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The crush syndrome  [cached]
Lale Sever
Turk Pediatri Ar?ivi , 2009,
Abstract: Crush syndrome is a systemic disorder resulting from trauma-associated rhabdomyolysis that causes several medical and surgical complications. Pathogenesis of crush syndrome-related acute renal failure (ARF) can be studied under two headings: 1) Rhabdomyolysis, and 2) ARF on the basis of rhabdomyolysis. Compression of the muscles (baromyopathy) induces rhabdomyolysis.The term rhabdomyolysis points out to the disintegration of striated muscles, which results in the release of muscular cell contents into the circulation. On the other hand sodium, chloride, water and calcium diffuse into the muscle cell, and cellular swelling, “compartment syndrome”, occurs. Various factors contribute to the development of ARF on the basis of rhabdomyolysis. Among these the most important one is impairment of renal perfusion as a result of hypovolemia due to compartment syndrome. The crush syndrome and ARF do not necessarily develop in all cases who suffer from muscle trauma. This syndrome is observed relatively rarely in children. The most useful indicator of rhabdomyolysis is an increase in serum creatine phosphokinase level. On the other hand the most critical laboratory abnormality is hyperkalemia. Considering the medical interventions, prophylaxis of ARF is vital. Fluid replacement is the most important measure for this goal and intermittent hemodialysis is the most effective modality for the treatment of the crush patients with ARF. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 43-7)
Watery and dark axons in Wallerian degeneration of the opossum's optic nerve: different patterns of cytoskeletal breakdown?
NARCISO, MARCELO S.;HOKO?, JAN NORA;MARTINEZ, ANA M. B.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652001000200008
Abstract: in this paper we report a qualitative morphological analysis of wallerian degeneration in a marsupial. right optic nerves of opossums didelphis marsupialis were crushed with a fine forceps and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours the animals were anaesthetized and perfused with fixative. the optic nerves were immersed in fixative and processed for routine transmission electron microscopy. among the early alterations typical of axonal degeneration, we observed nerve fibers with focal degeneration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, watery degeneration and dark degeneration, the latter being prevalent at 168 hours after crush. our results point to a gradual disintegration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, opposed to the previous view of an "all-or-nothing'' process (griffin et al 1995). we also report that, due to an unknown mechanism, fibers show either a dark or watery pattern of axonal degeneration, as observed in axon profiles. we also observed fibers undergoing early myelin breakdown in the absence of axonal alterations.
Watery and dark axons in Wallerian degeneration of the opossum's optic nerve: different patterns of cytoskeletal breakdown?  [cached]
NARCISO MARCELO S.,HOKO? JAN NORA,MARTINEZ ANA M. B.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2001,
Abstract: In this paper we report a qualitative morphological analysis of Wallerian degeneration in a marsupial. Right optic nerves of opossums Didelphis marsupialis were crushed with a fine forceps and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours the animals were anaesthetized and perfused with fixative. The optic nerves were immersed in fixative and processed for routine transmission electron microscopy. Among the early alterations typical of axonal degeneration, we observed nerve fibers with focal degeneration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, watery degeneration and dark degeneration, the latter being prevalent at 168 hours after crush. Our results point to a gradual disintegration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, opposed to the previous view of an "all-or-nothing'' process (Griffin et al 1995). We also report that, due to an unknown mechanism, fibers show either a dark or watery pattern of axonal degeneration, as observed in axon profiles. We also observed fibers undergoing early myelin breakdown in the absence of axonal alterations.
Distally Based Sural artery Flap without Sural Nerve
Sadrollah Motamed,Masood Yavari,Hamid Reza Hallaj Mofrad,Reza Rafiee
Acta Medica Iranica , 2010,
Abstract: The distal third of the tibia, ankle and heel area is difficult to reconstruct. For small to medium size defects, local flaps are often an easier alternative than free flap. In lower limb surgery, the sural flap is based on this principle and this flap is becoming increasingly popular. The distally based superficial sural artery flap, first described as a distally based neuro skin flap by masquelet et al., is a skin island flap supplied by the vascular axis of the sural nerve. The main disadvantage of distally based sural artery flap is sacrifice of the sural nerve because it is described the concept of neurocutaneus island flap. We describe one case of reverse sural flap without sural nerve .The aim of this paper is to establish the reliability of this flap even without sural nerve.
