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The Darfur Crisis in Sudan: Challenge to International Peacekeeping Missions
Soetan Stephen Olayiwola
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Darfur Crisis in Sudan has continue to pose a great challenge to International Peacekeeping mission and humanitarian intervention in politics of other states since 1983 when the most recent Sudanese civil war broke out, the Organisation of African Unity (now African Union) has made series of attempts to ensure peace and put an end to reckless killings and wanton destruction of properties in the country. She had gone to the extent of stationing a peacekeeping force in the Sudan to maintain peace of recent, the U.N. had offered military assistance to the A.U. peacekeeping mission in the Sudan.The role of International Organisation at maintaining peace in the Sudan with its attendant difficulties form the tenets of discussion in this study.
‘Our Darfur, Their Darfur’: Sudan’s Politics of Deviance and the Rising ‘Ethnic-Cleansing’in an African Emerging Anarchy  [PDF]
Isiaka Alani Badmus
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This article analyses the current civil war in the Republic of theSudan’s [RoS] western region of Darfur within the broad context of the country’s age-old crisis of governance at the national level; conditioned by the inequitable State’s policies of the central state and its dominant Arab elite. Using Frost’s [1996] identified ‘settled’ body of norms in international relations to probe Sudan’s conducts in domestic and international politics, this paper found Khartoum guilty of gross misconducts and violations of international humanitarian law [IHL].These deviant behaviours, rooted in its quest to establish a theocratic state and export its radical ideology overseas, have pitted the RoS with the wider international community. Drawing from Khartoum’s current military engagements in Darfur and previous similar operations, this study contends strongly that for Sudan to come out of its present political hiccup, its rulers must jettison its lopsided policies in preference for the ones that are inclusive of all ethnic formations in the country with sincerity of purpose. In the final analysis, it is argued that this can onlybecomes meaningful within the context of improved socio-economicconditions. This, stricto sensus, calls for the Africa’s development partners and the wider international community’s economic support to Sudan.
Nutritional Evaluation and Palatability of Major Range Forbs from South Darfur, Sudan  [PDF]
Hafiz Abdalla Mohamed Ali, Abu Bakr Omer Ismail, Mohammed Fatur, Faisal Awad Ahmed, El Hadi Omer Ahmed, Magda Elmahdi Elbushra Ahmed
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2016.61006
Abstract: The nutritive value of rangelands in Southern Darfur, Sudan could be improved by introduction and multiplication of nutritious forbs with the objective of increasing livestock production in the area. The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and palatability of eleven range forbs collected at flowering stage from Gahzal Gawazat, Southern Darfur, Sudan using chemical analysis. The crude protein (CP) ranged from 6.8% in Oxygonum atriplicifolium with lowest digestible crude protein (DCP) 2.8% to 16.4% in Zornia diphylla with highest DCP 11.73%. The highest and the lowest crude fiber (CF) values were obtained in Commelina spp (56.4%) and Sesamum alatum (25.9%), respectively. NDF and DMI values were maximum and minimum for Zornia diphylla (44.9 and 2.67%) and Alysicarpus glumaceus (35.3 and 3.4%), respectively. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) ranged from 57.1% in Blepharis linariifolia to 69.3% in Tribulus terrestris with highest digestible energy (DE) in later while the lowest DE was obtained in Commelina spp (2.4%). The calculated in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was highest for the Canavalia ensiformis (50.27%) and lowest value (43.17%) for Commelina spp. Zornia diphylla, Tribulus terrestris and Sesamum alatum showed highest nutritive value, while Alysicarpus glumaceus, Oldenlandia senegalensis and Chrozophora brocchiana showed highest palatability. It is concluded that these rangeland forbs are palatable and their CP and energy contents are sufficient to support different classes of livestock in South Darfur, Sudan.
