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Are light traps baited with kairomones effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)
Andrade, Andrey J;Andrade, Mateus R;Dias, Edelberto S;Pinto, Mara C;Eiras, álvaro E;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762008000400004
Abstract: phlebotomine sand flies are often captured with human bait and/or light traps, either with or without an animal bait. more recently, synthetic attractants have been used as bait in traps to improve the capture of phlebotomine sand flies as well as other insects of medical and veterinary importance. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the kairomone 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and the synthetic human odor bg-mesh luretm (bgml - lactic acid, caproic acid and ammonia) baited in modified cdc light traps on the capture of phlebotomine sand flies. the experiments followed the 5x5 latin square design. among the species caught, lutzomyia intermedia apparently presented a dose-dependent response to octenol. the response obtained with the bgml, alone or in combination with octenol (5 mg/h), indicated some degree of attractiveness of these baits to different phlebotomine sand fly species. octenol seems to be more attractive to l. intermedia than to lutzomyia longipalpis, while the bgml presented a higher success in capturing l. longipalpis. when the components of the bgml were used separately, there was no increase in catching the female of l. intermedia. apparently, there was no synergistic effect between the octenol and the bgml. in conclusion, the octenol and the bgml were demonstrated to be possible baits to attract some phlebotomine sand fly species.
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): a review
Soares, Rodrigo P. P.;Turco, Salvatore J.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652003000300005
Abstract: lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of americanvisceral leishmaniasis (avl) due to leishmania chagasi in the new world. despite its importance, avl, a disease primarily of rural areas, has increased its prevalence and became urbanized in some large cities in brazil and other countries in latin america. although the disease is treatable, other control measures include elimination of infected dogs and the use of insecticides to kill the sand flies. a better understanding of vector biology could also account as one more tool for avl control. a wide variety of papers about l. longipalpis have been published in the recent past years. this review summarizes our current information of this particular sand fly regarding its importance, biology, morphology, pheromones genetics, saliva, gut physiology and parasite interactions.
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): a review  [cached]
Soares Rodrigo P. P.,Turco Salvatore J.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2003,
Abstract: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of AmericanVisceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) due to Leishmania chagasi in the New World. Despite its importance, AVL, a disease primarily of rural areas, has increased its prevalence and became urbanized in some large cities in Brazil and other countries in Latin America. Although the disease is treatable, other control measures include elimination of infected dogs and the use of insecticides to kill the sand flies. A better understanding of vector biology could also account as one more tool for AVL control. A wide variety of papers about L. longipalpis have been published in the recent past years. This review summarizes our current information of this particular sand fly regarding its importance, biology, morphology, pheromones genetics, saliva, gut physiology and parasite interactions.
Toxicity of Bacillus species to larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis (L. & N.) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)
Wermelinger, Eduardo D.;Zanuncio, José C.;Rangel, Elizabeth F.;Cecon, Paulo R.;Rabinovitch, Leon;
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0301-80592000000300025
Abstract: a study was conducted to compare the susceptibility of third instar larvae of lutzomyia longipalpis (l. & n.) (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae), the vector of the american visceral leishmaniasis to two strains of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, one strain of bacillus sphaericus (all pathogenic to diptera culicidae) and a strain of b. thuringiensis ser. morrisoni (pathogenic to larvae of anticarsia gemmatalis (hübner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)). larvae of l. longipalpis showed similar susceptibility to the two strains of b. thruringiensis ser. israelensis, while b. sphaericus and b. thuringiensis ser. morrisoni showed low and no larvicidal effect to this vector, respectively.
Moonlight and blood-feeding behaviour of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae), vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil
Souza, Nataly A;Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A;Silva, Vanderlei C;Peixoto, Alexandre A;Rangel, Elizabeth F;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000100007
Abstract: lutzomyia intermedia (lutz & neiva, 1912) and l. whitmani (antunes & coutinho, 1939) (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae), two important vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil, occur in sympatry in the locality of posse county, petrópolis municipality, state of rio de janeiro, brazil. we investigated the influence of the lunar cycle on the frequency of specimens of the two species caught while attempting to bite the collectors and in cdc light traps. analysis of the numbers of sand flies captured in different lunar phases for two consecutive years in the peridomestic site and forest shows that there is a significant positive correlation between moonlight intensity and the numbers of l. intermedia and l. whitmani females collected while blood-feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for the cdc traps.
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil
Rangel, Elizabeth F.;Vilela, Maurício L.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008001200025
Abstract: the article discusses habits related to the vectorial competence of lutzomyia longipalpis, along with evidence confirming the importance of this sand fly species in the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil. a new epidemiological profile for visceral leishmaniasis is also postulated, associated with domestic environments and the role of lu. longipalpis in this process, its sylvatic origin, and its capacity to adapt to a wide range of habitats. another sand fly species, lu. cruzi, is mentioned as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in some municipalities in central brazil, based on studies in endemic areas of the country.
