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The In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Tiamulin and Tilmicosin for the Treatment of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infected Broiler Chickens  [PDF]
Wafaa A. Abd El-Ghany
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of some antimicrobials containing tiamulin and tilmicosin (as active principles) against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection both in-vitro and in-vivo. For in-vitro investigation, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of tiamulin and tilmicosin against MG organism was done. However, the in-vivo evaluation of tiamulin and tilmicosin against field MG infection was carried out on a commercial broiler chicken farm taken from MG infected farm and proved to have such infection through bacteriological and serological examination at day old. Once the birds suffered from respiratory signs at 22 days of age, this flock was divided into three separate houses. Chickens in house (1) were kept as MG-infected without treatment; chickens in the house (2) were treated with tiamulin in the drinking water (1 gram/1.5 liter) for 3 successive days and the birds in house (3) were also treated with tilmicosin in the drinking water (0.3 ml/liter) for 3 successive days. Just after appearance of the first clinical signs and mortalities, the clinical signs score was recorded, the birds were weighed and the serum samples were collected for serological examination. The clinical signs and the mortalities in each house were recorded daily during and after the treatment course till the end of the study (42 days of age). The body weight of the birds in each house was determined weekly till 6 weeks of age. Twenty birds from each house were sacrificed weekly for recording the air-sac lesion score and for re-isolation of MG. The air-sac lesion score and the re-isolation of MG were also detected from the dead birds. Serum samples were collected from sacrificed 20 birds just after appearance of clinical signs and from each house at the end of the work (42 days of age) for detecting the presence of antibodies for MG infection using serum plate agglutination test. The results of the in-vitro assessment revealed that the MIC of tiamulin and tilmicosin (μg/ml) was 0.1 and 0.05; respectively. In-vivo evaluation of tiamulin and tilmicosin denoted that there were significant (p<0.05) differences between MG-infected non-treated house and the treated houses, Tiamulin and tilmicosin succeeded in inducing significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean clinical score, mortality rate, mean gross air-sac lesion score, re-isolation rate of MG and absence of MG antibodies in the treated houses than the infected control group. Moreover, significant (p<0.05) improvement in the mean body weights was observed in the treated chickens than the infected ones
Effects of Tiamulin, Neomycin, Tetracycline, Fluorophenicol, Penicillin G, Linco-Spectin, Erythromycin and Oxytetracycline on Controlling Bacterial Contaminations of the River Buffalo (Buballus bubalis) Semen  [PDF]
S.M. Alavi-Shoushtari,M. Ahmadi,S. Shahvarpour,S. Kolahian
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In order to investigate the effects of tiamulin, neomycin, tetracycline, fluorophenicol, penicillin G, Linco-Spectin (0.15 mg mL-1 lincomycin + 0.3 mg mL-1 spectinomycin), erythromycin and oxytetracycline on controlling bacterial contaminations of the river buffalo semen, 120 mL diluted buffalo bull semen (diluted by tris-egg yolk extender) was divided into 5 mL tubes after initial evaluation and before (control sample) and at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after adding each of the above antibiotics at the recommended dose (D) and twice the recommended dose (Dx2) to the semen samples, each sample was cultured 4 times on Muller-Hinton agar medium and the results were recorded after 18 h incubation at 37°C. Tiamulin, tetracycline, neomycin and fluorophenicol were ineffective. Oxytetracycline was effective in both D and Dx2 (p<0.001). Penicillin G in both D and Dx2 was effective (p<0.001). Linco-Spectin was effective, though not significant, in D at 2 h and in Dx2 at 0 h only. Erythromycin in D was not significantly effective, but, in Dx2 was effective (p<0.001). Duration of the antibiotic exposure had no significant effect on the antibiotic potentials except for Linco-Spectin at 2 h (p<0.014). The biochemical tests identified the contaminant bacteria as being a member of Arcanobacter (Corynebacterium) sp. In the next step, the semen sample of the same bull was taken, semen quality tests were carried out and the semen was diluted with the same extender (tris-egg yolk) + 7% glycerol, containing a double dose (Dx2) of these antibiotics and semen quality tests were carried out immediately after dilution, 18 h after