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Zynamite? (Mangifera indica Leaf Extract) and Caffeine Act in a Synergistic Manner on Electrophysiological Parameters of Rat Central Nervous System  [PDF]
Wilfried Dimpfel, Julia Wiebe, Nigel Gericke, Leonie Schombert
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.95039
Abstract: Zynamite®, a special extract from Mangifera indica, exerted stimulatory properties on the central nervous system during a pilot study. The question arose if Zynamite®?would have a similar action on the central nervous system as caffeine. Two well established animal models were used: a) quantitation of spectral power of field potentials in the freely moving rat and b) induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus slice preparation ex vivo after one week of daily administration. In the presence of 25 mg/kg of Zynamite®, predominantly alpha2 and beta1 spectral frequencies were attenuated in all brain areas during the first hour after administration. Exactly this pattern of frequency changes had been observed in earlier studies with i.p. administration of caffeine. Discriminant analysis confirmed this similarity by projection of Zynamite®?and 0.5 mg/kg caffeine into close neighborhood and showing identical colours, which points to a similar mechanism of action in this analysis. In addition, when Zynamite®?was combined with very low doses of caffeine synergistic effects were observed. Since alpha2 waves are under the control of dopamine, activation of this neurotransmitter system might be responsible for the stimulating property of Zynamite®. These results are corroborated by the results from the ex vivo study using the hippocampus slice in vitro to follow changes in excitability in the presence of 0.5 mg/kg of caffeine, 25 mg/kg of Zynamite®?or their combination in comparison to Placebo after daily administration for one week. Both caffeine and Zynamite®?increased LTP. LTP relates to space and time dependent memory. From these studies it is evident that both caffeine and Zynamite®?act in similar ways on brain electrical activity, and have potential to improve cognitive function. Bioactive compounds of Zynamite®?clearly pass the blood brain barrier to act on the central nervous system. Due to the demonstrated similarity of action, Zynamite
Effects of caffeine on visual evoked potencial (P300) and neuromotor performance
Deslandes, Andréa Camaz;Veiga, Heloisa;Cagy, Maurício;Piedade, Roberto;Pompeu, Fernando;Ribeiro, Pedro;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2004000300002
Abstract: the stimulant effects of caffeine on cognitive performance have been widely investigated. the visual evoked potential, specially the p300 component, has been used in studies that explain the stimulant mechanisms of caffeine through neurophysiological methods. in this context, the present study aimed to investigate electrophysiological changes (p300 latency) and modification of cognitive and motor performance produced by caffeine. fifteen healthy volunteers, 9 women and 6 men (26 ± 5 years, 67 ± 12.5kg) were submitted three times to the following procedure: electroencefalographic recording, word color stroop test, and visual discrimination task. subjects took a gelatin caffeine capsule (400 mg) or a placebo (p1 and p2), in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. a one-factor anova and tukey? post hoc test were used to compare dependent variables on the c, p1 and p2 moments. the statistical analyses indicated a non-significant decrease in reaction time, stroop execution time and latency at cz on the caffeine moment when compared to the others. moreover, a non-significant increase in stroop raw score and latency at pz could be observed. the only significant result was found at fz. these findings suggest that the positive tendency of caffeine to improve cognitive performance is probably associated with changes in the frontal cortex, a widely recognized attention area.
The Influence of Exercise and Caffeine on Cognitive Function in College Students  [PDF]
Rachel J. Shulder, Eric E. Hall, Paul C. Miller
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.82018
Abstract: Exercise has widely been shown to improve cognition, potentially by making individuals more receptive to sensory stimulation or inhibiting irrelevant information. Caffeine, one of the world’s most widely used stimulants, seems to have similar effects. It seems that both exercise and caffeine improve cognitive function separately, but little research has been done examining their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of caffeine and exercise, independently and combined, on cognitive function. 20 healthy college students completed the study. These participants were low caffeine consumers. Each participant came to the lab 5 times. During the first session, they completed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine ventilatory threshold (VT). The following four sessions were test sessions involving supplementation and exercise. During these, each participant engaged in 30 minutes of cycling (at 90% VT) or 30 minutes of quiet reading after consuming either caffeine (at 4 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo. The Contingent Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task were used to measure cognitive function and were completed 5 minutes and 20 minutes after exercise or quiet reading. There were no significant differences found for any variables tested, for condition effect, time effect or condition*time interaction, except for a significant time effect on false alarms on the Contingent CPT (p = 0.017). This study may have been limited by multiple variables including the population, executive function measures, caffeine dosage, or exercise prescription. These findings point to the need for future research to understand the changes in cognition from exercise and caffeine in combination. Future research may include looking at exercise at different intensities, different dosages of caffeine, or looking at the long-term cognitive effects.
