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Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)  [PDF]
Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak
Modern Phytomorphology , 2013,
Abstract: Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita) to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon). Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum), E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. cinnamon) and methyl chavicol (‘Tai’).
In vitro Antisickling Activity of Anthocyanins from Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)  [PDF]
P.T. Mpiana,V. Mudogo,K.N. Ngbolua,D.S.T. Tshibangu
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2007,
Abstract: Some Congolese plant extracts have recently shown an interesting antisickling activity. Four aqueous and ethanolic extracts from two plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Staff and Ocimum basilicum L. were evaluated for their antisickling activity. Only O. basilicum L. was found to be active. Anthocyanins crude extract of the leaves of O. basilicum exhibited attractive antisickling activity, thus, supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggesting a possible correlation between the chemical composition of these plants and their uses in traditional medicine.
Induction of plant defense responses by Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) leaf extracts
Colpas, Flávia Tavares;Schwan-Estrada, Kátia Regina Freitas;Stangarlin, José Renato;Ferrarese, Maria De Lurdes;Scapim, Carlos Alberto;Bonaldo, Solange Maria;
Summa Phytopathologica , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-54052009000300005
Abstract: aqueous extracts of the leaves of ocimum gratissimum at 10, 25, 40 and 50% (w/v) concentrations induced the production of phytoalexins in soybean cotyledons and sorghum mesocotyls. the aqueous extracts also induced systemic resistance in cucumber to colletotrichum lagenarium, reflected by reduction in disease incidence and an increase in chitinase production. modes of action and the existence of possible elicitors of defense response in o. gratissimum leaf extracts are discussed.
Inibi??o e inativa??o in vitro de diferentes métodos de extra??o de Ocimum gratissimum L. ("alfavac?o", "alfavaca", "alfavaca-cravo") - Labiatae (Lamiaceae), frente a bactérias de interesse em alimentos
Passos, M.G.;Carvalho, H.;Wiest, J.M.;
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-05722009000100012
Abstract: dilution tests in multiple tube system were used to evaluate the intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (iinib/bacteriostasis) and bacterial inactivation activity (iinab/bactericide) of conserver solutions containing ethanolic (alcoholature/in natura plant, hidroalcoholature/dry plant) and aqueous (decoctions/in natura or dry plant) extracts of ocimum gratissimum l. ("alfavac?o", "alfavaca", "alfavaca-cravo") - labiatae - (lamiaceae) on standardized inocula of salmonella enteritidis (atcc 11076), escherichia coli (atcc 11229) and staphylococcus aureus (atcc 25923). all the different extraction methods presented selective inhibition and/or inactivation on the bacterial inocula. the alcoholic extract had the highest antibacterial activity (inhibition/inactivation) against the three agents. salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive to the antibacterial activity in all conserver solutions. staphylococcus aureus showed the lowest sensitivity to decoctions, whereas escherichia coli was the least sensitive to the hydroalcoholic extraction.
El género Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae) en el nordeste del Brasil  [cached]
de Holanda C. Andrade, Laise,de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 1998,
Abstract: A taxonomic revision of the genus Ocimum L. from North-East Brazil, including native species, in addition to naturalized and cultivated species, is presented here. Attention is paid to morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive, and the nutlets and seedlings of two problem species are emphasized. Seven species belonging to three sections are recognized: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. gratissimum L., O. transamazonicum C. Pereira, O. minimum L. (sect. Ocimum), O. campechianum Mill. (sect. Gymnocimum) and O. tenuiflorum L. (sect. Hierocimum). The accepted species, with their most important synonyms, detailed description and geographical distribution are given, after the Identification keys. Morphological variety is also discussed, and illustrations are given of all species. Presentamos aquí una revisión taxonómica del género Ocimum L. en el nordeste del Brasil, en la que figuran tanto las especies autóctonas como las naturalizadas y cultivadas. En ella se atendió a los caracteres morfológicos -vegetativos y reproductivos-, y se hizo hincapié en el estudio de núculas y plántulas en dos especies problemáticas. Reconocemos siete especies pertenecientes a tres secciones: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. gratissimum L., O. transamazonicum C. Pereira, O. minimum L. (sect. Ocimum), O. campechianum Mill. (sect. Gymnocimum) y O. tenuiflorum L. (sect. Hierocimum). Tras las claves de identificación van las especies aceptadas con sus sinónimos más importantes, descripción detallada y distribución geográfica. Asimismo se hacen comentarios referentes a la variabilidad morfológica y se presentan ilustraciones de todas las especies.
Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae)  [PDF]
Jela?i? Slavica ?.,Beatovi? Damir V.,Prodanovi? Slaven A.,Tasi? Slavoljub R.