storage at 4°C and after the semen was packed in the straws, frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) and later thawed in 37°C water bath to investigate whether these antibiotics have any adverse effect on the spermatozoa during the process of freezing and thawing. The comparison of the results with those of the control group (the sample undergone the same process without adding antibiotics) indicated that oxytetracycline adversely affected sperm motility at 0 and 18 h, all the antibiotics had a lower percentage of sperm abnormal morphology than the control at 0 and 18 h, except for Linco-Spectin at 18 h and after freezing-thawing and tetracycline after freezing and thawing the sample which were the same as the control. Sperm viability was not affected by antibiotics before and after freezing. It was concluded that oxytetracycline and penicillin G in both D and Dx2 were effective in controlling seminal bacterial contaminations and because of the adverse effect of
Aminoglycoside antibiotics and postantibiotic effect  [PDF]
Stefan-Miki? Sandra,Sabo Ana,Gobor-Fodor Ana,Vasovi? Marija
Medicinski Pregled , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0202019s
Abstract: Man has been fighting diseases for centuries. One of the major battles is against microorganisms and diseases they cause. A health education course was organized on prescribing aminoglycoside antibiotics and postantibiotic effect. The aim of the course was to change the prescription habits in our colleagues. The postantibiotic effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics as well as impact of subinhibiting doses on duration of postantibiotic effect requires modification of previous therapeutic protocols. Single daily dose has the same or even greater effect than multiple daily doses. The toxicity of aminoglycosides is not increased and remains the same or smaller in single daily regimens. Results The single daily dose regimen of aminoglycosides has been used in 63.6% of cases in Clinic for Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center of Novi Sad, 41.2% in Outpatient Health Care Center of Novi Sad "Liman" and this regimen has not been used in General Practice Department, Children's Health Care Department and Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic at all. The twice daily regimen has been used instead. Conclusion Doctors are aware of the postantibiotic effect, but vast majority are still bound to their old habits in regard to prescribing antibiotics. Our educational course failed to achieve its goal.
Evalution of the genotoxic effects of tiamulin S-in vivo
Markovi? Biljana 1,Stanimirovi? Zoran ?.,?eli? Ninoslav J.
Acta Veterinaria , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/avb0403239m
Abstract: In this work the genotoxic effect of the antibiotic preparation Tiamulin S was investigated. The experiments were done in vivo using cytogenetic analysis on BALB/c mouse bone marrow cells. The occurrence of chromosomal alterations was monitored in bone marrow and germ cells. The clastogenic effect of Tiamulin S was monitored at three doses (0.01 ml/kg, 0.2 ml/kg and 0.4 ml/kg) through eight experimental cycles. The results obtained showed that Tiamulin S induces kariotype changes including both numerical (aneuploidies and polyploidies) and structural chromosomal aberrations (lesions, breaks and Robertsonian translocations). Thus, Tiamulin S exerts genotoxic potential. In addition, a clear dose-response effect was observed in this investigation.
Effect of Tilmicosin on Serum Cytokine Levels in the Endotoxemia
Kamil Uney,Ayse Er,Gulcan Erbil Avci,Aziz Bulbul,Muammer Elmas,Enver Yazar
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The effect of tilmicosin on serum cytokine concentrations were investigated in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. The mice were divided into 3 groups. Lipopolysaccharide (250 μg, Escherichia coli 0111:B4, intraperitoneally) was injected into the positive control group. The other 2 groups received tilmicosin (20 mg kg-1, subcutaneously) concurrently without or with lipopolysaccharide. After treatment, serum samples were collected at 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. Serum tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and interleukin-10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lipopolysaccharide increased all cytokine levels in the healthy mice. Tilmicosin slightly induced interleukin-1 production in the healthy mice, while it had no effect on tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-10 productions. However, tilmicosin elevated (p<0.05) tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and interleukin-10 levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that tilmicosin stimulates both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines at the dose recommended for infection.
