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Localization of Nucleoporin Tpr to the Nuclear Pore Complex Is Essential for Tpr Mediated Regulation of the Export of Unspliced RNA  [PDF]
Kalpana Rajanala, Vinay Kumar Nandicoori
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029921
Abstract: Nucleoporin Tpr is a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that localizes exclusively to intranuclear filaments. Tpr functions as a scaffolding element in the nuclear phase of the NPC and plays a role in mitotic spindle checkpoint signalling. Export of intron-containing mRNA in Mason Pfizer Monkey Virus is regulated by direct interaction of cellular proteins with the cis-acting Constitutive Transport Element (CTE). In mammalian cells, the transport of Gag/Pol-CTE reporter construct is not very efficient, suggesting a regulatory mechanism to retain this unspliced RNA. Here we report that the knockdown of Tpr in mammalian cells leads to a drastic enhancement in the levels of Gag proteins (p24) in the cytoplasm, which is rescued by siRNA resistant Tpr. Tpr's role in the retention of unspliced RNA is independent of the functions of Sam68 and Tap/Nxf1 proteins, which are reported to promote CTE dependent export. Further, we investigated the possible role for nucleoporins that are known to function in nucleocytoplasmic transport in modulating unspliced RNA export. Results show that depletion of Nup153, a nucleoporin required for NPC anchoring of Tpr, plays a role in regulating the export, while depletion of other FG repeat-containing nucleoporins did not alter the unspliced RNA export. Results suggest that Tpr and Nup153 both regulate the export of unspliced RNA and they are most likely functioning through the same pathway. Importantly, we find that localization of Tpr to the NPC is necessary for Tpr mediated regulation of unspliced RNA export. Collectively, the data indicates that perinuclear localization of Tpr at the nucleopore complex is crucial for regulating intron containing mRNA export by directly or indirectly participating in the processing and degradation of aberrant mRNA transcripts.
The Interaction of CRM1 and the Nuclear Pore Protein Tpr  [PDF]
Charles L. Zhao, Seyed Hanif Mahboobi, Ruhollah Moussavi-Baygi, Mohammad R. K. Mofrad
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093709
Abstract: While much has been devoted to the study of transport mechanisms through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), the specifics of interactions and binding between export transport receptors and the NPC periphery have remained elusive. Recent work has demonstrated a binding interaction between the exportin CRM1 and the unstructured carboxylic tail of Tpr, on the nuclear basket. Strong evidence suggests that this interaction is vital to the functions of CRM1. Using molecular dynamics simulations and a newly refined method for determining binding regions, we have identified nine candidate binding sites on CRM1 for C-Tpr. These include two adjacent to RanGTP – from which one is blocked in the absence of RanGTP – and three next to the binding region of the cargo Snurportin. We report two additional interaction sites between C-Tpr and Snurportin, suggesting a possible role for Tpr import into the nucleus. Using bioinformatics tools we have conducted conservation analysis and functional residue prediction investigations to identify which parts of the obtained binding sites are inherently more important and should be highlighted. Also, a novel measure based on the ratio of available solvent accessible surface (RASAS) is proposed for monitoring the ligand/receptor binding process.
Karyopherin binding interactions and nuclear import mechanism of nuclear pore complex protein Tpr
Iris Ben-Efraim, Phyllis D Frosst, Larry Gerace
BMC Cell Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-10-74
Abstract: We found that Tpr binds strongly and specifically to importin α, importin β, and a CRM1 containing trimeric export complex, and that the binding sites for importins α and β are distinct. We also determined that the nuclear import of Tpr is dependent on cytosolic factors and energy and is efficiently mediated by the importin α/β import pathway.Based on the binding and nuclear import assays, we propose that Tpr is imported into the nucleus by the importin α/β heterodimer. In addition, we suggest that Tpr can serve as a nucleoporin binding site for importin β during import of importin β cargo complexes and/or importin β recycling. Our finding that Tpr bound preferentially to CRM1 in an export complex strengthens the notion that Tpr is involved in protein export.Molecules are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), massive proteinaceous structures that span the double membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE). Molecules smaller than ~20-40 kDa in size can passively diffuse through the NPC. However most protein, and nucleic acid is transported by receptor and energy dependent mechanisms (reviewed in [5-8]).Nucleocytoplasmic transport is mediated by shuttling transport receptors termed karyopherins or importins/exportins (reviewed in [5,7]). In the extensively studied classical nuclear import pathway, cargoes carrying a basic amino acid-rich nuclear localization sequence (NLS) bind to the adaptor importin a, which in turn associates with the import receptor importin β that mediates transport into the nucleus. A second class of import cargo directly binds to importin β in the absence of an adaptor. In the classical nuclear export pathway, cargoes carrying a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) bind to the exportin CRM1 together with RanGTP to be transported out of the nucleus.The small GTPase Ran, which binds directly to both importins and exportins, plays a key role in determining the directionality of nuclear transport. Th
