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Antifungal activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) extract on the growth of Fusarium and Penicillium species isolated from food
Koci?-Tanackov Sun?ica D.,Dimi? Gordana R.,Tanackov Ilija J.,Pejin Du?anka J.
Hemijska Industrija , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/hemind110614073k
Abstract: The effect of the oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L.) on the growth of Fusarium and Penicillium species isolated from cakes and ready-for-use fresh salads from different kinds of vegetables was investigated. Contents of the active component of extract were identified by GC-MS and they include: carvacrol (34.2%), carvone (18.5%), p-cimene (8.05%), thymol (3.74%). The oregano extract showed the ability to reduce mould growth at all applied concentrations. Stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of Penicillium species, contrary to Fusarium, was determined. At extract concentration of 2.5 mL/100 mL, growth of P. aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum and P. brevicompactum was completely inhibited during 14 days of incubation. At the same concentration, growth of Fusarium proliferatum was inhibited by 81.71%, F. oxysporum by 85.84%, F. verticillioides by 86.50%, P. chrysogenum by 86.2% and F. subglutinans by 88.85%.
Functional Analysis of Fusarium oxysporum Nitric Oxide Reductase Expressed in Plant Suspension-Cultured Cells
Babiker M.A. Abdel-Banat,Suaad E.H. Adam,Hiromichi Morikawa
Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The biological function of Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) is not well understood, however, they actively contribute to the effect of green house gases. Development of plants that could efficiently denitrify intermediates of the RNS to the dinitrogen (N2) is a rationale that could help amelioration the effect of these gases. Fusarium oxysporum cytochrome P-450 nor gene (Fnor) was constitutively expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The gene product functions as nitric oxide reductase (nor), which catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O) in the fungal denitrification pathway. Intact transgenic BY-2 cells cultured in 15N-labeled nitrate (15NO3ˉ) actively produced 15N2O gas up to 59 folds higher than the wild-type cells. Activity of the enzyme was also confirmed by an in vitro nor activity assay. Tungstate (a nitrate reductase inhibitor) and cyanide (an inhibitor of the last protein complex of electron transport chain) strongly inhibited 15N2O production. These observations together suggest that Fnor enhanced the reduction of nitrate to N2O in plant cells. This finding indicates that plant cells are capable to tackle the denitrification pathway.
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072006000100004
Abstract: in a screening of basidiomycete cultures isolated from marine invertebrates collected along the chilean coastline for the production of antibiotics we identified a penicillium brevicompactum strain as a producer of metabolites inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi. bioactivity guided purification resulted in the isolation of four known metabolites. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2006,
Abstract: In a screening of Basidiomycete cultures isolated from marine invertebrates collected along the Chilean coastline for the production of antibiotics we identified a Penicillium brevicompactum strain as a producer of metabolites inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi. Bioactivity guided purification resulted in the isolation of four known metabolites. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Diminishing fossil fuel reserve and increasing cost of fossil products have rekindled effort on conversion of lignocelluloses to renewable fuel. Among various lignocelluloses' biomass, Pinus roxburghii is a predominant forest species which is scattered throughout the world. The continous shedding of pine needles and its exceptionally slow biodegradation in nature leads to huge accumulation of needles on earth by posing a serious threat to our environment which affects the fertility of soil. Use of multiple culture patterns in processing of lignocelluloses could reduce problems such as incomplete synergistic enzymes, adsorption, and requirement for high amounts of enzymes in direct use of enzymes. In present study, attempt has been made for the production of cellulase and xylanase using pine needles by a consortium of enzyme producing Fusarium oxysporum F8, Penicillium notatum 101 and Aspergillius niger F7strains isolated from forest soil into simple sugars under SSF. Susceptibility of highly inert pine needles was increased by series of physicochemical pretreatments. Two types of culture patterns were designed i.e. simultaneous culture consortia and sequential culture consortia. Sequential culture pattern led to maximum production of enzyme NaOH+H O treated biomass using modified BSM as moisture i.e. 52.60 U/g of cellulase 2 2and 41.40 U/g xylanase respectively. On the other hand, when consortium culture pattern was adopted, only 33.20, 20.20 U/g of cellulase and xylanase were produced using modified BSM as moistening agent.
Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum
M Riazipour,M Salehi,A Zand,M Bagheripour
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA), a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA) production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157) was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran). The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.