Effect of trapidil on the sciatic nerve with crush injury: a light microscopic study
Kurtoglu Z,Ozturk AH,Bagdatoglu C,Turac A
Neuroanatomy , 2004,
Abstract: Trapidil’s therapeutic effect is shown in nervous tissue in ischemia and reperfusion injury, butany study on trapidil’s effects on regeneration in the peripheric nervous system after crushinjury is not encountered in the literature.In this study, 40 female albino wistar rats were used. The sciatic nerves were crushed for20 seconds by a jeweler’s forceps. A single dose of 8 mg/kg of trapidil was administered tothe treatment group intraperitoneally. After the crush injury, the crush site was excised on2nd, 7th, 15th, 30th, and 45th days, fixed in formalin and then prepared for routine histologicalevaluation. Each section was stained with toluidin blue. Myelin thicknesses were measuredby an ocular micrometer.Measurements were evaluated by factorial analysis of variance. Separation of myelin lamellaeand vacuole formation, which are signs of axonal degeneration were seen on the 7th and 15thdays of both groups, but were more prominent in the crush group. Regenerating myelinatedfibers were increased on the 30th and 45th days in increasing density. Interaction for myelinthickness was statistically significant with Student-Neyman-Keuls Post Hoc test (p = 0.038).In the trapidil group, myelin thickness was less on the 15th and 45th days according to thecontrol group (p < 0.05).These findings were interpreted as trapidil was effective in preventing edema and myelindamage by preventing vasospasm, inactivating macrophages, inhibiting the inflammatoryresponse and stabilizing the cell membrane. On the other hand, it is thought that trapidil hada retarding effect on myelin regeneration in the recovery period.
Candy Crush is NP-hard  [PDF]
Toby Walsh
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We prove that playing Candy Crush to achieve a given score in a fixed number of swaps is NP-hard.
Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush  [PDF]
Peter Harding, Steve Gwynne, Martyn Amos
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028747
Abstract: Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally “cheap” but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush.
An early warning method for crush  [PDF]
Peter J. Harding,Steve M. V. Gwynne,Martyn Amos
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organisers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that the prediction and mitigation of such conditions offers a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally "cheap" but subjective and time-consuming. In this paper we propose an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of crush.
Bilateral variations in the formation of sural nerve  [PDF]
Kosif R,Arifoglu Y,Diramali M
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2010,
Abstract: During routine cadaver dissection two different sural nerve formations were observed in the 64-year-old male cadaver. Clinically, sural nerve is largely used in biopsy and as a graft in nerve transplantations. Therefore, knowing about the course, formation pattern and variations of sural nerve are important for the abovementioned procedures, as well as explaining the different clinical findings.
SURAL NERVE CONDUCTION
Arif Mohy-ud-Din
The Professional Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: The nerve conduction studies are mst commonly used as tool of investigating and quantifying neuropathyof peripheral nerves. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) include motor and sensory conduction velocities,duration, amplitude, latency and motor action potentials. The nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is the mostreproducible and subject to standardisation. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Present study was designed to findout sural nerve conduction velocity in normal individuals. STUDY DESIGN AND SET UP: The study wascarried out at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from June 1993 to May 1995. Eightyone normal individuals were selected who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS : Ageranged from 17 to 75 years with a mean age of 39.63 + 13.69 years. Sex distribution was 62% males and38% females. The body mass index was 23.21 ±4.52 (KGM ). Mean sural nerve conduction velocity 2(SNCV) in normal individuals in European population is 46.3± 3.7 m/sec (Aminoff 1987). Sural nerveconduction velocities in our study were 51.13±3.63 m/sec. CONCLUSION: In general , our population hashigher sural nerve conduction velocity as compared to the Western World. The sex of the individual doesnot influence the sural nerve conduction velocity whereas age does affect these velocities. MESH: SuralNerve conduction velocity, Action Potential
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