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EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS  [cached]
M. Mulas,G. Bassu,A. Coccollone,G. Masia
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.1s.267
Abstract: Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.
Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems  [cached]
J.K. Kyozaire,C.M. Veary,I-M. Petzer,E.F. Donkin
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i2.400
Abstract: In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %), compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU)/m ) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/m ) or handmilking (48 000 CFU/m ). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.
Microbiological and Nutritional Quality of the Goat Meat by-Product “Sarapatel”  [PDF]
Luciana Brasil,Angela Queiroz,Josevan Silva,Taliana Bezerra,Narciza Arcanjo,Marciane Magnani,Evandro Souza,Marta Madruga
Molecules , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/molecules19011047
Abstract: Goat “sarapatel” is a product made from blood and viscera. For the first time, the microbiological and nutritional quality of “sarapatel” samples ( n = 48) sold under different conditions (in street markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets under refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) was evaluated. Goat “sarapatel” is a nutritive food, with each 100 g providing, on average, 72 g of moisture, 2 g of ash, 18 g of protein, 9 g of lipids, 2 g of carbohydrates, 282 mg of cholesterol, and high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and essential amino acids. The analysis of the “sarapatel” samples shows that none of them contain Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes. High counts (>104) of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and sulfite-reducing Clostridium were detected, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was found in 31.25% of samples. The storage conditions evaluated (refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) did not affect the physicochemical quality of the “sarapatel”; however, the unsatisfactory microbiological quality indicates that it is necessary to improve the health-sanitary aspects of the processing and sale of this product.
Microbiological Quality of Raw Goat Milk in Bogor, Indonesia  [cached]
E. Taufik,G. Hildebrandt,J. N. Kleer,T. I. Wirjantoro
Media Peternakan , 2011,
Abstract: Milk samples were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria, which were TPC, coliforms, coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS), and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to the prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median values of indicator bacterial counts from overall udder-half milk samples were 3.74, 0.70, 1.70, and 2.52 log cfu/ml and from bulk milk samples were 5.69, 2.98, 3.66 and 3.32 log cfu/ml for TPC, coliforms, CPS, and CNS, respectively. None of the median values of overall udder-half milk samples exceeded the maximum limit of the standards for all indicator bacteria. However, in the bulk milk samples only the median value of TPC below the maximum limit of the standards. Overall prevalence of coliforms, CPS and CNS from udder-half milk samples were 46.3%, 37.7%, and 66.0%, respectively, and from bulk milk samples were 86.7%, 76.7%, and 86.7%, respectively. Saanen crossbreed, fifth parity and udders with inflammation were found to be risk factors. This study results indicated that the hygienic practices in the dairy goat farms are still need to be increased. To increase the hygienic level of the milk, the identified significant risk factors must be controlled.
Quality and Storage Stability of Low Acid Goat Meat Pickle
Arun K. Das,R.B. Sharma,N.P. Singh
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to prepare highly acceptable and long shelf-life low acid goat meat pickle and its quality evaluation and storage stability at 32±0.5°C. Low acid goat meat pickle was prepared using deboned meat from spent Barbari goat breed. The product was evaluated after an elapse of seven days as maturation, for changes in physico-chemical (pH, titrable acidity), microbiological (Aerobic mesophilic, halophiles, yeast and mould counts) and organoleptic properties at an interval of 15 days up to 60 days of storage at 32±0.5°C. Results showed that pH and titrable acidity of the low acid pickles was 4.87 and 0.69 whereas in control goat meat pickle, these values were 4.70 and 0.76, respectively after 60 days storage period. Microbiological counts and sensory quality traits did not show appreciable change and remained satisfactory throughout the storage period. Low acid pickles had significantly lower sourness and higher overall acceptability compared to the control. Therefore, the present study suggests that a highly acceptable low acid goat meat pickle can be prepared using spent goat meat and can safely be stored on shelf for 60 days even during summer season.
Sensory evaluation and microbiological characterization of autochthonous Sombor cheese
Mija?evi? Zora,Bulaji? Sne?ana
Acta Veterinaria , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/avb0806531m
Abstract: In this paper the results of organoleptic evaluation, chemical and microbiological analysis of Sombor cheese were presented. Sombor cheese is a type of autochthonous cheese whose traditional processing method is still in use in areas of northern part of Serbia. The sensory profile, chemical and microbiological analysis were performed on 19 samples of traditionally made cheese collected from two households. The sensory evaluation of cheese samples showed its variation in taste and consistency, as well as an unstable cheese flavour. Generally, the traditionally made Sombor cheese in wood modules received a higher score than the cheese produced in the cylindric form. According to the fat content in dry matter Sombor cheese can be classified as a fat cheese and depending of water content in non fat cheese matter, Sombor cheese belongs to the group of soft cheeses. Fat in dry matter and content of total nitrogen showed great variations which indicate the unevenness in technology and unconsistent quality of the raw substrate. Results of microbiological examination showed that lactic acid bacteria were the most abundant flora during manufacturing and early ripening of this cheese. Among them, Lactococci, Lactobacilli and Enterococci represented the main microbial groups of lactic microflora.
Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation
Pietro Rubino,Antonio Lonigro
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2008.119
Abstract: Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.
Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation  [cached]
Pietro Rubino,Antonio Lonigro
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2008.119
Abstract: Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.
MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF WATER BUFFALO COLOSTRUM: FIRST RESULTS
P. Catellani,L. Alberghini,V. Giaccone
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2012.3.77
Abstract: Animal colostrum contains many substances with antibacterial activity such as lysozyme and lactoferrin which should inhibit the microbial growth. The aim of this research is to understand if colostrum can be considered a safe product, considering that Regulation (EC) N° 1662/2006, which has modified the Regulation (EC) N° 853/2004, introducing colostrum as human food. Microbiological tests, made on water buffalo colostrum, aiming to obtain the total microbial count (maximum concentration: 3,6 104 ufc/ml), the quantitative evaluation of total (maximum the highest concentration found: 2,3 103 ufc/ml) and fecal coliforms (maximum concentration: 4,9 102 ufc/ml) and the qualitative search of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that there is not a microbial growth in colostrum, that it can be considered a safe food, from the microbial point of view
External skeletal fixation in dogs: clinical and microbiological evaluation
Carneiro, L.P.;Rezende, C.M.F.;Silva, C.A.;Laranjeira, M.G.;Carvalho, M.A.R.;Farias, L.M.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352001000400008
Abstract: eleven dogs, of both sexes, average weight of 12kg, with ages ranging from two to five years were used with the objective of evaluating two treatments of skin wounds produced after percutaneous bone transfixation of the tibia. in six animals, cotton swabs embedded in 0.2% iodine-alcohol were used to clean the areas of pin perforations. in five dogs, a 0.9% sodium chloride solution, under approximate 30 psi pulse pressure, was used. in both cases, and treatments were carried out every three to four days, during four weeks. clinical specimens were collected under anaerobic conditions, immediately before the treatments, and on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after surgery. samples were cultured in specific media in order to allow isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeast. dogs treated with sodium chloride solution showed little purulent exudation, while dogs treated with iodine-alcohol presented dry skin wounds with minimum blood-serous to serous exudation. the microbiological evaluation revealed predominance of staphylococcus spp, but no differences were observed between the two treatments. the results allowed to conclude that both methods are efficient for post-surgical treatments of bone percutaneous transfixation in dogs.
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