An Appraisal of the Crisis in Darfur in Western Sudan and the Prospect for a Lasting Peace
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: The Darfur crisis in western Sudan started in February 2003. It has to date claimed the lives of an estimated number of 200,000 people and another 2.5 million have been displaced and are now living in make shift refugee camps in Chad and neighbouring countries. All attempts to broker peace among the major warring factions had proved abortive and there is little or no hope that the displaced people would one day return to their villages. The killings, raping, suffering and starvation had continued despite the presence of the African Union troops which numbered about 7000 and deployed since 2004. A lot of propaganda, misinformation, fabrications and distortions have gone across to the public in trying to explain the causes and attendant consequence of the said conflict. These have clearly stood on the way to a real understanding of the genesis of the crisis for a lasting peace to be obtained and peace building to be accelerated, and end this bloodshed and suffering that had been the bane of the region for the past five years. This paper is an appraisal of the various views and opinions that had been put forward by different interest groups on the causes of the crisis, its impact and the way forward towards the attainment of peace. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 315-333
From AMIS to UNAMID: The African Union, the United Nations and the challenges of sustainable peace in Darfur, Sudan  [cached]
Saka Luqman,Omede A. J
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2319
Abstract: Since, 2003 when hostilities broke out in Darfur region of Western Sudan, the African Union has been leading international community efforts at restoring peace to this trouble region. The organization deployed ceasefire monitoring commission, peacekeeping force and under Nigeria leadership broker peace agreement between the warring parties. From all indications the Darfur Peace Accord [DPA], brokered in Abuja, Nigeria has not resulted into the normalization of the security and political situation in Darfur as was envisaged. The apparent lack of robust capacity by the African Union Mission, AMIS to stabilize the security situation in Darfur reinforces the call for the United Nations to intervention. With a robust mandate, secure resource base and better logistic capabilities, the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur, UNAMID has been proactive in enhancing the protection of its personnel, bases and equipments and greater capacity in the provision of security for safe delivery of humanitarian assistance and protection of civilians. Much as the deployment of UNAMID mission has brought semblance of security, there continue to exist challenges that are undermining security and militating against the achievement of durable peace in Darfur this paper argued. Key words: African Union; Conflict; Darfur; Peacekeeping; Security Résumé Depuis 2003, lorsque les hostilités ont éclaté dans la région du Darfour au Soudan occidental, l’Union africaine a dirigé les efforts de la communauté internationale à rétablir la paix dans cette région trouble. L’organisation a déployé commission de suivi cessez-le-maintien de la paix la force et sous la direction du Nigeria courtier accord de paix entre la guerre parties. de toutes les indications de l’Accord de paix sur le Darfour [DPA], négocié à Abuja, au Nigeria ne s’est pas traduite dans la normalisation de la situation sécuritaire et politique au Darfour comme cela a été envisagé. le manque apparent de forte capacité par la Mission de l’Union africaine, la MUAS à stabiliser la situation sécuritaire au Darfour renforce l’appel à l’Organisation des Nations Unies à l’intervention. Avec un mandat robuste, base de ressources en sécurité et de meilleures capacités logistiques, l’Union africaine- Nations Unies au Darfour, la MINUAD a été proactif dans le renforcement de la protection de son personnel, des bases et des équipements et une plus grande capacité dans la fourniture de sécurité pour une livraison s re de l’aide humanitaire et la protection des civils. Tout comme le déploiement de la mission de la MINUAD a a
An algorithm to assess methodological quality of nutrition and mortality cross-sectional surveys: development and application to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan
Claudine Prudhon, Xavier de Radiguès, Nancy Dale, Francesco Checchi
Population Health Metrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-9-57
Abstract: We developed an algorithm based on internationally agreed upon methods and best practices. Penalties are attributed for a list of errors, and an overall score is built from the summation of penalties accrued by the survey as a whole. To test the algorithm reproducibility, it was independently applied by three raters on 30 randomly selected survey reports. The algorithm was further applied to more than 100 surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan.The Intra Class Correlation coefficient was 0.79 for mortality surveys and 0.78 for nutrition surveys. The overall median quality score and range of about 100 surveys conducted in Darfur were 0.60 (0.12-0.93) and 0.675 (0.23-0.86) for mortality and nutrition surveys, respectively. They varied between the organizations conducting the surveys, with no major trend over time.Our study suggests that it is possible to systematically assess quality of surveys and reveals considerable problems with the quality of nutritional and particularly mortality surveys conducted in the Darfur crisis.The prevalence of acute malnutrition and mortality rates are crucial indicators