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Eficiencia de uso de n-p-k en una asociación de maíz (zea mays l.) Y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan l. Millspaugh) con o sin fertilización Use efficiency of N-P-K intercropping system of corn Zea mays L. and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh with or without fertilization
Ana Isabel Quiroz,Douglas Marín
Bioagro , 2007,
Abstract: RESUMEN La práctica del monocultivo representa una de las principales causas de los desequilibrios en el ambiente y en el suelo en la depresión de Quíbor, en el estado Lara, Venezuela. Con el objeto de ofrecer alternativas de producción se estudió la eficiencia de uso de N, P y K en plantas de maíz y quinchoncho, conducidas como monocultivo o en asociación, sin fertilización o con aplicación de 120 kg·ha-1 N y 30 kg·ha-1 P, en un ensayo tipo aditivo en bloques al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se determinó la acumulación de estos elementos en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo, floración y maduración de frutos así como la eficiencia de absorción y conversión en términos absolutos para la etapa de maduración. Se encontró una mayor absorción de N y K en el maíz asociado en comparación con el monocultivo. El quinchoncho mostró una mayor acumulación de N y P en el monocultivo, y el asociado resultó desfavorecido independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante. La eficiencia de conversión absoluta presentó tendencias opuestas a la absorción, siendo superior para el maíz monocultivo respecto al asociado, mientras que en el quinchoncho ocurrió lo contrario, el asociado tuvo una mejor eficiencia de conversión absoluta para la elaboración de granos. Los valores de la relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET) por elemento, calculados con base en las eficiencias de absorción y conversión de N, P y K, indicaron ventajas de las asociaciones sobre los monocultivos, independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted in Quíbor Valley, Lara State, Venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements N, P and K in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. Plants were grown without fertilizer application, or under 120 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen and 30 kg·ha-1 of phosphorus. It was measured the absorption of nutrients during plant vegetative growth, flowering and fruit maturation, along with the efficiency of absorption and conversion in absolute terms during the maturation stage, using a randomized block design with five replications. The results showed a higher absorption of N and K in intercropping corn in comparison with sole crop. In pigeonpea, there was a higher accumulation of N and P in the sole crop plot, and the intercropping was more affected independently of the fertilizer application. Efficiency of absolute conversion had opposed tendencies when it was compared to the absorption, therefore corn in monocrop was superior to the intercrop. In pigeonpea opposite result was observed. The land equivalent
Mercado potencial de subproductos derivados del quinchoncho (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) para consumo humano en Maracaibo Potential market of by-products of (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for human consumption in Maracaibo
A Colina,A Higuera,A Gómez,N Rincón
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2008,
Abstract: El quinchoncho, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, es una leguminosa de amplia adaptación, con bajos costos de producción, por lo que los productos derivados de esta leguminosa son económicos y de fácil preparación. La investigación consistió en determinar el grado de percepción de los derivados del quinchoncho por la población marabina y su grado de aceptación, a través del perfil socio-económico y geo-demográfico del habitante del municipio. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de una encuesta, aplicada a una muestra de 384 habitantes. La investigación resultó en tres categorías de consumidores, 49% con gran aceptación por el producto; 26% con mediana aceptación; y los de baja aceptación, el 25%. Se obtuvo 5 estratos socio-económicos: A, formado por 7%; B, 13%; C, 37%; D, 39% y E, 4%. Los consumidores de la clase C y D, que representan el 77%, fueron los que respondieron con mayor grado de aceptación y constituyen el mercado potencial de los productos. El perfil de este consumidor es una mujer menor a los 44 a os, de condición laboral estable, casada y perteneciente a los estratos C y D. El consumidor de mediana aceptación, puede ser hombre o mujer, menor de 44 a os, no trabaja, soltero o casado, y pertenece a los estratos C y D. El consumidor con baja aceptación es mujer, entre los 44 y 64 a os, casada y perteneciente al estrato social D. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. is a leguminous with an ample adaptation, with low costs of production, the by-products are easy to prepare and very economic. The investigation was based on the way in which Maracaibo inhabitants observed the products, and which was the grade of approbation, doing also a social and economic profile, by including other characteristics like sex, age and labor condition. The data was compiled by a poll that was taken on a sample of 384 subjects, on the 18 Maracaibo Parrish. The results showed three category of consumers: one consumer with a high grade of approbation, formed by 49%, one consumer with a medium grade of approbation, 26%, and other consumer with a low grade of approbation, 25%. It was obtained 5 social classes: class A, formed by 7%, class B, 13%, class C 37%, class D 39% and class E 4%. In the category of high grade of approbation of the by-product, the classes C and D were the most numerous with 77%, and these classes will be the potential market of the by-products. The profile of the high grade of approbation consumer is woman, below 44 years old with stable job, married and forming the classes C and D. The consumer with a medium grade of approbation can be man or woman, over 44 ye
