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Strenuous walking exercise and spontaneous fracture of the femoral neck in the elderly.  [cached]
Moon MS,Kim SS,Moon JL,Moon YW
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery , 2000,
Abstract: Spontaneous fractures of the hip which developed after strenuous walking exercise in 8 elderly people are reported. All patients had Singh hip index 4 or below at the time of initial examination and walked from 8,000 to 10,000 steps per day. This presentation aims to arouse the attention of physicians, recreational sports coaches, and elderly people to the deleterious effects of strenuous walking exercise on bone, and it looks for an optimal level of walking exercise according to the elderly patient"s bone quality. Walking exercise should be stopped immediately if pain in the hip develops and continues without relief for several days or more. The optimal walking frequency per day should be prescribed on the basis of the Singh index or T-score of BMD. If the BMD is 1/3 to 1/2 of normal, walking frequency should be adjusted to 1/3 to 1/2 of those of the normal adult with good bone quality.
Strenuous Exercise—An Unusual Cause of Deranged Liver Enzymes  [PDF]
Nicholas-Paul Delicata, Julian Delicata, Lara-Anne Delicata
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.73016
Abstract: Liver enzymes and function tests are routinely taken in clinical practice. Deranged liver enzymes however, do not always necessarily imply an underlying liver pathology. The standard liver enzymes measured include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alanine phosphatase (ALP). These enzymes, especially ALT and AST, can be released by other organs in the body. We report an unusual case of a 48-year-old patient with deranged enzymes related exclusively to intensive exercise that resolved on discontinuing such exercise.
EFFECTS OF ACUTE MODERATE AND STRENUOUS EXERCISE BOUTS ON IL-17 PRODUCTION AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN TRAINED RATS  [cached]
Halil Duzova,Yunus Karakoc,Memet Hanifi Emre,Zumrut Yilmaz Dogan
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of a single bout of acute moderate and strenuous running exercise on the production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and inflammatory response of skeletal muscles in regularly trained rats. Eight week old rats were trained by treadmill running 5 days per week for 13 weeks at the durations of 30 min (moderate) and 60 min (strenuous). Two days after the last training session, the animals were subjected to a single bout of moderate or strenuous exercise and serum samples were analyzed for IL-17, IL-6, IL-1ra levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of gastrocnemius muscle were determined. IL-17 level significantly increased in strenuous exercise group when compared to that of sedentary controls (p < 0.01), On the other hand, only in the moderate exercise group, there was a negative correlation between IL-6 and IL-17 levels (r = - 0.857 and p = 0.014). In conclusion, acute single bout of strenuous exercise increased IL-17 production in trained rats and, this cytokine may be involved in inflammatory process of skeletal muscles
Comparison of the Levels of Five Heavy Metals in Human Urine and Sweat after Strenuous Exercise by ICP-MS  [PDF]
Shengxiang Tang, Xinzhe Yu, Cinan Wu
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42022
Abstract:

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure the levels of trace heavy metals in human urine and sweat, to compare the performance of ICP-MS using three sample processing methods, namely direct dilution, wet digestion, and microwave digestion. The results showed that the wet digestion ICP-MS method has the highest accuracy (relative standard deviation ≤10%) and is more useful for measuring the levels of trace heavy metals in urine and sweat. Hence, we used this method to compare the levels of the five trace heavy metals, namely chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead, in the urine and sweat of adults after strenuous exercise. The results showed that the levels of these five trace heavy metals in sweat were significantly higher than those in urine after strenuous exercise (The differences between the measurements in urine and those in sweat were significant P ≤ 0.01). The results suggested that exercise-induced sweating can effectively remove the harmful heavy metals from the human body.

Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance exercise
AJ McKune, LL Smith, SJ Semple, AA Wadee
South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ECP and IgE were measured, 24 hours prior to projected finishing time, immediately post exercise (IPE), and 3 h, 24 h, and 72 h after an ultramarathon (90 km). Self-reported URTS were also recorded for 14 days after the race. ECP was measured using radioimmunoassay and IgE using the Alastat Microplate Total IgE kit. The after-exercise values were corrected for plasma volume changes, which were calculated from haematocrit and haemoglobin values. Serum concentrations of ECP and IgE were analysed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparing values with before-exercise levels. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results. ECP was significantly elevated at 72 hours (+52%), whilst IgE was not significantly altered after the ultramarathon. There were no reported URTS for the 14 days after the race. Conclusion. The eosinophil is a pro-inflammatory leukocyte involved in bronchial hyperreactivity and allergic inflammation of the airways. IgE is associated with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. Serum ECP is a sensitive marker of eosinophil activation. The result provides evidence for the non-allergic activation of blood eosinophils during prolonged endurance exercise. Whether this indicates exercise or environmentally induced airway inflammation, or a role for ECP in muscle /tissue repair, are hypotheses that require additional research. SA Sports Medicine Vol.16(2) 2004: 12-16
Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in sportsmen two hours after strenuous exercise and in sedentary control subjects
BO George, OI Osharechiren
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Regular exercise has well documented health benefits. However, exercise can also induce imbalance between oxidant stress and antioxidant status. This study was designed to investigate the serum lipid profile and non-enzymatic antioxidants markers (serum uric acid and albumin) as well as lipid hydroperoxide (a marker of oxidative stress) in 39 sportsmen after 2 h of strenuous training exercise and also in 24 sedentary age-matched males who served as controls subjects. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol were higher in the sportsmen but the difference was only significant in total and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). Triacylgylcerol was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the sportsmen. In addition, serum uric acid level was higher in the sportsmen (p<0.05), but the albumin values were not significantly different. The lipid hydroperoxide was significantly higher in the sportsmen (p<0.05) suggesting higher oxidative stress. It is possible that the higher uric acid, HDL-cholesterol and comparable albumin levels could ameliorate oxidative stress in the sportsmen. Since exercise remains a key aspect of a healthy life, a better knowledge on how to balance oxidative stress and antioxidant status during exercise would help to promote good health.