to benchmark the severity of a crisis, to track trends, and to inform funding and operational decisions [1,2]. Cross-sectional sample surveys are the main method currently used to estimate these indicators [3,4]. An adequate sampling design is indispensable to ensure the representativeness and accuracy of a survey. Moreover, standardized field data collection through suitable interview and measurement instruments and techniques is paramount to guarantee quality.Despite recent improvements in standardization of nutrition and mortality survey methodology and analysis [5-7], errors in the field application of survey methods persist, potentially resulting in biased data and harmful operational decisions. Reviews of surveys carried out in various crisis settings have consistently revealed a lack of rigor in many nutritional [8-12] and most mortality surveys [10,11].Cross-sectiona
Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes)  [PDF]
Mohamed AAMA Mohamed,Faisal Mohamed Ahmed El Hag,Ibrahim Ali Elnour
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093
Abstract: This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open) for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open) and growth stages (flowering and seed setting). Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production) between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP) and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF) and Dry matter yield (DM) had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 332-343
From instigating violence to building peace : the changing role of women in Darfur Region of Western Sudan
A A Mohamed
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2004,
Abstract: The article sets out to examine the changing role of women vis- -vis inter-communal conflicts in Darfur region of western Sudan. The region is currently riddled with violent inter-group conflicts. Women are commonly accused of being one of the causes of such conflicts and the instigators of violence in general. This rather unfounded perception about women confuses their actual role today with regard to peace and war, and denies women their legitimate demand for participation in public life, including peace building and conflict resolution. The article attempts to separate fact from fancy. It points out that it is true that a small number of women in the region still act as instigators of violence. These are the women who live among nomadic communities and are generally known as Hakkamas - which literally means arbiters of man's conduct. The majority of women, however, are found among rural sedentary communities. Many women are also found in the urban centres. Both sedentary and urbanised women are strong advocates of peaceful coexistence among the regional identity groups. The male-dominated social structure impairs their effective participation in conflict prevention, management and resolution. The article is based on information obtained from the women themselves. No attempt is made to put words in their mouths or dictate for them the way they should behave. Findings are considered important for both researchers and decision-makers. It is about time to change the misconception that analysts have about the actual role of women vis- -vis peace and war in the region. It has been argued that changing the Hakkama role would only be possible by changing the entire social milieu in which the Hakkama finds herself. The situation calls for enormous developmental projects that lead to conflict transformation. Nomadic communities need to be settled so that women need not preserve the image of the 'warrior-man'. On the other hand, the demands made by the rural sedentary and urbanised women need to be met and women's associations need to be empowered so that women can become actual peace builders rather than violence instigators. African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol. 4 (1) 2004: pp. 11-26
Darfur and the genocide debate
SB Okolo
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2009,
Abstract: The atrocities committed by the Government of Sudan backed Janjaweed militia in the ongoing conflict in Darfur have been labelled differently by analysts and scholars. While some argue that the crimes fall under the so-called crime of crimes – genocide, others are of the opinion that the crimes do not qualify as genocide. While the international community is playing a ‘labelling’ game with the situation in Darfur, civilians continue to die. What should interest the civilians more is that the international community offers them the protection as articulated under the different international conventions.
The Darfur Situation and The ICC: An Appraisal  [cached]
Omer Y. Elagab
Journal of Politics and Law , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v1n3p43
Abstract: On 31 March 2005, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1593 referring the situation in Darfur, Sudan, to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC). In accordance with the Rome Statute, the Prosecutor commenced his investigation and presented evidence to Pre Trial Chamber I (PTC I), implicating two Sudanese men in the commission of crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. Consequently, the Chamber has issued Warrants for their arrest. This chain of events has given rise to a number of jurisprudential issues which will be discussed here, namely, the legal significance of the referral by the Security Council to the ICC; the various grounds of jurisdiction of the ICC and personal responsibility for atrocities committed; the questions of admissibility complementarity, and double jeopardy.
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