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Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) inhibits mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway and prevents apoptosis in hypoxia-reoxygenated cardiomyocytes
Jiangang Shen, Waisin Lee, Yong Gu, Yao Tong, Peter CW Fung, Li Tong
Chinese Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-6-8
Abstract: Cardiomyocytes were exposed to 24 hours of hypoxia and four hours of reoxygenation, and pretreated with EGb761, bilobalide and quertcetin. By using immunoblot, immunofluorescent, biochemical and flow cytometry techniques, we compared the effects of EGb761 and its representative constituents including quercetin and bilobalides on regulating mitochondria-dependent caspases signal pathway and apoptotic cell death in the hypoxia-reoxygenated cardiomyocytes.Pretreatment with EGb761 significantly inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the expression of caspase-3, cleavage activities of caspases and attenuated apoptotic cell death. The effects of quercetin on the release of cytochrome c, the cleavage activities of caspases and cell death were similar to those of EGb761 but better than those of bilobalide.The antioxidant constituents of EGb761 such as quercetin contribute to the cardioprotective effects of EGb761 and inhibit the mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway. It is possible that the mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway may be one of the molecular targets of EGb761 against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.EGb761 is a standard extract from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba (Yinxing) containing 24% ginkgo-flavone glycosides (eg kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives) and 6% terpenoid (eg ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide) [1]. The cardioprotective effects of EGb761 have been demonstrated in various in vivo and in vitro animal models and humans. The flavonoid components of EGb761 scavenge superoxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide (NO) and protect myocardia from ischemia-reperfusion injury [2-5]. The terpenoid constituents of EGb761 also showed their cardioprotective effects independent from the free radical-scavenging properties [6]. Therefore, it is necessary to further elucidate whether the cardioprotective mechanisms of EGb761 are attributed to its flavonoids or terpenoid conponents in the prevention of myocardial ischemia-re
Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGB761 Protects against Aging-Associated Diastolic Dysfunction in Cardiomyocytes of D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat
Jing Liu,Junhong Wang,Xiangjian Chen,Changqing Guo,Yan Guo,Hui Wang
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/418748
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to make use of the artificially induced aging model cardiomyocytes to further investigate potential anti-aging-associated cellular diastolic dysfunction effects of EGB761 and explore underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat primary cardiomyocytes were treated with either D-galactose or D-galactose combined with EGB761 for 48 h. After treatment, the percentage of cells positive for SA-β-gal, AGEs production, cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) activity, the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake, and relative protein levels were measured. Our results demonstrated that in vitro stimulation with D-galactose induced AGEs production. The addition of EGB761 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for SA-β-gal. Furthermore, decreased diastolic [Ca2
Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on an experimental model of epilepsy
Pilija Vladimir I.,Iveti?-Petrovi? Vesna R.,Mihalj Marija,Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta
Medicinski Pregled , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0412541p
Abstract: INTRODUCTION The active ingredients of ginkgo biloba extracts were determined by biochemical analyses in the last ten years and they are widely used in classical medicine. The active substances of ginkgo biloba extract, mostly affect muscarinic receptors and adrenergic receptors to a lesser degree. Recently, potential effects of ginkgo biloba on NMDA receptors and on epileptogenic seizures have been considered. The main goal of this research was to investigate effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on the experimantal model of epilepsy. Material and methODS The research was carried out on chinchilla rabbits. GINGIUM solution was used with 40 mg in 1 ml of dry extract of ginkgo biloba leaves. The epileptogenic area was formed by stimulating hippocampus. Bioelectrical activity was registered 60 minutes before the epileptogenic area was formed as well as 90 minutes later. Ginkgo biloba extract was given via IM, in a single daily dose of 1ml/kg/BW. RESULTS A statistically significantly higher frequency of paroxysmal seizures was established after usage of ginkgo biloba. CONCLUSION According to the results obtained in this research, we can conclude that ginkgo biloba extracts have a proconvulsive activity.
Ginkgo biloba Extract in Alzheimer’s Disease: From Action Mechanisms to Medical Practice  [PDF]
Chun Shi,Jun Liu,Fengming Wu,David T. Yew
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11010107
Abstract: Standardized extract from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, labeled EGb761, is one of the most popular herbal supplements. Numerous preclinical studies have shown the neuroprotective effects of EGb761 and support the notion that it may be effective in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Despite the preclinical promise, the clinical efficacy of this drug remains elusive. In this review, possible mechanisms underlying neuroprotective actions of EGb761 are described in detail, together with a brief discussion of the problem of studying this herb clinically to verify its efficacy in the treatment and prevention of AD. Moreover, various parameters e.g., the dosage and the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), impacting the outcome of the clinical effectiveness of the extract are also discussed. Overall, the findings summarized in this review suggest that, a better understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms of EGb761 may contribute to better understanding of the effectiveness and complexity of this herb and may also be helpful for design of therapeutic strategies in future clinical practice. Therefore, in future clinical studies, different factors that could interfere with the effect of EGb761 should be considered.
Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of ginko biloba extract (Egb761) on mortality of intestinal deep ischemia-reperfusion model in rats  [PDF]
Mustafa Ate?,M. Hakan K?ksal,M. Fevzi Celayir,Adil Baykan
Dicle Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) is a standardized form of Ginkgo Biloba plant leaves which have been used by Chines nearly 5000 years and Its’ antioxidant activity is known. In this study we aimed to investigate effect use of EGb761 on mortality in Megison'un deep ischemia reperfusion model of rats.Materials and Methods: 138 male Spraque-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups: Group I (control group), Group II (deep ischemia-reperfusion group), Group III (Group of prophylaxis and treatment of deep ischemia-reperfusion with EGb 761), Group IV (group of treatment with EGb 761 during deep ischemia). Deep ischemia was applied 30 minutes. Rats were followed-up one week after laparotomy. Differences between numbers of mortality in groups during one week follow-up were compared.Results: Number of died rats in Group I, II, III, and IV during one week follow-up were 2 (7.7%), 22 (61.1%), 6 (13.6%), and 11 (34.3%) respectively. Mortality rate decreased statistically significant with use of EGb761 with pro-phylactic and therapeutic purposes (p<0.001, p<0.028).Conclusion: EGb761's prophylactic and therapeutic benefit on intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury was observed. However, these results should be supported with further biochemical and histopathological studies.
Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon
Hala A.H. Khattab
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE) have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w.) for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH). Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential help as a medicament or food supplement for alleviation of liver toxicity
A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats  [PDF]
EDUARDO R. DOMINGUEZ,Alma Vazquez-Luna,Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa,Rafael Diaz-Sobac
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00213
Abstract: The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased in motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e. lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that Ginkgo biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), Ginkgo biloba extract (dry extract, 160mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 hours, for 28 days, by oral rout once. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. The results shown that Ginkgo biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the Ginkgo biloba extract.
Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review  [cached]
von Boetticher A
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2011,
Abstract: Alexander von BoetticherEar, Nose and Throat Surgery, Lueneburg, GermanyAbstract: Tinnitus is a symptom frequently encountered by ear, nose, and throat practitioners. A causal treatment is rarely possible, and drug and nondrug treatment options are limited. One of the frequently prescribed treatments is Ginkgo biloba extract. Therefore, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Ginkgo biloba extract preparations were searched for and reviewed systematically. There is evidence of efficacy for the standardized extract, EGb 761 (Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co KG Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany), in the treatment of tinnitus from three trials in patients in whom tinnitus was the primary complaint. Supportive evidence comes from a further five trials in patients with age-associated cognitive impairment or dementia in whom tinnitus was present as a concomitant symptom. As yet, the efficacy of other ginkgo preparations has not been proven, which does not necessarily indicate ineffectiveness, but may be due to flawed clinical trials. In conclusion, EGb 761 , a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, is an evidence-based treatment option in tinnitus.Keywords: tinnitus, Ginkgo biloba, EGb 761 , systematic review
Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits  [PDF]
Vladimir Pilija,Radenkovic Mirjana,Maja Djurendic Brenesel,Mira Popovic,Vesna Ivetic,Svetlana Trivic
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042079
Abstract: Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium? - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides)], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System). Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L) concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh), but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.
IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GINKGO BILOBA BARK EXTRACT  [PDF]
Kaur Aman Deep,Nain Parminder,Nain Jaspreet
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Ginkgo biloba also called as Maidenhair Tree, belongs to the family Ginkgoaceae. In this study, the hydro-Methenolic extract from bark of Ginkgo biloba was screened for their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activities of extract against both Gram-positive & Gram-negative bacteria was determined by agar well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), relative percentage inhibition and antioxidant activity was determined by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power scavenging activity. The antimicrobial potency of extract based on their zones of inhibition (mm) and MIC values and relative percentage inhibition.The extract exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Streptococcus faecalis and minimum zone of inhibition against Escherichia Coli. The MIC values of extract and standard drug ranges between 2.5-6 mg/ml and 0.92-3.5 μg/ml respectively. Extract exhibited maximum relative percentage inhibition against Streptococcus faecalis (77.4 %) and lowest against Proteus vulgaris (42.03 %). For antioxidant activity, results of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide method, was expressed as IC50. Ascorbic acid was used as standard showed IC50 of 20.4 μg/ml & 95 μg/ml respectively whereas extract of bark of Ginkgo biloba showed IC50 of 40 μg/ml & 105 μg/ml respectively. In reducing power method the reducing power of extract was determined and compared with standard ascorbic acid, increased absorbance with increased concentration significantly increase in reducing power. The extract showed the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, which concludes that the extract can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant agent.
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