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Ethical considerations in animal studies  [PDF]
Mehdi Ghasemi,Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Scientists undoubtedly owe their great advance and knowledge in biomedical research to millions of animals which they use every year in often-times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. One of the important issues in scientific research is to consider ethics in animal experimentation. Since this is a crucial issue in the modern era of medical research, in this paper, we have provided some guidelines (most of which have been adopted from Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals provided by American Association of Psychologists) which could be useful for researchers to design studies on a variety of animals.
Algunas consideraciones bioéticas en la experimentación en animales, seres humanos y trasplantología Some bioethical considerations concerning transplantology and experimentation with animals and human beings  [cached]
Katiana Galvizu Díaz,Yanet Villar Badía,Marelis Plasencia Pérez
Humanidades M??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: Se realizó una reflexión sobre el origen y conceptualización de la Bioética. Se abordo la etica en la experimentacion con animales de laboratorio y seres humanos, asi como en dilemas que aparecen en el curso de la investigacion cientifica en ambos campos. Asimismo, son tratados aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta en la trasplantologia. Se concluye que el incumplimiento de las normas eticas en la investigacion cientifica genera dilemas bioeticos que deben resolverse en funcion del bienestar humano y animal en contraposicion a los intereses comerciales y politicos. The article revises some of the considerations concerning both the origin and conceptualization of Bioethics. It deals with ethical aspects related to experimentation with laboratory animals and human beings, as well as some of the dilemmas that usually come up during the course of testing. It also considers the ethical aspects of transplantology. As conclusions, it states that breaking ethical standards of scientific research provokes bioethical dilemmas, which must be solved to favor human and animal wellbeing against economical and political interests.
Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives
Petrini C
Journal of Blood Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S36134
Abstract: hical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives Review (1815) Total Article Views Authors: Petrini C Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 87 - 96 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S36134 Received: 19 July 2012 Accepted: 23 August 2012 Published: 07 September 2012 Carlo Petrini Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Abstract: This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others) arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed.
Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives  [cached]
Petrini C
Journal of Blood Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Carlo PetriniItalian National Institute of Health, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others) arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed.Keywords: bioethics, biological specimen banks, cord-blood stem cell transplantation, ethics, informed consent, legislation
Consideraciones éticas ante el paciente con hemorragia digestiva alta Ethical considerations regarding the patient with upper digestive bleeding  [cached]
Martha Esther Larrea Fabra
Revista Cubana de Cirugía , 2009,
Abstract: Se hace un análisis de la actuación que debe tener el personal de la salud ante una enfermedad aguda, como es el caso de la hemorragia digestiva, y de la repercusión que ésta tiene en las esferas física y psíquica del paciente y de sus familiares, así como de las alteraciones que puede ocasionar en la relación del hombre con su comunidad. Las consideraciones éticas sustentadas en la medicina basada en evidencias son de suma importancia para lograr la recuperación de estos pacientes graves y la mejor opción para que el enfermo recupere su salud de forma integral. Se hacen reflexiones respecto a los conceptos que sobre la ética médica han sido considerados y respecto a aquellos sobre los que se basa nuestra sociedad actual. An analysis is made of the way the health personal should act in the presence of an acute disease, such as digestive hemorrhage, of its impact on the physical and psychical spheres of the patients and their relatives, as well as of the disorders it may cause in the man-community relationship. The ethical considerations sustained on evidence-based medicine are very important to attain the recovery of these severe patients and they are the best option for the comprehensive recuperation of the patient's health. Reflections are made on the concepts of medical ethics that have been considered so far and on those on which our current society is based.
Some Ethical Considerations Regarding Medicalization of Female Genital Mutilation/cutting (Female Circumcision)
R. A. Ragab,Ahmed;
Revista Latinoamericana de Bioética , 2008,
Abstract: according to each society's condition the ethical attitude of the individual may be colored by the attitude of the society. it is therefore not surprising to find what is ethical in one society might not be ethical in another. female genital cutting, as an example, is seen in some societies as a must and something good for the whole community in general and for girls in particular, while in others, it is seen as mutilation and violation of human rights. the practice of female genital cutting is a complex issue that ties the traditional gender roles, superstition, local concepts on health and sexuality, as well as several other social relations. worldwide, an estimated 130 million girls and women have undergone fgc. the current paper examines medicalization of female genital cutting from ethical point of view. the paper discusses the issue in the following themes: definition of the practice, the justifications of the practice, the complications and lastly the ethical reflections. the paper argues that laws that prohibit the practice would not work, without wide socio-cultural change; any effort to eradicate the practice would not succeed.