The Pore-Forming Protein Cry5B Elicits the Pathogenicity of Bacillus sp. against Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Melanie F. Kho, Audrey Bellier, Venkatasamy Balasubramani, Yan Hu, Wayne Hsu, Christina Nielsen-LeRoux, Shauna M. McGillivray, Victor Nizet, Raffi V. Aroian
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029122
Abstract: The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is a pathogen of insects and nematodes and is very closely related to, if not the same species as, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. The defining characteristic of B. thuringiensis that sets it apart from B. cereus and B. anthracis is the production of crystal (Cry) proteins, which are pore-forming toxins or pore-forming proteins (PFPs). Although it is known that PFPs are important virulence factors since their elimination results in reduced virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, the functions by which PFPs promote virulence are incompletely understood. Here we study the effect of Cry proteins in B. thuringiensis pathogenesis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that whereas B. thuringiensis on its own is not able to infect C. elegans, the addition of the PFP Cry protein, Cry5B, results in a robust lethal infection that consumes the nematode host in 1–2 days, leading to a “Bob” or bag-of-bacteria phenotype. Unlike other infections of C. elegans characterized to date, the infection by B. thuringiensis shows dose-dependency based on bacterial inoculum size and based on PFP concentration. Although the infection process takes 1–2 days, the PFP-instigated infection process is irreversibly established within 15 minutes of initial exposure. Remarkably, treatment of C. elegans with Cry5B PFP is able to instigate many other Bacillus species, including B. anthracis and even “non-pathogenic” Bacillus subtilis, to become lethal and infectious agents to C. elegans. Co-culturing of Cry5B-expressing B. thuringiensis with B. anthracis can result in lethal infection of C. elegans by B. anthracis. Our data demonstrate that one potential property of PFPs is to sensitize the host to bacterial infection and further that C. elegans and probably other roundworms can be common hosts for B. cereus-group bacteria, findings with important ecological and research implications.
GAPDH expression as a measurement of transfection efficiency for p16INK4a gene silencing (siRNA) in senescent human diploid fibroblasts  [PDF]
Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua2
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2012.24041
Abstract: Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cell divisions in culture. After certain population doublings, they reach a state of irreversible growth arrest known as replicative senescence. Senescent HDFs showed several molecular and cytological changes such as large flat morphology, expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity and altered gene expression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been demonstrated to be a potential research tool to analyse gene function and pathway. Expression of an appropriate housekeeping or reference gene can be used as a measurement of transfection efficiency in siRNA. Therefore this study was designed to determine the suitability of GAPDH expression as a measurement of transfection efficiency for p16INK4a gene silencing in HDFs aging model. GAPDH knockdown with an appropriate transfection reagent was measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR while cellular senescence was characterized based on morphological changes, expression of SA β-gal and p16INK4a expression levels. Our findings showed that GAPDH knockdown represents silencing efficiency and down regulation of p16INK4a in senescent transfected HDFs caused morphological alterations which results in the formation of spindle shaped fibroblasts. This study demonstrated the suitability of GAPDH expression as a measurement of transfection efficiency for p16INK4a gene silencing in HDFs aging model.
TPR鞋用材料  [PDF]
郑玉婴
福州大学学报(自然科学版) , 2001,
Abstract: 分析了TPR鞋用材料的配方、工艺、性能 .实验结果表明 ,该材料具有高弹性、耐低温、粘结强度牢等特点 ,适用于生产中高档运动鞋和旅游鞋鞋底 .
Senescent Ground Tree Rewrite Systems  [PDF]
Matthew Hague
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Ground Tree Rewrite Systems with State are known to have an undecidable control state reachability problem. Taking inspiration from the recent introduction of scope-bounded multi-stack pushdown systems, we define Senescent Ground Tree Rewrite Systems. These are a restriction of ground tree rewrite systems with state such that nodes of the tree may no longer be rewritten after having witnessed an a priori fixed number of control state changes. As well as generalising scope-bounded multi-stack pushdown systems, we show --- via reductions to and from reset Petri-nets --- that these systems have an Ackermann-complete control state reachability problem. However, reachability of a regular set of trees remains undecidable.
