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Multicomponent diffusion during Prato cheese ripening: mathematical modeling using the finite element method
Bona, Evandro;Silva, Rui Sergio dos Santos Ferreira da;Borsato, Dionísio;Silva, Luiz Henry Monken e;Fidelis, Dayanne Aline de Souza;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000400018
Abstract: the partial replacement of nacl by kcl is a promising alternative to produce a cheese with lower sodium content since kcl does not change the final quality of the cheese product. in order to assure proper salt proportions, mathematical models are employed to control the product process and simulate the multicomponent diffusion during the reduced salt cheese ripening period. the generalized fick's second law is widely accepted as the primary mass transfer model within solid foods. the finite element method (fem) was used to solve the system of differential equations formed. therefore, a nacl and kcl multicomponent diffusion was simulated using a 20% (w/w) static brine with 70% nacl and 30% kcl during prato cheese (a brazilian semi-hard cheese) salting and ripening. the theoretical results were compared with experimental data, and indicated that the deviation was 4.43% for nacl and 4.72% for kcl validating the proposed model for the production of good quality, reduced-sodium cheeses.
Difus?o multicomponente durante a salga mista de queijo prato
Bona, Evandro;Borsato, Dionísio;Silva, Rui Sérgio S. F. da;Silva, Luiz Henry M. e;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612005000200036
Abstract: the relation between nacl and arterial hypertension has stimulated a partial substitution for kcl on cheese. however, it is very important to guarantee an adequate proportion of nacl/kcl, and also the homogeneous distribution of these salts, to maintain the final quality of the product. therefore, the models that calculate the salty concentration are useful tools to control the quality. in this study an analytic resolution of fick's 2nd law, generalized for two salts, was used to simulate the salting in stationary brine. the analytic resolution, carried out through a computer program, allowed an adjustment of the diffusion coefficients and to evaluate the external resistance. the results calculated show a close comparison of the experimental values (an deviation of 2.7% to nacl and 6.6% to kcl), validating the proposed model. the simulation can be used to adjust productivity (reducing the salting time) through the salting-time calculation for a required saltiness.
Fontes de contamina??o por Staphylococcus aureus na linha de processamento de queijo prato
Assump??o, E.G.;Piccoli-Valle, R.H.;Hirsch, D.;Abreu, L.R.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352003000300019
Abstract: in order to identify the main sources of contamination with staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus coagulase positive (sc+), a manufacture process of prato cheese in a plant located in lavras, state of minas gerais, was evaluated five times from october/2000 to april/2001. raw and pasteurized milk, hand and forearms of cheese makers, brine, hoops flushing water and cheeses were analyzed for sc+ and s. aureus. high counts of sc+ and s. aureus (4x103 to 4.8x106 cfu/ml and 4x103 to 3.3x105 cfu/ml, respectively) were found in raw milk in four evaluations, but they decreased to values lower than 1 cfu/ml after pasteurization. in three evaluations, counts of sc+ in prato cheese samples were above legal limits (104, 105 and 2.3x105 cfu/g). the hoops flushing water and brine were not important contamination sources, both with counts lower than 1cfu/ml. the cheese makers probably were the main source of contamination, since high counts in cheese were correlated to high counts in their hands (4x102 cfu/cm2) or forearms (4.7x102 and 3.3x103 cfu/cm2).
The Effects of Different Salting Methods on Extract Loss from Rainbow Trout  [PDF]
Mustafa ünlüsayin*, Ruhan Erdilal, Bahar Gümü? and Hayri Gülyavuz
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: In this study, the effects of three different salting methods on extract loss of rainbow trout was investigated. A total of 120 rainbow trouts were divided into 4 equal groups. Fish of group A served as untreated control. In groups B and C, brine with 8 and 20% (w/w) sodium chloride was used for a period of 6 h and 45 min, respectively. In the third method (group D), dry salting was run by inserting a salt layer with fish layer for a period of 12 h. The contents of moisture and total proteins between the control and treated groups were significantly different (P<0.05). Molecular weights of protein bands detected in salted trouts were 125, 110, 104, 88, 66, 63, 52, 41, 34, 32 kDa. The protein bands of 125, 110, 104 and 63 kDa density were not seen in samples taken from control rainbow trout. According to total proteins analysis results, salting fish with brine having 20% NaCl was suited as salting method, as the amount of total protein contents of extract loss in this method was found low. In contrary, the total protein content in extract was higher for dry salting method.
Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle
Telis, Vania Regina Nicoletti;Romanelli, Pedro Fernando;Gabas, Ana Lúcia;Telis-Romero, Javier;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2003000400012
Abstract: the legal pantanal caiman (caiman crocodilus yacare) farming, in brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. the objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20oc. the analytical solution of second fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. a good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m2/s.
Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle
Telis Vania Regina Nicoletti,Romanelli Pedro Fernando,Gabas Ana Lúcia,Telis-Romero Javier
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2003,
Abstract: The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20oC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m2/s.
Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration
Spadoti, Leila Maria;Dornellas, José Raimundo Ferreira;Roig, Salvador Massaguer;
Scientia Agricola , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162005000300006
Abstract: the application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. however, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. the effects of five different processing methods for prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (epi and dpi). the following treatments (t) for cheese production were studied: t1 - without ultrafiltration (standard); t2, t3, t4 and t5 - using milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (ufcm) and respectively: t2 - without pre-fermentation of the ufcm; t3 - pre-fermentation of 10% of the ufcm; t4 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the ufcm, and t5 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the ufcm plus indirect heating. treatments affected the epi and dpi of the cheeses (t1 lower values for epi and dpi and t4 higher values for epi and dpi). the time influenced the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes.
Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration  [cached]
Spadoti Leila Maria,Dornellas José Raimundo Ferreira,Roig Salvador Massaguer
Scientia Agricola , 2005,
Abstract: The application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. However, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. The effects of five different processing methods for Prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (EPI and DPI). The following treatments (T) for cheese production were studied: T1 - without ultrafiltration (standard); T2, T3, T4 and T5 - using milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UFCM) and respectively: T2 - without pre-fermentation of the UFCM; T3 - pre-fermentation of 10% of the UFCM; T4 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM, and T5 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM plus indirect heating. Treatments affected the EPI and DPI of the cheeses (T1 lower values for EPI and DPI and T4 higher values for EPI and DPI). The time influenced the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes.
Effect of Salting Methods on Quality of Smoked Dry Laked Fish
Tenin Dzudie,Joel Scher
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Tilapia species (Dreochromis aureus) were used in the present study. They were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of non-salted, brine-salted and dry-salted fishes. Loss in weight was greatest during smoking and least during drying. The pH of the fresh tilapia as well as that of the smoke-dried one increased with the level of salt in the products. Methods of salting the fishes significantly (P<0.05) affected the levels of lipid oxidation. Smoking of the fishes exhibited greater antioxidant activity. In respect of the overall acceptability, brine-salted and smoked tilapia was rated higher than the other two samples.
Efeito da radia??o gama nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas do queijo prato durante a matura??o
Gutierrez, érika Maria Roel;Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth;Spoto, Marta H. F.;Blumer, Lucimara;Matraia, Clarice;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612004000400020
Abstract: the prato, cheese washed dough, is one of brazil's most popular cheeses. this cheese must be ripened the desirable characteristics of flavors and texture. the present work studied the influence of gamma radiation in the ripening period of prato cheese. the cheese was ripened at 10-12oc and at ± 80% rh for 60 days. at the 1st and at 15th day of ripening, sample were irradiated to 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4kgy at a rate of 0.9696kgy/h. the cobalto-60 source used was a gammabeam 650 from atomic energy of canada. physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed every each 15 days of ripening. the results showed that the total microbial count decreased as increased the dose of irradiation of the cheese. the ripening of the cheese was delayed by irradiation, probability due to the inactivation of the lactic bacteria by radiation.
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