Mercado potencial de subproductos derivados del quinchoncho (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) para consumo humano en Maracaibo
Colina,A; Higuera,A; Gómez,A; Rincón,N; Puentes,J; Segovia,E;
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2008,
Abstract: cajanus cajan (l.) millsp. is a leguminous with an ample adaptation, with low costs of production, the by-products are easy to prepare and very economic. the investigation was based on the way in which maracaibo inhabitants observed the products, and which was the grade of approbation, doing also a social and economic profile, by including other characteristics like sex, age and labor condition. the data was compiled by a poll that was taken on a sample of 384 subjects, on the 18 maracaibo parrish. the results showed three category of consumers: one consumer with a high grade of approbation, formed by 49%, one consumer with a medium grade of approbation, 26%, and other consumer with a low grade of approbation, 25%. it was obtained 5 social classes: class a, formed by 7%, class b, 13%, class c 37%, class d 39% and class e 4%. in the category of high grade of approbation of the by-product, the classes c and d were the most numerous with 77%, and these classes will be the potential market of the by-products. the profile of the high grade of approbation consumer is woman, below 44 years old with stable job, married and forming the classes c and d. the consumer with a medium grade of approbation can be man or woman, over 44 years old, with no job, married or single and forming the classes c and d. the consumer with a low grade of approbation is woman, with age between 44 and 64 years old, married and forming the classes c and d.
Eficiencia de uso de n-p-k en una asociación de maíz (zea mays l.) Y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan l. Millspaugh) con o sin fertilización
Quiroz,Ana Isabel; Marín,Douglas;
Bioagro , 2007,
Abstract: abstract an experiment was conducted in quíbor valley, lara state, venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements n, p and k in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. plants were grown without fertilizer application, or under 120 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen and 30 kg·ha-1 of phosphorus. it was measured the absorption of nutrients during plant vegetative growth, flowering and fruit maturation, along with the efficiency of absorption and conversion in absolute terms during the maturation stage, using a randomized block design with five replications. the results showed a higher absorption of n and k in intercropping corn in comparison with sole crop. in pigeonpea, there was a higher accumulation of n and p in the sole crop plot, and the intercropping was more affected independently of the fertilizer application. efficiency of absolute conversion had opposed tendencies when it was compared to the absorption, therefore corn in monocrop was superior to the intercrop. in pigeonpea opposite result was observed. the land equivalent ratio (ler) for n-pk, based on their absorption and conversion efficiencies, indicated advantages of intercropping over the sole crop regardless of the fertilizer application
Anatomy of the Root of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)  [PDF]
Shahanara Begum,A.K.M. Azad-ud-doula Prodhan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Anatomical investigation has been made on the root of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) at different stages of growth following the standard paraffin method of microtechnique. The root of pigeonpea is tetrarch with 4 strands of xylem and 4 strands of phloem. One strand of xylem alternates with one strand of phloem. The four opposite strands of primary xylem meet at the centre. Subsequently metaxylem forms near the centre on either side of the xylem strand. Ultimately the centre is filled up with big metaxylem vessels. The epidermis is single layered with root hairs and glandular trichomes. There are 8-13 layers of cortical cells in the root of pigeonpea. The cambium appears in the basal part of the root of 3-4 days old plant. Gradually it extends towards the root apex. The activity of cambium is similar to that of woody dicotyledonous herb. In the mature root, most of the vessels in the secondary xylem are solitary while the others are paired or multiple. The fibre cells in the phloem are arranged in groups. The fibre groups are radially arranged in such a way that the structure seems to be a pyramid. The epidermis is ruptured here and there, and the epidermal cells are disorganized due to the stress of secondary growth. Periderm is formed in the root one after another as the root increases in diameter.