Effects of mRNA, Protein Expression and Activity for Myocardial SOD2 by a Single Bout of or Long-Term Strenuous Endurance Exercise in Rats  [PDF]
Simao Xu, Weichun Liu, Minhua Li
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2014.54030
Abstract: Objective: To explore the effects of myocardial SOD2 by strenuous endurance exercise. Methods: 27 grown male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (C), a single bout of strenuous endurance exercise group (E1) and seventh-week strenuous endurance exercise group (E2). Real-time PCR was used to observe the changes of mRNA expression for myocardial SOD2. Western bolt was used to observe the changes of SOD2 protein expression. In addition, SOD2, T-SOD and SOD1 activity changes were observed. Results: Myocardial SOD2 expression level at mRNA and protein of Group E1, E2 was significantly higher than that in group C, and SOD2 and T-SOD activity in group E2 were significantly higher than those in group C. Those changes were more obvious in group E2. Conclusions: Strenuous endurance exercise can improve level of myocardial SOD2 expression at mRNA and protein, and enhance the activity for SOD2, thus increasing the activity for T-SOD. Effect of long-term strenuous endurance exercise was better than a single bout of one.
All Eggs Are Not Equal: The Maternal Environment Affects Progeny Reproduction and Developmental Fate in Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Simon C. Harvey, Helen E. Orbidans
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025840
Abstract: Background Maternal effects on progeny traits are common and these can profoundly alter progeny life history. Maternal effects can be adaptive, representing attempts to appropriately match offspring phenotype to the expected environment and are often mediated via trade-offs between progeny number and quality. Here we have investigated the effect of maternal food availability on progeny life history in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Methodology/Principal Findings The maternal environment affects both reproductive traits and progeny development. Comparisons of the progeny of worms from high and low maternal food environments indicates that low maternal food availability reduces progeny reproduction in good environments, increases progeny reproduction in poor environments and decreases the likelihood that progeny will develop as dauer larvae. These analyses also indicate that the effects on progeny are not a simple consequence of changes in maternal body size, but are associated with an increase in the size of eggs produced by worms at low maternal food availabilities. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the maternal environment affects both progeny reproduction and development in C. elegans and therefore that all progeny are not equal. The observed effects are consistent with changes to egg provisioning, which are beneficial in harsh environments, and of changes to progeny development, which are beneficial in harsh environments and detrimental in benign environments. These changes in progeny life history suggest that mothers in poor quality environments may be producing larger eggs that are better suited to poor conditions.
Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review
Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco;Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da;Brunetta, Denise Menezes;Pontes, Lícia Borges;Bezerra, Glaydcianne Pinheiro;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802005000100008
Abstract: context: rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. objective: to report on a case of acute renal failure (arf) induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of arf. case report: a 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. he was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 iu/l). the initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. the specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.
Cambios en la función vascular de hombres saludables, después de ejercicio físico prolongado y vigoroso: (Función vascular y ejercicio vigoroso) Changes in vascular function in healthy men after prolonged strenuous exercise: (Vascular function and strenuous exercise)
Róbinson Ramírez-Vélez,Jorge H Ramírez,Cecilia Aguilar
Revista Colombiana de Cardiología , 2010,
Abstract: Se investigó el efecto del ejercicio prolongado y vigoroso sobre la función endotelial en nueve corredores no-élite, determinando la función dependiente del endotelio de la arteria femoral (FDE-AF). Se observó que el ejercicio prolongado y vigoroso se asocia con menor FDE-AF, con tendencia no significativa a la recuperación a partir de las 24 horas hasta siete días después de la carrera. Se requieren estudios que involucren más participantes para determinar el impacto del ejercicio prolongado y vigoroso sobre la función endotelial. The effect of prolonged and strenuous exercise on endothelial function in 9 non-elite runners was researched determining the endothelium-dependent function of the femoral artery (EDF-FA). We realized that prolonged and vigorous exercise is associated with lower EDF-FA, with non significant trend toward recovery from 24 hours to 7 days after the race. Studies with more participants are required to determine the impact of prolonged and vigorous exercise on endothelial function.
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