Embryonic Amygdalar Transplants in Adult Rats with Motor Cortex Lesions: A Molecular and Electrophysiological Analysis  [PDF]
Mauricio O. Nava-Mesa,Juan D. Navarro-López
Frontiers in Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2011.00059
Abstract: Transplants of embryonic nervous tissue ameliorate motor deficits induced by motor cortex lesions in adult animals. Restoration of lost brain functions has been recently shown in grafts of homotopic cortical origin, to be associated with a functional integration of the transplant after development of reciprocal host–graft connections. Nevertheless little is known about physiological properties or gene expression profiles of cortical implants with functional restorative capacity but no cortical origin. In this study, we show molecular and electrophysiological evidence supporting the functional development and integration of heterotopic transplants of embryonic amygdalar tissue placed into pre-lesioned motor cortex of adult rats. Grafts were analyzed 3 months post-transplantation. Using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that key glutamatergic, GABAergic, and muscarinic receptors transcripts were expressed at different quantitative levels both in grafted and host tissues, but were all continuously present in the graft. Parallel sharp electrode recordings of grafted neurons in brain slices showed a regular firing pattern of transplanted neurons similar to host amygdalar pyramidal neurons. Synaptic connections from the adjacent host cortex on grafted neurons were electrophysiologically investigated and confirmed our molecular results. Taken together, our findings indicate that grafted neurons from a non-cortical, non-motor-related, but ontogenetical similar source, not only received functionally effective contacts from the adjacent motor cortex, but also developed electrophysiological and gene expression patterns comparable to host pyramidal neurons; suggesting an interesting tool for the field of neural repair and donor tissue in adults.
A Comparison of Blue Light and Caffeine Effects on Cognitive Function and Alertness in Humans  [PDF]
C. Martyn Beaven, Johan Ekstr?m
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076707
Abstract: The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention.
Histamine H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists on cognitive and motor processes: relevance to Alzheimer's disease, ADHD, schizophrenia, and drug abuse  [PDF]
Divya Vohora,Malay Bhowmik
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2012.00072
Abstract: Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists/inverse agonists possess potential to treat diverse disease states of the central nervous system (CNS). Cognitive dysfunction and motor impairments are the hallmark of multifarious neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric disorders. This review presents the various neurobiological/neurochemical evidences available so far following H3R antagonists in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and drug abuse each of which is accompanied by deficits of some aspects of cognitive and/or motor functions. Whether the H3R inverse agonism modulates the neurochemical basis underlying the disease condition or affects only the cognitive/motor component of the disease process is discussed with the aim to provide a rationale for their use in diverse disease states that are interlinked and are accompanied by some common motor, cognitive and attentional deficits.
Effects of Aquatic Motor Activities on Early Childhood Cognitive and Motor Development  [PDF]
Michal Nissim, Ronit Ram-Tsur, Michal Zion, Zemira Mevarech, Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.212005
Abstract: While the mental and physical benefits of motor activity are well documented, the degree to which these benefits are dependent upon the environment within which the activity takes place remains unknown. Specifically, studies exploring the effects of aquatic motor activities on cognitive abilities are rare. The current study investigated the effects of aquatic motor activities—as compared to on-land motor activities and non-motor activities—on the development of motor and cognitive abilities in a sample of 94 children aged between four and six. Developmental-functionality tests—including fine and gross motor, time estimation, reasoning and processing speed tests—were used to measure the motor and cognitive abilities of participants before and after six months of intervention. Participation in the aquatic motor activities group was found to improve gross motor, time-estimation and reasoning abilities. Moreover, improvements in gross motor abilities mediated the association between participation in aquatic motor activities group and the children’s processing speed ability. These findings can improve the understanding of child development professionals, psychologists and educators regarding the connection between aquatic environment and cognitive and motor development, and may contribute to improved early childhood interventions.
Correlation between Cognitive Functions and Motor Coordination in Children with Different Cognitive Levels  [PDF]
Pietro Luigi Invernizzi, Matteo Crotti, Andrea Bosio, Raffaele Scurati, Nicola Lovecchio
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2018.81011
Abstract: Cognitive development is related with central nervous system maturation and plays a crucial role for the definition of executive functions such as movement imagination, movement planning and problem-solving. In particular,executive functions are required during complex interactions between players/environment and are also fundamental for motor skills coordination. Although the complex interaction between cognitive and physical outcomes was recognized by several authors, few studies examined the magnitude of the relation between executive functions and motor development according to different stages of cognitive maturation. Thus the aim was the assessment of the relationships between motor skills coordination and executive functions in children with different cognitive level. Ninety healthy male participants were involved in the study where children affected by Down syndrome were, also, recruited. The participants were divided into three groups according to classification of Piaget: concrete, formal
Individual Differences in Motor Timing and Its Relation to Cognitive and Fine Motor Skills  [PDF]
H?vard Lor?s, Ann-Katrin Stensdotter, Fredrik ?hberg, Hermundur Sigmundsson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069353
Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100) performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3) to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.
Nervous system involvement in asymptomatic HIV seropositive individuals: A cognitive and electrophysiological study  [cached]
Sinha S,Satishchandra P
Neurology India , 2003,
Abstract:
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