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Effect of Different Soil Tillage, Weed Control and Phosphorus Fertilization on Weed Biomas, Protein and Phosphorus Content of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  [PDF]
Nihal Kayan,M. Sait Adak
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: This research was carried out in Central Anatolian Region (Haymana, Turkey) throughout 2 years (2002 and 2003). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods, weed control and phosphorus fertilizer doses on yield and yield componenets of chickpea. The experimental design was split split plot with three replications. In the research, two different soil tillage methods (moldboard plow and rotary tiller), two weed control methods ( hand weeding and herbicide application) and three phosphorus doses (30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha) were used. According to the results, different soil tillage methods and phosphorus fertilization did not have any effect on yield components. In addition to it, increasing levels of phosphorus had decreased the grains phosphorus content. Weed control methods had effect on dry weed biomass and grain yield. If weed control, by hand is not possible, herbicide application may advice as an alternative solution.
Early response of Pinus radiata plantations to weed control and fertilization on metamorphic soils of the Coastal Range, Maule Region, Chile
Rubilar,Rafael; Blevins,Leandra; Toro,Jorge ?; Vita,Antonio; Mu?oz,Fernando;
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92002008000100009
Abstract: management of pinus radiata plantations in chile has been intensified in the last decades using site preparation, weed control and fertilization. the lack of information on site-specific responses imposes uncertainty about the biological and economic benefits of these techniques. early projection of initial tree growth response to intensive culture is extremely important but difficult to estimate unless a clear understanding of limiting resources exists at each site. based on the three-year development of a weed control and fertilization trial located on metamorphic soils of the coastal range of chile we investigated the site specific limitations at these sites. fertilization treatments included no fertilization (f0) and fertilized (fl) (26g n + 16.7g k + 2.5g b per plant). banded weed control treatments on woody vegetation included one (wc1) and two consecutive years (wc2) of release. after 12 months, seedling survival was significantly increased by weed control but not by fertilization. three years after establishment, weed control increased survival by 13%, and intensive silvicultural treatment gains were 56-103% for root collar diameter (rcd), 53-82% for height (ht), 269-591% for volume index (v=d2h), and 35-77% for crown diameter (cr). lack of fertilization response suggested that water was the most limiting resource. weed control responses represented almost one growing season gain in tree growth. no additional gains were obtained by weed control of woody vegetation during the second growing season. a linear relationship was found between log(cr) and log(v), suggesting a simplified method to estimate tree vigor at early stages of plantation development
Effect of Tillage Methods and Foliar Fertilization (Boost ExtraTM) on Soil Physical Properties, Weed Dry Matter and Grain Yield of Sorghum in Ejiba, Kogi State, Nigeria  [PDF]
S. K. Ogundare, M. O. Aduloju, F. G. Ayodele, S. D. Olorunfemi
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.76037
Abstract: An experiment was carried out for two consecutive growing seasons (2012 and 2013) at the Research Site of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ejiba, Nigeria, to examine the response of sorghum to tillage methods and foliar fertilizer (Boost ExtraTM) application. A split plot experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates to randomize the tillage methods (main plots) and foliar fertilizer application (sub-plots), respectively. The experiment comprised of three tillage methods: No Tillage (NT), Manual Tillage (MT) and convectional tillage (Ploughing, Harrowing and Ridging, PHR) and three foliar fertilizer rates: 0, 2 and 4 liters of foliar fertilizer per hectare. The parameters taken on soil physical properties and weed characters are soil moisture content (%), soil temperature (℃), weed species and weed dry weight (g). Growth and yield parameters taken are: average plant height (cm), stem girth (cm), leaf area (m2), days to 50% flowering, root dry weight (g), shoot dry weight (g), weight of 1000 seeds and grain yield per land area. Weeds were identified and harvested, and their dry weights were taken and recorded. Data were also collected from ten randomly selected plants in each plot. The data were statistically analyzed using GENSTAT. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to find out the significance of variation among the treatments while the significant differences between mean treatments were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability. The results obtained from this study indicated that tillage methods and foliar fertilizer application significantly affected growth and yield parameters of sorghum, consequently the yield per unit area. The results also indicated that “Manually Tilled” seedbed (MT) improved soil physical properties better than either plots with PHR or No Till plots in the study area. Foliar fertilizer application at 2 l/ha performed best in terms of growth and yield. It is therefore recommended that manual tillage should be used as a method of seedbed preparation for sorghum production. However, better and stable grain yield of sorghum could be obtained with the practice of manual tillage (MT) in combination with foliar fertilization at rate of 2 litres/ha. It is recommended that different tillage methods should be combined with foliar fertilizer application for higher grain yield in the study area.
