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The Corregidores of the Colca Valley, Peru: Imperial Administration in an Andean Region  [cached]
Cook, Noble David
Anuario de Estudios Americanos , 2003,
Abstract: The corregidor de los indios was introduced into the Viceroyalty of Peru by Governor García de Castro in 1565. The institution was designed to limit the power of the encomendero elite and to improve administration and justice in the Andean countryside. Here we examine the impact of the reforms at the local level, the corregimiento of Los Collaguas in the Colca Valley, located between Cuzco and Arequipa. Althought the Crown was largely successful in weakening the encomienda, possibility of graft corrupted all but a handful of corregidores. The residencia did check some of those abuses. El gobernador García de Castro fue quien introdujo (1565) el corregidor de los indios en el virreinato del Perú. El corregimiento fue establecido para limitar el poder de los encomenderos y mejorar la administración y la justicia en los sitios rurales, y al mismo tiempo incrementar la colección del tributo. En este trabajo examinamos el impacto de las reformas en el corregimiento de los Collaguas situado en el hermoso valle del río Colca entre Arequipa y Cuzco. Aunque la corona fue más exitosa en debilitar la encomienda, la posibilidad de soborno corrompió a la mayoría de los corregidores.
Seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Andean communities from the Northeast of Lima, Peru
Espinoza, Yrma A.;Huapaya, Pedro E.;Roldán, William H.;Jiménez, Susana;Abanto, Enma P.;Rojas, Carlos A.;Cavero, Yuri A.;Gutiérrez, César A.;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652010000100005
Abstract: the aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in three andean communities from the northeast of lima, peru. a total of 303 subjects including children and adults were studied and blood samples were collected to detect anti-toxocara antibodies by elisa-igg test and by hematological examination; stool samples were collected also for parasitological examination. the overall seroprevalence of toxocariasis observed in the total population was 20.46%, with a significant high proportion in children from one to 10 years old (p = 0.034). among the subjects with positive serology, 32.26% of them had respiratory disturbances, 22.58% hepatomegaly, 17.74% ocular signs or symptoms, 14.51% abdominal pain, 9.68% neurological involvement, and 4.84% cutaneous signs, but none of these clinical features were associated to a positive serology by multivariate analysis. furthermore, 79.03% of seropositive subjects also harbored at least one intestinal parasite, which was associated to a positive serology (p < 0.05). the presence of pets within the houses, a previous history of pica or geophagia and the use of public places were also present in this population, but only the latter was associated to the serology (p < 0.05). in conclusion, clinical, serological, and epidemiological evidences for larval toxocara infection were found in the studied population.
Technical and Financial Feasibility of a Stand-alone Photovoltaic System for Rural Electrification in the Andean South Region of Peru  [cached]
Karen S. Villanueva Saberbein,Lu Aye
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n11p32
Abstract: The Andean South is one of the poorest regions of Peru. Only 44% of the rural inhabitants of this area have electricity. This paper describes an investigation into the technical and financial feasibility of stand-alone photovoltaic systems in this region. The feasibility study was undertaken for a typical village of Andean South. The village of Churrubamba Alta in the province of Andahuaylas, departamento de Apurimac (department of Apurimac) was selected. The TRNSYS software tool was used for performance analysis and identifying the optimal size of the system. The feasibility study showed that the best option is a 13.7 kW PV array and 180 kWh battery bank for the daily supply of 42.2 kWh electricity to 62 households and a community centre. The financial analysis demonstrated a net present value of US$186 918, internal rate of return of 28%, payback period of 4.3 years and levelised cost of electricity of US$0.30 per kWhe.
Microalgae community of the Huaytire wetland, an Andean high-altitude wetland in Peru
Salazar-Torres, Gian;Huszar, Vera Lúcia de Moraes;
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2179-975X2012005000046
Abstract: aim: the diversity and distribution of microalgae communities in a high-altitude (3,000 to 4,500 m a.s.l) andean wetland, regionally known as bofedal, were examined to assess seasonal and spatial patterns. methods: samples were taken monthly from june to december, 2008 at 13 stations in the huaytire wetland (16° 54’ s and 70° 20’ w), covering three areas (impacted by urban land use, impacted by camelid pasture, and non-impacted) and three climatologically induced periods (ice-covered, ice-melt and ice-free). results: a total of 52 genera of algae were recorded. diatoms were the predominant group in abundance and richness. we found a significantly higher abundance during the ice-melting period, when light exposure and runoff were intermediate, in comparison to the ice-covered (low light and flushing) and ice-free (high light and low runoff) periods. microalgae abundance was significantly lower in the non-impacted area compared to the sites close to the urban area and to the camelid pastures. alpha diversity ranged from 8 to 29 genera per sample. high genera exchange was observed throughout the wetland, showing a similar floristic composition (beta diversity = 4%). conclusions: we found that diatoms were dominant and adapted to the extreme conditions of the andean wetland, showing higher abundance during the ice-melt period and in the livestock area. also, taxa richness was higher in the ice-melt period and in the most-impacted areas.