Algunas consideraciones bioéticas en la experimentación en animales, seres humanos y trasplantología
Galvizu Díaz,Katiana; Villar Badía,Yanet; Plasencia Pérez,Marelis;
Humanidades M??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: the article revises some of the considerations concerning both the origin and conceptualization of bioethics. it deals with ethical aspects related to experimentation with laboratory animals and human beings, as well as some of the dilemmas that usually come up during the course of testing. it also considers the ethical aspects of transplantology. as conclusions, it states that breaking ethical standards of scientific research provokes bioethical dilemmas, which must be solved to favor human and animal wellbeing against economical and political interests.
Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries
Gregory Pappas, Adnan A Hyder
Globalization and Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-1-16
Abstract: The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries). Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed.The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.The national health information needs of developing countries are increasingly relying on the collection of biological and physiological measures [1-5]. The use of these biomarkers in population-based surveys has led to a call for a review of the ethical standards under which surveys are conducted in less-developed nations [6]. Controversies over clinical research conducted in developing countries have intensified the scrutiny of all research being conducted in these settings [7]. This debate has reaffirmed that the global human rights and medical ethical principles – including fidelity, truthfulness, confidentiality, autonomy, and beneficence, – must be carefully reviewed in the name of research, surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation [8-10]. Ethical issues in population-based surveys include informed safety, informed consent, confidentiality, and reporting findings of testing. Globalization of ethical principles must be interpreted within the particulars of national context in which the scientific study takes place.Development of rapid, low cost, diagnostic kits and portable, robust technology has made possible a new generation of population-based health surveys [11]. While standards and safeguards for health interview surveys in developing count
The Ethical Implications for Humans in Light of the Poor Predictive Value of Animal Models  [PDF]
Ray Greek
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516129
Abstract:

The notion that animals could be used as predictive models in science has been influenced by relatively recent developments in the fields of complexity science, evolutionary and developmental biology, genetics, and evolutionary biology in general. Combined with empirical evidence, which has led scientists in drug development to acknowledge that a new, nonanimal model is needed, a theory—not a hypothesis—has been formed to explain why animals function well as models for humans at lower levels of organization but are unable to predict outcomes at higher levels of organization. Trans-Species Modeling Theory (TSMT) places the empirical evidence in the context of a scientific theory and thus, from a scientific perspective, the issue of where animals can and cannot be used in science has arguably been settled. Yet, some in various areas of science or science-related fields continue to demand that more evidence be offered before the use of animal models in medical research and testing be abandoned on scientific grounds. In this article, I examine TSMT, the empirical evidence surrounding the use of animal models, and the opinions of experts. I contrast these facts with the opinions and positions of those that have a direct or indirect vested interest—financial or otherwise—in animal models. I then discuss the ethical implications regarding research constructed to find cures and treatments for humans.

Documentation of ethical considerations in published articles in Sudanese medical journals
DEM Elsayed, RM Elamin
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction. Guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects require that research should be conducted in accordance with accepted ethical principles. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines require authors to indicate that they have obtained ethical approval and informed consent. Sudanese scientific medical journals ask authors to declare informed consent and ethical approval by an ethics review committee (ERC) in published reports. Methods. We reviewed 114 original research articles published in five peer-reviewed Sudanese medical and health journals to assess the extent to which ethical considerations had been reported. Results. A subtitle indicating ‘ethical considerations’ was found in 5 (4.4%) articles, 35 (30.7%) stated that informed consent had been obtained from the study participants, and 13 (11.4%) stated that the study had been approved by an independent ERC. Although all five journals explicitly ask authors to document ethical approval and informed consent, 88.6% and 69.3% of the articles examined had failed to document ethical approval and informed consent, respectively. Discussion. Failure to obtain or report ethical approval by an ERC and failure to obtain informed consent from study participants was the most prominent finding. Failure to report ethical approval or consent was seen to a similar extent in all study designs reported, so study design did not seem to influence the reporting of ethical considerations. However, failure to document ethical considerations, in particular ethics committee approval and obtaining of informed consent, does not necessarily mean that these were not done in the research reported. Limitations. We reviewed only Sudanese journals, so do not know the practice of Sudanese authors in this regard when they publish in international scientific journals.
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