Erythrocyte Senescent Markers by Flow Cytometry  [PDF]
María Alejandra Ensinck, Melina Eliana Luján Brajovich, Silvia Estela García Borrás, Carlos Miguel Cotorruelo, Claudia Silvia Biondi
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2019.93006
Abstract: Background: Mature red blood cells lack protein synthesis and are unable to restore inactivated enzymes, damaged cytoskeleton and membrane proteins. An oxidation breakdown of band 3 is probably part of the mechanism leading to the generation of a senescent cell antigen. This specific signal serves for the clearance of RBCs by inducing the binding of autologous IgG and C3, leading to phagocytosis. In addition, phosphatidilserin molecules appear in the outer membrane and the CD47 expression diminishes. Methods: Erythrocytes of different ages from whole blood were studied by flow cytometry analysing light scatter proprieties, binding of autologous IgG, C3 complement deposits, externalization of phosphatidylserine and CD47 expression. Dot-plot analysis based on forward scatter versus side scatter parameters showed two RBCs populations of different sizes and density. RBCs were further incubated with Alexa 488 IgG, APC-anti-C3, PE-annexin-V and PE-CD47. The comparison of the values obtained for the different variables studied in SeRBC and YRBC populations was carried out by the Student t-test for matched samples or by the Wilcoxon test (after verification of the normality assumption). Results: The percentage of IgG and C3 positive cells was significantly higher in senescent red blood cells population. The fraction of annexin-V positive RBCs was also larger in SeRBCs while the CD47 expression was lower in this population. Conclusions: These results indicate that flow cytometry allow differenciation of erythrocytes populations of different ages, turning this tool into an useful alternative option to study erythrocyte aging process. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the process and mechanisms involved in erythrocyte senescence process.
Endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction in senescent rats
Sandrine Rozenberg, Sophie Besse, Hélène Brisson, Elsa Jozefowicz, Abdelmejid Kandoussi, Alexandre Mebazaa, Bruno Riou, Beno?t Vallet, Beno?t Tavernier
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc5033
Abstract: Senescent (24 month) and young adult (3 month) male Wistar rats were treated with intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg (senescent and young rats) or 5 mg/kg (young rats only)), or saline (senescent and young control groups). Twelve hours after injection, cardiac contractility (isolated perfused hearts), myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (skinned fibers), left ventricular nitric oxide end-oxidation products (NOx and NO2) and markers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes) were investigated.LPS (0.5 mg/kg) administration resulted in decreased contractility in senescent rats (left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), 25 ± 4 vs 53 ± 4 mmHg/g heart weight in control; P < 0.05) of amplitude similar to that in young rats with LPS 5 mg/kg (LVDP, 48 ± 7 vs 100 ± 7 mmHg/g heart weight in control; P < 0.05). In contrast to young LPS rats (0.5 and 5 mg/kg LPS), myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was unaltered in senescent LPS hearts. Myocardial NOx and NO2 were increased in a similar fashion by LPS in young (both LPS doses) and senescent rats. TBARS and antioxidant enzyme activities were unaltered by sepsis whatever the age of animals.Low dose of LPS induced a severe myocardial dysfunction in senescent rats. Ca2+ myofilament responsiveness, which is typically reduced in myocardium of young adult septic rats, however, was unaltered in senescent rats. If these results are confirmed in in vivo conditions, they may provide a cellular explanation for the divergent reports on ventricular diastolic function in septic shock. In addition, Ca2+-sensitizing agents may not be as effective in aged subjects as in younger subjects.Impairment in cardiac function is one of the most recognized organ dysfunctions in sepsis. Although the mechanism of myocardial dysfunction is complex and remains incompletely defined, increasing experimental evidence suggests that the main subcellular mechanisms include decreased cardiac myofilament responsivenes
Nucleoporin Mediated Nuclear Positioning and Silencing of HMR  [PDF]
Giulia J. Ruben, Jacob G. Kirkland, Tracy MacDonough, Miao Chen, Rudra N. Dubey, Marc R. Gartenberg, Rohinton T. Kamakaka
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021923
Abstract: The organization of chromatin domains in the nucleus is an important factor in gene regulation. In eukaryotic nuclei, transcriptionally silenced chromatin clusters at the nuclear periphery while transcriptionally poised chromatin resides in the nuclear interior. Recent studies suggest that nuclear pore proteins (NUPs) recruit loci to nuclear pores to aid in insulation of genes from silencing and during gene activation. We investigated the role of NUPs at a native yeast insulator and show that while NUPs localize to the native tDNA insulator adjacent to the silenced HMR domain, loss of pore proteins does not compromise insulation. Surprisingly we find that NUPs contribute to silencing at HMR and are able to restore silencing to a silencing-defective HMR allele when tethered to the locus. We show that the perinuclear positioning of heterochromatin is important for the NUP-mediated silencing effect and find that loss of NUPs result in decreased localization of HMR to the nuclear periphery. We also show that loss of telomeric tethering pathways does not eliminate NUP localization to HMR, suggesting that NUPs may mediate an independent pathway for HMR association with the nuclear periphery. We propose that localization of NUPs to the tDNA insulator at HMR helps maintain the intranuclear position of the silent locus, which in turn contributes to the fidelity of silencing at HMR.
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