Una nueva especie de Pentacalia (Senecioneae: Asteraceae) del Norte de Perú A new species of Pentacalia (Senecioneae: Asteraceae) from Northern Peru  [cached]
Abundio Sagástegui,Eric F. Rodríguez
Revista Peruana de Biología , 2011,
Abstract: Es descrita e ilustrada una nueva especie de Pentacalia Cassini (Senecioneae: Asteraceae) procedente del Departamento de La Libertad, Perú, y aparentemente endémica de la Provincia de Santiago de Chuco, denominada Pentacalia vallejiana Sagást. & E. Rodr. sp. nov. Esta nueva especie es suigéneris entre las especies peruanas y dentro del género. Se compara con sus relacionados y adicionalmente se presentan datos sobre su distribución geográfica y ecológica. Pentacalia vallejiana Sagást. & E. Rodr. sp. nov. is described as a new species of Pentacalia Cassini - (Senecioneae: Asteraceae) from the Department of La Libertad, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Santiago de Chuco. Pentacalia vallejiana is a remarkable Peruvian species and peculiar within the genus. It is compared with its closest relative and data on its geographical distribution and ecology are provided.
Distribution and Transmission of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands: A Case Study from Peru and Bolivia
Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel,Ina Vandebroek
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/959285
Abstract: This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers.
Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics
Calvo, Pamela;Orme?o-Orrillo, Ernesto;Martínez-Romero, Esperanza;Zú?iga, Doris;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822010000400008
Abstract: bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (pgp) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. potato crops in the andean highlands of peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. in this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising pgp strains. in this study, sixty three bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the andean highlands of peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani. a high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against r. solani was found. ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of f. solani. the antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the b. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains bac17m11, bac20m1 and bac20m2 may correspond to a putative new bacillus species. the results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the andes is a rich source of bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as pgp inoculants to improve potato crop.
Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru
Dora Velásquez-Milla, Alejandro Casas, Juan Torres-Guevara, Aldo Cruz-Soriano
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-7-40
Abstract: Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005). In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate relations with varieties richness managed per household were analyzed in order to explore factors with higher influence on conservation of crop variation.A total of 1483 and 507 farmer varieties of tuber species were found in the whole sample and period studied in Huánuco and Cajamarca, respectively. Significantly more varieties managed per household per year were recorded in Huánuco (146.39 ± 12.02) than in Cajamarca (44.55 ± 9.26), and marked differences in number of varieties per year were documented among households within each region (78.25 to 246.50 in Huánuco, 7.50 to 144.00 in Cajamarca). Correlation and multivariate analyses identified that the extent of agricultural area managed by households, cultural identity, practicing of traditional agricultural techniques, and level of self-sufficiency, are meaningful factors influencing higher varieties richness maintained by households. Yield and culinary attributes were considered by people as main features for selecting and deciding which varieties are priorities for conservation.Maintenance and promotion of indigenous Andean culture is crucial for ensuring conservat
Rainfall variability related to sea surface temperature anomalies in a Pacific–Andean basin into Ecuador and Peru
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2013,
Abstract: The spatiotemporal modes of seasonal rainfall variability and their relation with sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA 1.2 indices) are examined in the transition from the coastal plain towards the western Andes cordillera in southern Ecuador/northwestern Peru using instrumental records (1970–2000) collected from the Catamayo–Chira basin. A multi-criteria data analysis is conducted within different elevation ranges. The criteria involve rotated principal components, cross correlations and temporal changes of anomalies in rainfall quantiles. The results confirm that SSTA 1.2 indices influence rainfall variability over the coastal plain (< 510 m a.s.l.) where forcing is dominant within December–May. The El Ni o Southern Oscillation also plays a role inland of the coastal plain where a region of ENSO-like rainfall variability is found on the southeastern part of the basin (4°30'–5° S/79°15'–80° W) within March–May (MAM). This suggests that inland distance and elevation are only partial controls of ocean–atmospheric forcing up to ~ 1300 m a.s.l. Our analysis also provides evidence of the SSTA 1.2 indices influence in a large altitudinal range ~ 1400–2700 m a.s.l. confined to the southeastern basin. This region is found consistently perturbed by ENSO within MAM. We conclude that geo-morphological features of the southwestern Ecuadorian Andean ridges play a twofold role in the control of ocean–atmospheric forcing. They can modulate the atmospheric circulation, leading to a dissipation of the signal, or they might favor meteorological processes, leading to enhancement of orographic precipitation. This would explain the observed ENSO signals in instrumental records at locations as high as 2700 m a.s.l.
Two new species of Andean gymnophthalmid lizards of the genus Euspondylus (Reptilia, Squamata) from central and southern Peru  [cached]
Germán Chávez,Karen Siu-Ting,Vilma Duran,Pablo J. Venegas
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.109.1304
Abstract: Two new species of lizards assigned to the genus Euspondylus from the montane forests of the Peruvian Andes in the Pasco Department (central Peru) and Ayacucho Department (southern Peru) both at elevations of 2550 and 3450 m, respectively, are described. The new species are distinguishable from all other Peruvian and Ecuadorian species of Euspondylus by a unique combination of morphometric, scalation and color pattern characteristics. Natural history data for the new species and for E. spinalis are also provided.
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