on Avena sativa were carried out. Yield in the response of shoot and root dry weight was significantly increased due to dual inoculation than single inoculations. The dry weight of dual inoculation in shoot was 33.68 and 38.45 g and in root was 16.84 and 19.13 g, respectively while the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake (%) was also more due to dual inoculations.
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 1995,
Abstract: The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the rhizospheres of field-grown soybean crops in the provinces of Lampung and West Java was examined. Nineteen taxa of AM fungi were identified as follows: Acaulospora delicata, A. Foveata, A. rehmii, A. scrobiculata and A. tuberculata; Gigaspora cf. gigantea and Gigaspora sp. 1; Glomus clavisporum; Glomus cf. fasciculatum, Glomus micro-aggregatum, Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3 and Glomus sp. 4; Scutellospora cf. heterogama, Scutellospora cf. pellucida, Scutellospora sp. 1. Scutellospora sp.2. and Scutellospora sp. 3.

LIU Run-Jin,WANG Fa-Yuan,MENG Xiang-Xia,

菌物学报 , 2002,
Abstract: Thirty-five species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in 7 genus, including 5 of Acaulospora, 1 of Archaespora, 1 of Entrophospora, 18 of Glomus, 3 of Gigaspora, 1 of Paraglomus and 6 of Scutellospora, were isolated from rhizosphere of wild plants grown in the islands of the Bohai Bay. Among them, Gigaspora decipiens and Scutellospora gregaria are new records in China. Type specimen is kept in Mycorrhiza Laborary, Laiyang Agricultural College.
Association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in certain medicinal plants of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae  [cached]
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Thirty one host plants belonging to Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae were screened for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal association in their rhizosphere soils. All plants which were either medicinal or ornamental were found harbouring AM fungi. 48 fungal species representing Acaulospora, Archaeospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Glomus, Scutellospora and SClerocystis were encountered. Glomus with 28 species was the predominant genus. All the host plants surveyed form new host record for AM fungi in India.
Mycorrhizal dependence of Cucurbitaceae vegetables to Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

MENG Xiang-Xi,LI Min,LIU Min,LIU Run-Jin,
,李 敏,刘 敏,刘润进

中国生态农业学报 , 2001,
Abstract: Mycorrhizal dependence(MD)of five vegetables in Cucurbitaceae to two Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (G.m) and Gigaspora rosea (Gi.r) was investigated under green house conditions.Results showed that the growth,leaf area,photosynthetic rate and dry mass were significantly enhanced and the stomatal resistance was reduced by the fungi,with the order of MD of the vegetables being cucumber>watermelon>balsam pear>bottle gourd>squash.There was a positive correlation between MD and infecting rate. Its linear regression equation is:y =117.19+0.7468x.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in papaya plantations of Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil
Trindade, Aldo Vilar;Siqueira, José Oswaldo;Stürmer, Sidney Luiz;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822006000300016
Abstract: the aim of this study was to obtain knowledge on arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) associations in papaya (caricapapaya, l.) in field soils and nursery conditions. sixty seven soil and root samples were taken in february and may of 1996, from 47 commercial plantations in the north of espirito santo state and the west and south of bahia state, in brazil. samples were used for direct spore counts, root colonization assessment and for trap culture with sorghumbicolor (l.) moench and crotalariajuncea l. additional sampling was done in commercial nurseries to evaluate mycorrhizal colonization. although papaya cropping systems are usually under high input of fertilizers and pesticides, papaya roots showed considerable arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) colonization, ranging from 6% to 83%. colonization rates were most influenced by available soil p, correlated positively with percentage of sand and soil ph, but correlated negatively with soil clay content. am colonization of nursery seedlings was very low in most samples. field spore numbers varied from 34 to 444/30g of soil. all glomerales families were represented and 24 fungal species identified. glomusetunicatum, paraglomusoccultum, acaulosporascrobiculata and gigaspora sp. were the most common species.
Bacteria Associated with Arbuscula Mycorrhizal Spores Gigaspora margarita and Their Potential for Stimulating Root Mycorrhizal Colonization and Neem (Melia azedarach Linn) Seedling Growth  [cached]
Microbiology Indonesia , 2012, DOI: 10.5454/mi.6.4.6
Abstract: Four isolates (BGi1, BGi2, BGi3, and BGi4) bacteria were isolated from surface sterilized arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores of Gigaspora margarita (Gm). Based on 16S rDNA analyses and phylogenetic tree, it was revealed that isolates BGi1, BGi3 and BGi4 belong to genus Bacillus, whereas BGi2 was very close to Bacillus megaterium EG 24. Enzymatic activity test showed that all four isolates had cellulase and protease activities; while one isolate (Bacillus sp. BGi4) also has pectinase activity in addition to the celulase and protease activities. Dual inoculation of Melia azedarch Linn roots by B. megaterium BGi2 and AMF spores G. margarita enhanced mycorrhizal root colonization by 58.3 %. Combination of Bacillus sp. BGi1 and G. margarita increased height, diameter, shoot biomass, and root biomass of M. azedarch by 353, 4.8, 4546, and 2810%, respectively, in comparison to the uninoculated control plant.
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