Interspecific hybridization between Cajanus cajan and Cajanus cajanifolius  [PDF]
Venkatesan Thiruvengadam,Arunachalam Muthiah
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Interspecific hybridization between five Canajus cajan genotypes viz., ICPL 87, CORG 9302, CORG 5, TAT 93-47 and AS 46 and the wild species C. cajanifolius was attempted. Successful pod set was observed in direct crosses involvingC. cajan as ovule parent and C. cajanifolius as pollen parent while the reciprocal crosses failed to set pods. The only survivingF1 of ICPL 87 × C. cajanifolius was vigorous in growth and exhibited intermediate leaf and flower morphology with predominanceof C. cajanifolius plant type. Chromosome pairing was rather irregular in the F1 hybrid with loose pairing, univalents,quadrivalents and abnormalities like laggards, stickiness, bridges, precocious separation and non-synchronization of thegenomes. Pollen fertility of the hybrid was low and occurrence of triads was noticed. The partial homology coupled with seedset suggested the possibility of incorporating traits of economic importance such as pest resistance from C. cajanifolius intoC. cajan.
Anatomy of the Stem of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)  [PDF]
Shahanara Begum,Md. Azharul Islam,A.K.M. Azad-ud-doula Prodhan
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Anatomical investigation has been made on the stem of pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan (L.) Millsp.) at different stages of growth following the standard paraffin method of microtechnique. The vascular bundle of the stem are collateral and arranged in a ring. The cambium initiates in the primary vascular bundle between xylem and phloem at the basal part of the stem of 3 days old plant. After the formation of fascicular cambium it gives rise to secondary xylem adaxially and secondary phloem abaxially. Most of the vessel members are solitary and few are paired while others are multiple. The solitary vessel members are more in mature stem as compared to that of the younger stem. The well developed periderm was found in mature stem. The pith resembles a typical dicotyledonous stem.
Antimicrobial Activities of Cajanus cajan, Garcinia kola and Xylopia aethiopica on Pathogenic Microorganisms
G.O. Ezeifeka,M.U. Orji,T.I. Mbata,A.O. Patrick
Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of locally available plants, Cajanus cajan, Garcinia kola and Xylopia aethiopica on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were evaluated. The agar gel diffusion and paper disk diffusion method were used to determine the inhibitory effects of both the leaves and seeds extract of the test plants on the test microorganisms. The plant extracts produced inhibition zones ranging from 3 to 22 mm against the test microorganisms. The ethanol extracts of the test plants were more effective in producing inhibition zones against the micro-organisms than water extracts. The extracts of Cajanus cajan produced wider zones of inhibition against Candida albicans than the other plants extracts.
HERBICIDAL ACTION ON GERMINATION, AMYLASE ACTIVITY AND GIBBERELLIN LEVEL IN CAJANUS CAJAN (L.)  [PDF]
Shrikant Jain and Sashima Kumari
Bioscience Discovery , 2012,
Abstract: Modern agricultural practices have introduced numerous pesticides, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, biocides, fertilizers and manures resulting in severe biological and chemical contamination of land. Gradual absorptions of remnants of these pesticides into the soil which may contaminate root crops grown in the soil results in the disruption of the balance of natural cycles and food chains within natural ecosystem. The present study shows the effects of various concentrations of glyphosate, a weedicide widely used by the farmers retard the seed germination percentage and growth of the seedlings in Cajanus cajan(L.). Similarly as the concentration of weedicide increases the gradual decrease in the amylase activity and gibberellin level was observedin C. cajan.
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CAJANUS CAJAN LEAVES IN RATS  [cached]
Adaobi C. Ezike,Peter A. Akah,Charles C. Okoli,Chinwe B. Okpala
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The antidiabetic activity of methanol leaves extract of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.(Fabaceae) was studied in alloxan-diabetic and in oral glucose loaded rats. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) and the phytochemical analysis of the extract were also evaluated. The results showed that the extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced fasting blood sugar of alloxan diabetic rats in a dose-related manner, with maximum hypoglycemic effect at 4 – 6 h. The extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) also significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the peak postprandial rise in blood glucose of normal rats by 101.8 and 57.40 % respectively. Acute toxicity and lethality test of the extract in rats gave an oral LD50 greater than 5 g/kg. The findings indicate that the leaves of C. cajan may be beneficial as an antidiabetic therapy.
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