Investigation of the Nutrient Uptake and Cell Growth Kinetics with Monod and Moser Models for Penicillium brevicompactum ATCC 16024 in Batch Bioreactor  [PDF]
Fatemeh Ardestani
Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) , 2011,
Abstract: In the most cases of the practical fermentation processes with filamentous microorganisms, directmonitoring of the cell morphology and biomass distribution in the culture medium is not easily possible. Useof a mathematical model is a suitable way to describe the substrate uptake and cell growth behavior of thesemicroorganisms. Penicillium brevicompactum is one of the morphologically complex filamentous fungi withdifferent structural forms. In this work, nutrient uptake and cell growth kinetics were investigated using Monodand Moser models through batch submerged fermentation in a bench-scale stirred tank bioreactor. Theexperimental data were fitted with both the Monod and the Moser kinetic with a regression value of 0.87. Themaximum specific growth rate and Monad's half-saturation coefficient were determined as 0.04 hG1 and 9 g. LG1,respectively. In Moser case, the maximum specific growth rate and K were obtained as 0.06 hG and 6.8 g. LG , s1 1respectively. Thus, both Monod and Moser kinetic are considered to be partially applicable models to explainkinetics behavior of Penicillium brevicompactum in submerged batch bioreactor culture.
Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains
Nelson Durán, Priscyla D Marcato, Oswaldo L Alves, Gabriel IH De Souza, Elisa Esposito
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-3-8
Abstract: The dissimilatory ferric reductase, which are found in bacteria are an essential part of the iron cycles [1] and are essentially intracellular, but one extracellular one was isolated from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis [2]. Another possible mechanism could be active in this process since it was discovered that some bacteria reduce Fe3+ oxides by producing and secreting small, diffusible redox compounds that can serve as electron shuttle between the microbe and the insoluble iron substrate [3]. The role of excreted compounds in extracellular electron transfer was recently reviewed [4].The presence of hydrogenase in fungus as Fusarium oxysporum was demonstrated with washed cell suspensions that had been grown aerobically and anaerobically in a medium with glucose and salts amended with nitrate [5]. The nitrate reductase was apparently essential for ferric iron reduction [6]. Many fungi that exhibit these characteristic properties, in general, are capable of reducing Au (III) or Ag (I) [7]. Besides these extracellular enzymes, several naphthoquinones [8-10] and anthraquinones [11] with excellent redox properties, were reported in F. oxysporum that could be act as electron shuttle in metal reductions [3].Although it is known that microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and now fungi play an important role in remediation of toxic metals through reduction of the metal ions, this was considered interesting as nanofactories very recently [12]. Using these dissimilatory properties of fungi, the biosynthesis of inorganic nanomaterials using eukaryotic organisms such as fungi may be used to grow nanoparticles of gold [13] and silver [14] intracellularly in Verticillium fungal cells [15]. Recently, it was found that aqueous chloroaurate ions may be reduced extracellularly using the fungus F. oxysporum, to generate extremely stable gold [16] or silver nanoparticles in water [17]. Other process, which was described in the literature, was related to produce silver nanoparticles thr
Maganti Surekha
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Influence of some fungi associated with fodder on growth and penitrem production by Penicillium aurantiogriseum was investigated. Penicillium griseofulvum and Trichoderma viride caused maximum inhibition of penitrem production by p. aurantiogriseum, while Alternaria alternate, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera spicifer and Fusarium oxysporum failed to exert any influence on penitrem production by P. aurantiogriseum.
Antifungal activity of the basil (Ocimmum basilicum L.) extract on Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, and P. brevicompactum
Koci?-Tanackov Sun?ica D.,Dimi? Gordana R.,Pejin Du?anka J.,Mojovi? Ljiljana V.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/apt1243247k
Abstract: This study was aimed at investigating the antifungal potential of basil (Ocimmum basilicum L.) extract against toxin-producing Penicillium spp. (P. aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, and P. brevicompactum) isolated from food. The basil extract composition was determined by the GC-MS method. The major component identified in the extract was estragole (86.72%). The determination of the antifungal activity of basil extract on Penicillium spp. was performed using the agar plate method. Basil extract reduced the growth of Penicillium spp. at all applied concentration levels (0.16, 0.35, 0.70, and 1.50 mL/100mL) with the colony growth inhibition from 3.6 (for P. glabrum) to 100% (for P. chrysogenum). The highest sensitivity showed P. chrysogenum, where the growth was completely inhibited at the basil extract concentration of 1.50 mL/100mL. The growth of other Penicillium spp. was partially inhibited with the colony growth inhibition of 63.4 % (P. brevicompactum), 67.5% (P. aurantiogriseum), and 71.7% (P. glabrum). Higher concentrations (0.70 and 1.50 mL/100mL) reduced the growth of the aerial mycelium of all tested Penicillium species. In addition, at the same extract concentrations, the examination of microscopic preparation showed the deformation of hyphae with the frequent occurrence of fragmentations and thickenings, occurrence of irregular vesicle, frequently without metulae and phialides, enlarged metulae. The results obtained in this investigation point to the possibility of using basil extract for the antifungal food protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017]
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