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The metaphysical mind in its physical environment: Religious implications of neuroscience  [cached]
C.W. du Toit
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v58i3.592
Abstract: This article introduces ideas originating from different sciences of mind and the challenge they present to religion. In spite of overcoming the mind-body dualism, it seems that the mind-brain dualism still prevails. The mind-brain relation is discussed in the light of some models. Special attention is given to supervenient theories of mind. In light of this information the article investigates how the impact of these theories on religious experience. D’Aquili and Newberg’s explanation of extraordinary religious experience is discussed. It is concluded that the phenomenon of religion and religious experience are more than mere brain functions. The place of religion and the continued importance of religion and religious experience are confirmed.
Cohesive sets and rainbows  [PDF]
Wei Wang
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.apal.2013.06.002
Abstract: We study the strength of $\RRT^3_2$, Rainbow Ramsey Theorem for colorings of triples, and prove that $\RCA + \RRT^3_2$ implies neither $\WKL$ nor $\RRT^4_2$. To this end, we establish some recursion theoretic properties of cohesive sets and rainbows for colorings of pairs. We show that every sequence (2-bounded coloring of pairs) admits a cohesive set (infinite rainbow) of non-PA Turing degree; and that every $\emptyset'$-recursive sequence (2-bounded coloring of pairs) admits a $\low_3$ cohesive set (infinite rainbow).
The philosophy of metaphysical egoism  [PDF]
Bo?ovi? Miran
Theoria, Beograd , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/theo0702019b
Abstract: Although it is George Berkeley who is usually said to have constructed perhaps the most fantastic of all metaphysical systems in the history of philosophy, nevertheless a few years before his Principles and Dialogues an even bolder and more astonishing metaphysical theory was developed in France by the so-called ′egoists′. In the eighteenth century French, the term égo sme (or égomisme) was used not only in the ethical sense, that is, to describe the selfish, self-centered behavior of those who think and speak only of themselves and believe themselves to be more important than other people, but also in the metaphysical sense, that is, to denote the extremist view that only oneself exists. All our knowledge of the early eighteenth-century egoist philosophers is based on second-hand accounts.
Russell on Metaphysical Vagueness
Mark Colyvan
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 2001,
Abstract: Recently a fascinating debate has been rekindled over whether vagueness is metaphysical or linguistic. That is, is vagueness an objective feature of reality or is it merely an artifact of our language? Bertrand Russell's contribution to this debate is considered by many to be decisive. Russell suggested that it is a mistake to conclude that the world is vague simply because the language we use to describe it is vague. He argued that to draw such an inference is to commit "the fallacy of verbalism". I argue that this is only a fallacy if we have no reason to believe that the world is as our language says. Since vagueness is apparently not eliminable from our language—a fact that Russell himself acknowledged—an indispensability argument can be launched for metaphysical vagueness. In this paper I outline such an argument.
Metaphysical Tracking: The Oldest Ecopsychology  [PDF]
David Kowalewski
International Journal of Transpersonal Studies , 2004,
Abstract: Ecopsychology—the use of nature for understanding and healing the soul—has become accepted as a legitimate tool by theorists and practitioners alike. Yet one important dimension of the field has been ignored: metaphysical tracking. This article brings to light a number of mystical phenomena that trackers, ancient and modern, have experienced, and suggests their common root in the so-called energy body. The implications for psychospiritual growth are thendescribed. Finally, alternative explanations and new avenues for research are discussed.
Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders
Jacinto Choza Armenta
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2008,
Abstract: During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.
Descartes and the “metaphysical dualism”: Excesses in interpreting a classic  [PDF]
?tefan Afloroaei
Meta : Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology and Practical Philosophy , 2010,
Abstract: The article focuses on one of the most serious accusations brought against Descartes and modern philosophy, namely “the dualism of substance”. The accusers claim that the human body and soul were viewed as completely separate; consequently, their relationship as such and the united being of man become incomprehensible. As has been shown above, the idea of the separation of the soul from the body did not originate with Descartes; it was formulated much earlier, and repeated by a disciple of Descartes’, Henry Leroy, known as Regius. When Descartes became aware of this bizarre interpretation he was dismayed and sought to clarify the matter. He sought to distinguish between two terms, “distinction” and “separation” and to illuminate the relationship between body and soul at three different levels, i.e. ordinary experience, analytical mind and metaphysical meditation.Eventually, he embraced the paradox of the two natures – the double substantial make-up of the human being, a paradox of patristic inspiration. However, the later history of ideas was not sympathetic to Descartes: nowadays, when one looks up the term “metaphysical dualism” in dictionaries or glossaries, even in the studies of prestigious researchers, one will find views similar to those of the unfaithful disciple Regius. The resilience of this locus obscurus is explained both by the power of a new mode of interpreting discourse (as technical or logical analysis) and by the ever more privilegedposition of the reader (intentio lectoris). Both attitudes are related to modern ideologies and to changes which have occurred in the intersubjective lifeworld, especially in the communication of the scholarly and academic world.
Phenomenal Characters of Mental States and Emerging Issues in African Philosophy of Mind
F Gbenga, OR Taye
Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya , 2011,
Abstract: There is a prevalent assumption that the phenomenal character of a mental experience is an ontological property existing as part of the fabric of the world. This implies that the problem of explaining the phenomenal property of a mental experience is a metaphysical one. Contrary to this assumption, the present paper argues that phenomenal properties of mental experiences are the results of our epistemological perspectives of the world. Consequently, the paper contends that in developing issues for African Philosophy of Mind, care must, ab initio, be taken to avoid the metaphysical pitfalls of considering phenomenal characters or properties of mental states to be part of the fabric of the world.
Realists vs. neo-conservatives? U.S. foreign policy in George W. Bush’s second term
Luis Francisco Martínez Montes
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2005,
Abstract: With the inauguration of George W. Bush for a second term in office last January, the pertinent matter now consists of elucidating which sectors in his Administration will have the greatest prominence in formulating United States foreign policy over the next four years. Often, the dilemma is posed in exclusive and, if one permits, somewhat simplifying terms: who will prevail, the neo-conservatives or the realists? The present article, while not aiming to avoid the differences existing between the two currents, which, deep downare smaller than what they seem to be at first sight, adopts a different perspective. Realists and neo-conservatives are presented as two non-contradictory, but rather necessarily complementary, variants in a foreign policy programme orientated toward guaranteeing the timeless hegemony of the United States in a threatening and changing world.
The Epistemological Double Standard Inherent in Christian Metaphysical Beliefs  [PDF]
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43033
Abstract: This paper uses comparative religion to critique Christian claims of possessing exclusively true metaphysical beliefs. In so doing, this paper takes a different approach than most other challenges to Christian metaphysical beliefs. Instead of directly responding to Christian arguments supporting their views, this paper challenges the Christian by pointing out that their grounds for rejecting the metaphysics of other religions will necessarily undermine the grounds of their own beliefs. Specifically, the paper takes the metaphysical beliefs of Hinduism, which has a metaphysics that appears both significantly different from and contrary to Christian dogma, and demonstrates that the same types of epistemological arguments that a Christian would almost certainly have to use against a Hindu can just as fruitfully be used to demonstrate the weaknesses, inconsistencies, and lack of evidential foundation that are prevalent in Christian metaphysical beliefs.
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