Early response of Pinus radiata plantations to weed control and fertilization on metamorphic soils of the Coastal Range, Maule Region, Chile Respuesta temprana de Pinus radiata al control de malezas y la fertilización en suelos metamórficos de la Cordillera de la Costa de la Región del Maule  [cached]
Rafael Rubilar,Leandra Blevins,Jorge Toro,Antonio Vita
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2008,
Abstract: Management of Pinus radiata plantations in Chile has been intensified in the last decades using site preparation, weed control and fertilization. The lack of information on site-specific responses imposes uncertainty about the biological and economic benefits of these techniques. Early projection of initial tree growth response to intensive culture is extremely important but difficult to estimate unless a clear understanding of limiting resources exists at each site. Based on the three-year development of a weed control and fertilization trial located on metamorphic soils of the Coastal Range of Chile we investigated the site specific limitations at these sites. Fertilization treatments included no fertilization (F0) and fertilized (Fl) (26g N + 16.7g K + 2.5g B per plant). Banded weed control treatments on woody vegetation included one (WC1) and two consecutive years (WC2) of release. After 12 months, seedling survival was significantly increased by weed control but not by fertilization. Three years after establishment, weed control increased survival by 13%, and intensive silvicultural treatment gains were 56-103% for root collar diameter (RCD), 53-82% for height (HT), 269-591% for volume index (V=D2H), and 35-77% for crown diameter (CR). Lack of fertilization response suggested that water was the most limiting resource. Weed control responses represented almost one growing season gain in tree growth. No additional gains were obtained by weed control of woody vegetation during the second growing season. A linear relationship was found between log(CR) and log(V), suggesting a simplified method to estimate tree vigor at early stages of plantation development El manejo de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata en Chile se ha intensificado en las últimas décadas por medio de preparación de suelo, control de malezas y fertilización al establecimiento. Sin embargo, la falta de información respecto a las respuestas específicas al sitio impone incerteza acerca de los beneficios económicos y biológicos de las técnicas silviculturales aplicadas. La proyección del crecimiento inicial a los tratamientos silviculturales es crítica, pero difícil de estimar, a menos que se tenga una clara comprensión de los factores limitantes del sitio. Se investigó la respuesta de crecimiento y el uso potencial del diámetro de copa como un indicador temprano de vigor de la plantación a los tres a os para la duración del control de malezas y la fertilización en un ensayo localizado en suelos metamórficos de la Cordillera de la Costa de la Región del Maule. Los tratamientos consideraron s
Response of weed populations to tillage, reduced herbicide and fertilizer rates in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production
Acciaresi, H.A.;Balbi, H.V.;Bravo, M.L.;Chidichimo, H.O.;
Planta Daninha , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582003000100013
Abstract: field experiments were carried out in 1999 and 2000 to investigate the effects of conventional (ct) and no-tillage (nt) systems, interacting with three herbicide dose levels and three nitrogen (n) levels on weed growth and wheat production of two varieties. there was a higher grain yield for nt system compared with ct in one year. ct weed biomass was lower than from nt weed biomass, in both varieties. no differences on wheat biomass and grain yield were observed between full and reduced herbicide rates. n fertilizer increased wheat biomass and grain yield significantly. only n medium level had an effect upon weed biomass with respect to non-fertilized plots, while the highest fertilization rate lowered weed biomass. conventional tillage, reduced herbicide rates and nitrogen fertilization were effective ways of limiting weed production in wheat.