Ghrelin Alleviates Tilmicosin-Induced Myocardial Oxidative Stress in Rats
Nazmi Cetin,Ugur Boyraz,Ebru Cetin
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.2038.2042
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant effect of ghrelin against tilmicosin-induced myocardial damage in rats. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups: control (saline for 5 days), tilmicosin (single dose of 75 mg kg ̄1, s.c.), ghrelin (10 ng/kg/day for 5 days, s.c.) and ghrelin plus tilmicosin group (pretreatment with ghrelin followed by tilmicosin treatment). The heart were excised for evaluating Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity. The results showed that tilmicosin treatment alone significantly (p<0.05) elevated the levels of MDA and lowered the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx when compared with the control group. Pretreatment with ghrelin ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities and inhibited the levels of MDA production in the heart tissue compared to tilmicosin-treated rats. The results of the study provide evidence that the ghrelin pretreatment enhances the antioxidant defense against tilmicosin-induced myocardial oxidative injury in rats and exhibit cardioprotective property.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycoplasma bovis Isolated from Dairy Cows in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Province of China
Ziping Man,Xuenong Luo,Yongxi Dou,Qiaoying Zeng,Xuepeng Cai
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.4559.4562
Abstract: The susceptibilities of 13 recent field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis from the Ningxia province of China to 13 antimicrobial agents were detected using a microbroth dilution method. The rates of resistance to gentamicin, tilmicosin, erythromycin, lincomycin were 8/13, 7/13, 12/13 and 8/13, respectively according to the CLSI resistance breakpoint. Less than 50% of strains were resistance to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and florfenicol with the resistance rates of 4/13 and 3/13, respectively. The lower resistance rates were observed for tiamulin (0/13), spectinomycin (1/13), enrofloxacin (2/13) and ofloxacin (2/13) suggesting the higher susceptibility of tiamulin, spectinomycin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin to the M. bovis.
Effect of Tilmicosin on Fetal Developments in Pregnant Female Albino Rats  [PDF]
Seham Abo-Kora, Amany El-Meleh, Mohamd Aboubakr
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.74019
Abstract: The effect of tilmicosin on fetal development in pregnant female rats was investigated in this study. Forty pregnant female rats were divided into four groups (each of 10 female rats). Rats in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups were received tilmicosin at a dose of 20, 100, 200 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally from the 6th to 15th day of gestation respectively, while the 4th group received 0.5 ml distilled water orally for the same period of gestation and was used as control group. All the pregnant female rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were subjected to morphological, visceral and skeletal examinations. Tilmicosin at a dose 100, 200 mg/kg·b·wt significantly decreased the number of viable fetuses; the number of resorbed fetuses was increased, and induced retardation in growth of viable fetuses; some skeletal and visceral defects in these fetuses were observed and these effects were dose dependant. It could be concluded that tilmicosin caused some abnormalities and fetal defects, so it is recommended to avoid using pregnancy.
Erythromycin in therapy of cyclic vomiting syndrome  [PDF]
Pavlovi? Mom?ilo,Radlovi? Nedeljko,Lekovi? Zoran,Berenji Karolina
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0706339p
Abstract: Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an insufficiently understood disorder which manifests itself in stereotypical episodes of vomiting with no detectable organic cause. Considering its unknown aetiology, drugs borrowed from various medication classes are applied in the therapy of this disorder, with variable success. Among other medicaments, erythromycin is also used in treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. This is a case study in which the application of erythromycin led to the prevention of attacks of cyclic vomiting syndrome. Our case report presents how periodical erythromycin therapy in two-week intervals at expected attack periods in a girl led to disappearance of cyclic vomiting. Adverse effects of erythromycin did not show up.
Erythromycin for prokinesis: imprudent prescribing?
Martino Dall'Antonia, Mark Wilks, Pietro G Coen, Susan Bragman, Michael R Millar
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3956
Abstract: There are increasing problems with antimicrobial resistant bacteria in intensive care. Some examples include Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacilli and Acinetobacter baumanii. There is overwhelming evidence that the use of antibiotics is a driving factor for the emergence of resistance [1]. This problem is particularly severe in intensive care areas where antibiotic use is high. Does the current practice of prescribing of erythromycin for prokinesis constitute prudent use of antimicrobials [2]?The mechanisms by which antibiotic use can increase antibiotic resistance have been reviewed by Lipsitch and Samore [3] and include: selecting in favour of resistant strains; creating colonization opportunities for resistant strains (assuming competition between resistant and susceptible strains); and encouraging an increased colonisation 'load'. In addition, antibiotic use can more rarely select in favour of the emergence of de novo resistance.The predominant MRSA strains in the UK are resistant to erythromycin. We recently conducted an observational carriage study that supported the view that MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains compete for colonisation space in the anterior nares [4]. Thus, exposure to macrolides has the potential to alter the composition of the resident bacterial microbiota in the anterior nares, leading to selection of MRSA. In support of this, treatment with slow release clarithromycin has been shown to eliminate nasal carriage of S. aureus [5]. This would leave patients more susceptible to colonisation and infection with MRSA.Berg and co-workers [5] also showed that treatment with a macrolide increased macrolide resistance in the oropharyngeal flora. This effect was still present at an eight weeks follow up.Erythromycin as a prokinetic agent is used at sub-therapeutic doses, which particularly promotes selection of mutational resistance [1,
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