Seasonality of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), occurring sympatrically in area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Souza, Nataly A;Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A;Vilela, Maurício L;Peixoto, Alexandre A;Rangel, Elizabeth F;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762002000600001
Abstract: lutzomyia intermedia and lutzomyia whitmani occur sympatrically in the district of posse, municipality of petrópolis, in the state of rio de janeiro (114 km from the city of rio de janeiro), where sand flies were captured weekly for three consecutive years in both the peridomicile and forest, in two first years from 18:00 to 22:00 h, using a shannon trap and cdc light traps. the anthropophilic habit was assessed by recording the specimens that bit the human captors. considering the different capture types and sites, the following species were identified: brumptomyia brumpti, b. cardosoi, b. guimaraesi, lutzomyia amarali, l. longipalpis, l. microps, l. costalimai, l. edwardsi, l. firmatoi, l. migonei, l. termitophila, l. tupynambai, l. fischeri, l. pessoai, l. lutziana, l. shannoni, l. barrettoi, l. intermedia, l. whitmani, l. lloydi, and l. minasensis. l. intermedia (38.3%) and l. whitmani (38.6%) predominated. l. intermedia predominated in the peridomicile, where it displayed more intense anthropophily, while l. whitmani displayed greater density in the banana plantations and forest, preferential sites for biting humans. studies on seasonality showed that while l. intermedia displayed greater density in the hottest months of the year (december, january, and february), l. whitmani was abundant in the coolest months (june, july, and august), although both occurred throughout the year.
Seasonality of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), occurring sympatrically in area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  [cached]
Souza Nataly A,Andrade-Coelho Claudia A,Vilela Maurício L,Peixoto Alexandre A
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002,
Abstract: Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani occur sympatrically in the district of Posse, municipality of Petrópolis, in the State of Rio de Janeiro (114 km from the city of Rio de Janeiro), where sand flies were captured weekly for three consecutive years in both the peridomicile and forest, in two first years from 18:00 to 22:00 h, using a Shannon trap and CDC light traps. The anthropophilic habit was assessed by recording the specimens that bit the human captors. Considering the different capture types and sites, the following species were identified: Brumptomyia brumpti, B. cardosoi, B. guimaraesi, Lutzomyia amarali, L. longipalpis, L. microps, L. costalimai, L. edwardsi, L. firmatoi, L. migonei, L. termitophila, L. tupynambai, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. lutziana, L. shannoni, L. barrettoi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. lloydi, and L. minasensis. L. intermedia (38.3%) and L. whitmani (38.6%) predominated. L. intermedia predominated in the peridomicile, where it displayed more intense anthropophily, while L. whitmani displayed greater density in the banana plantations and forest, preferential sites for biting humans. Studies on seasonality showed that while L. intermedia displayed greater density in the hottest months of the year (December, January, and February), L. whitmani was abundant in the coolest months (June, July, and August), although both occurred throughout the year.
Fine Structure of the Male Reproductive System and Reproductive Behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)  [PDF]
Carolina N. Spiegel, Jorge A. C. Bretas, Alexandre A. Peixoto, Felipe M. Vigoder, Rafaela V. Bruno, Maurilio J. Soares
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074898
Abstract: Background The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females. Results The male L. longipalpis reproductive system is comprised by a pair of oval-shaped testes linked to a seminal vesicle by vasa deferentia. It follows an ejaculatory duct with an ejaculatory pump (a large bulb enveloped by muscles and associated to tracheas). The terminal endings of the vasa deferentia are inserted into the seminal vesicle by invaginations of the seminal vesicle wall, which is composed by a single layer of gland cells, with well-developed endoplasmic reticulum profiles and secretion granules. Our data suggest that the seminal vesicle acts both as a spermatozoa reservoir and as an accessory gland. Mating experiments support this hypothesis, revealing a decrease in mating frequency after copulation that indicates the effect of putative SFPs. Conclusion Ultrastructural features of the L. longipalpis male seminal vesicle indicated its possible role as an accessory gland. Behavioral observations revealed a reduction in mating frequency of copulated females. Together with transcriptome analyses from male sandfly reproductive organs identifying ESTs encoding orthologs of SFPs, these data indicate the presence of putative L. longipalpis SFPs reducing sexual mating frequency of copulated females.
Estabelecimento de colonia, em laboratório, de Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae)
Rangel, Elizabeth F.;Souza, Nataly A. de;Wermelinger, Eduardo D.;Barbosa, André F.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1985, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761985000200013
Abstract: a laboratory colony of the sandfly lutzomyia intermedia was established (at present in its seventh generation) in order to provide specimens for experimental infection and for experimental xenodiagnosis of natural infections due to cutaneous leishmanias in rio de janeiro. date are presented on the methodology and on the yield and duration of each stage of development, during the first four generations.
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