DENSIFIED RADIATA PINE FOR STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES
Kamke,Frederick A;
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2006000200002
Abstract: a novel wood-based composite has been developed for use in structural applications. the process was designed to utilize rapidly-grown, low density, wood species. plantation grown radiata pine is particularly well suited to this process. this is a laminated composite, where the lamina may be comprised of various materials, some of which have been treated with the viscoelastic thermal compression (vtc) process. the vtc process increases the density of wood, without causing fractures in the cell wall, thus increasing strength and stiffness of the wood material. the process may be applied to veneer, sawn wood, or strand composites. the vtc lamina is then bonded to other lamina to produce the final product. the strength and stiffness of this vtc composite exceeds any wood-based composite that is currently on the market. for example, modulus of elasticity in bending of over 20 gpa is easily obtainable
DENSIFIED RADIATA PINE FOR STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES
Frederick A Kamke
MADERAS : Ciencia y Tecnología , 2006,
Abstract: A novel wood-based composite has been developed for use in structural applications. The process was designed to utilize rapidly-grown, low density, wood species. Plantation grown radiata pine is particularly well suited to this process. This is a laminated composite, where the lamina may be comprised of various materials, some of which have been treated with the viscoelastic thermal compression (VTC) process. The VTC process increases the density of wood, without causing fractures in the cell wall, thus increasing strength and stiffness of the wood material. The process may be applied to veneer, sawn wood, or strand composites. The VTC lamina is then bonded to other lamina to produce the final product. The strength and stiffness of this VTC composite exceeds any wood-based composite that is currently on the market. For example, modulus of elasticity in bending of over 20 GPa is easily obtainable
Root induction in radiata pine using Agrobacterium rhizogenes
Li,Mingshan; Leung,David W.M.;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: root induction using agrobacterium rhizogenes was conducted in hypocotyl explants, intact seedlings, de-rooted seedling cuttings and adventitious shoots of radiata pine (pinus radiata d. don). use of two a. rhizogenes strains (a4t and lb9402), with or without application of iba, can trigger root formation in different explants. strain lba9402 was more effective than a4t in increasing rooting percentage and root number. addition of 4.4 umiba to the medium further enhanced rooting from the cultured hypocotyl segments inoculated with the two a. rhizogenes strains. strain lba9402+iba induced in about 75% of the cultured hypocotyl segments to form roots. in contrast the controls failed to initiate roots on intact seedlings or cultured segments in presence or absence of iba. rooting of adventitious shoots from 3 year-old radiata pine was improved following inoculation with lba9402, suggesting that this rooting treatment has potential to aid clonal propagation of radiata pine.
Effects of Different Soil Tillage Methods, Weed Control and Phosphorus Fertilizer Doses on Yield Components in Chickpea under Central Anatolian Conditions  [PDF]
Nihal Kayan,M. Sait Adak
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: This research was carried out in Central Anatolian region (in Haymana, Turkey) throughout 2 years (2002-2003). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods, weed control and phosphorus fertilizer doses on yield and yield components of chickpea. The experimental design was split plot with three replications. In the research, two different soil tillage methods (moldboard plow and rotary tiller), two weed control methods ( hand weeding and herbicide application) and three phosphorus doses (30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1) were used. According to the results, different soil tillage methods had effect on the number of plant at emergence. Tradational Tillage (TT) plots values had higher than Minimum Tillage (MT) values. Except harvest index, weed control methods had effect on all of the yield components. Hand weeding is the most effective method in weed control. When hand weeding isn`t possible in wide areas, herbicide application may advice as an alternative solution. Phosphorus fertilization may provide high yield in chickpea.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF KILN BROWN STAIN IN RADIATA PINE
McCurdy,M.C.; Nijdam,J. J.; Keey,R. B.;
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2002000200004
Abstract: kiln brown stain in radiata pine (pinus radiata) is a chocolate-brown discolouration that forms near the surface of boards dried at high temperature. this stain is the result of a thermochemical reaction between compounds in the sap that accumulate at the surface of the boards during drying. in this study, an attempt was made to remove the compounds that cause the stain, using bacteria in water sprinkled over the boards. boards were stored in a tank, which was inoculated with rotted woodchips, with a recirculating overhead sprinkling buffer solution. boards were periodically removed from the tank and dried under conditions that normally produce severe kiln brown stain (120/70°c). samples were then removed to determine the level of stain by image analysis and the ease of moisture movement by neutron radiography. the bacterial treatment modified the extent of the stain layer so that after about 8 days of treatment there was no noticeable stain. the drying characteristics of the wood were modified so that the boards dried more slowly above fibre-saturation point, although the permeability of the dried wood increased
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