Hemijska Industrija , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/hemind110227020j
Abstract: In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively). Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively). In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%), T-10 (4.18%), while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have exceptional quality. They represent an excellent raw material for the production of basil essential oils, for the needs of pharmaceutical, food and chemical industry.
Pollen grain morphology of three species and a variety of Ocimum linn.(Lamiaceae) in Southwestern Nigeria
OO Arogundade, O Adedeji
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2009,
Abstract: Pollen grains from fresh anthers of three species and a variety of Ocimum occurring in South-western Nigeria were collected and acetolysed. This was in an attempt to use the pollen charac-teristics to delimit, classify and trace probable evolutionary relationships among the taxa. The structural morphology of the pollen grains carried out with a light microscope is reported. Characters measured on the pollen grains were pollen diameter, pollen wall thickness, depth of colpi, distance between colpi and pore diameter. This was done with the aid of an ocular micrometer. Number of pores per pollen was counted. Pollen grain sizes of the species and the variety of Ocimum studied fall into two groups, Media (diameter 25-50μm) and Magna (diameter 50-100μm). All the species and the variety had acolpate and hexacolpate pollen grains. Heptacol-pate and octacolpate pollen grains which are advanced types of pollen grains were encountered in O. canum only. These advanced types of pollen grains are a mark of recent evolutionary de-velopment in the species.
Inativa??o bacteriana e sensorialidade em bebidas formuladas a partir de extrato reconstituído de Ocimum gratissimum L. (Alfavaca) - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae)
Passos, Marcelo Gonzalez;Carvalho, Heloisa Helena;Wiest, José Maria;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000200019
Abstract: the activity intensity of bacterial inactivation (iinab/bactericidie) on salmonella enteritidis (atcc 11076) was determined in four drink formulations, two alcoholic and two no-alcoholic, with and without sugar, respectively, and in the reconstituted extract (alcoholature/green plant) of ocimum gratissimum l. (african basil) - labiatae - (lamiaceae) at different concentrations (5, 15, and 30%) through suspension tests in multiple tube system. the acceptability/sensory preference of these four products was also determined using a hedonic scale. the bactericidal activity of all formulations against salmonella enteritidis was found to be directly proportional to the extract concentrations and the exposure time of the bacterium in the beverages, especially the non-alcoholic formulation with sugar. in the sensorial analysis, the preference increased with the decrease of the extract concentration of ocimum gratissimum. the non-alcoholic beverage with sugar received the highest preference/acceptability score for the extract concentration of 5%.
Etnobotánica del género Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae) en las comunidades afrobrasile as  [cached]
de Holanda C. Andrade, Laise,de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 1998,
Abstract: The genus Ocimum L. includes around 12 species round in Brazil, including some cultivated species. This paper gives details of the traditional uses of Ocimum by the Afrobrasilian people, with information on the common uses of plants by Africans. The information was derived fan specimens deposited in herbaria, ethnobotanical survey and literature review. The transpon of African species and their uses in Brazil is discussed. Two routes are presented, discussed and mapped: the European routes, transporting plants to Brazil; and the slave route from áfrica to Brazil which also transponed traditional uses and knowledge. This study is based on four species used in Afrobrazilian ceremonies: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. minimum L. and O. gratissimum L. Morphological, botanical and economic data are included, and a key to identify the species found in Brazil is also provided. El género Ocimum L. consta de 12 especies en el Brasil, algunas de ellas cultivadas. Se estudian los usos tradicionales que los afrobrasile os hacen de estas plantas y se incluye información sobre alguno de sus usos en áfrica, basado en estudios bibliográficos, de herbario y en investigaciones etnobotánicas. Se reconocen dos vías de llegada de las plantas africanas a Brasil: a través de los colonizadores europeos, principales responsables del trasiego de plantas, y siguiendo la ruta del comercio de esclavos africanos, directamente implicados en la introducción del manejo y uso de ellas. Se han considerado sobre todo las cuatro especies que se utilizan fundamentalmente en los ritos afrobrasile os: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L.. O. minimum L. y O. gratissimum L. Se incluyen datos morfológicos, botánicos y económicos, así como una clave para la identificación de las especies de Ocimum que habitan en Brasil.
Composi o química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.  [cached]
Lenise L. Silva,Clarissa G. Heldwein,Luiz G. B. Reetz,Rosmari H?rner
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2010,
Abstract: O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestila o e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94%) e γ-muuroleno (12,58%). O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdilui o em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentra o inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentra o bactericida mínima (CBM) variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0) μg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5) μg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94%) and γ-muurolene (12.58%). Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L.) test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0) μg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5) μg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control).
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