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Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children  [cached]
Gruber R,Michaelsen S,Bergmame L,Frenette S
Nature and Science of Sleep , 2012,
Abstract: Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, H pital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls), aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, healthy school-aged children
Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children
Gruber R, Michaelsen S, Bergmame L, Frenette S, Bruni O, Fontil L, Carrier J
Nature and Science of Sleep , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S24607
Abstract: rt sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children Original Research (2896) Total Article Views Authors: Gruber R, Michaelsen S, Bergmame L, Frenette S, Bruni O, Fontil L, Carrier J Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 33 - 40 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S24607 Received: 28 July 2011 Accepted: 18 October 2011 Published: 07 March 2012 Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, H pital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, Italy Purpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children. Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls), aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale. Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident. Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.
Behavioural Sleep Disorders across the Developmental Age Span: An Overview of Causes, Consequences and Treatment Modalities  [PDF]
Sarah Lee Blunden
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.33035
Abstract: Behavioural sleep problems, that is, sleep problems that do not have a physiological aetiology, but rather a behavioural or psychological aetiology, are reported in between 20% - 40% of children and adolescents. These sleep disorders are categorised as Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood (BIC) in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. BIC can result in short sleep duration and poor quality sleep and can have wide ranging effects on mental and physical health, cognitive and social functioning and development in infants, pre-schoolers, school aged children and adolescents. Each age group have a particular set of behaviourally based sleep disorders. This paper presents a broad overview of BIC and covers essential information about these sleep disorders, their aetiologies, effects on development and non medical treatment modalities.
Sleep Patterns and Sleep Problems Among Preschool and School-Aged Group Children in a Primary Care Setting
M Mohammadi,B Ghalebaghi,MF Ghaleh Bandi,E Amintehrani
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: To describe sleep patterns and sleep problems among preschool and school aged group children in a primary care setting in Iran. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran from March 2006 to September 2006.Findings: Sleep patterns of 215 children studied (101 were in preschool age group; 2-6 years old, and 114 were in primary school age group; 7-12 years old). Sleep problems were common in study group, as follows: bedtime problems 21.05%-56.44%, excessive daytime sleepiness 26.73%-42.98%, awakening during the night 13.86%-32.46%, regularity and duration of sleep 17.54%-27.72%, sleep-disordered breathing 10.53%-17.82%.Conclusion: These high frequencies of sleep problems in children explains the importance and burden of sleep disorders in children which unfortunately are not noticed by primary care providers in Iran and inadequate attention to them may have negative consequences on a host of functional domains, including mood, behavior, school performance, and health outcomes.
SLEEP PATTERNS AND SLEEP DISORDERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QAZVIN, IRAN  [cached]
M. Javadzadeh,Z. Hashemi,M. Roudbari,F. Mahvelati
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2008,
Abstract: Sleep disorders are common in children; they also have a significant impact on the whole family, the parents in particular. Few studies in this field have been performed in Iran; hence the present study was carried out in order to determine sleep patterns and the prevalence of sleep disorders in school aged children in Qazvin.Material and MethodsThis cross sectional study was done on 300 students (150 males and 150 females) of elementary schools in Qazvin, selected from cluster random samples. The duration of the study was from November 2006 to February 2007, and data was acquired by means of a standard pediatric sleep questionnaire.ResultsThe prevalence of sleep disorder among subjects was 44.3% (47.3% in males, and 41.3% in females), and the disorder was severe in 21% of the studied children. Sleep patterns during the school days differed significantly from what was observed on Fridays (p=0.000). In addition, there was a significant difference between males and females in terms of duration of sleep on Fridays (p=0.014).ConclusionConsidering the high prevalence of sleep disorders in children, their harmful impact on the development of the nervous system and the child's learning and psychological health as well as on parental competency, and again bearing in mind the low level of awareness among the general population about sleep hygiene, we strongly recommend educational programs via public media and via meetings with the parents in schools.
Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with problematic sleep: a before-after pilot study
Evan Tan, Dione Healey, Andrew R Gray, Barbara C Galland
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-189
Abstract: Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing) sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate) completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and wore Actical? monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks) and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks) the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention.Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F?=?0.8) enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p?=?0.005) from a baseline mean (SD) of 4.70 (0.41) to 4.95 (0.31) post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43) to 4.47 (2.37); p?<?0.001] and SDSC scores [53.4 (9.0) to 39.2 (9.2); p?<?0.001]. PDSS scores improved from a baseline of 16.5 (6.0) to 11.3 (6.0) post- intervention (p?<?0.001). BMI z-scores with a baseline of 0.79 (1.18) decreased significantly (p?=?0.001) post-intervention to 0.66 (1.19). Despite these improvements, sleep duration as estimated by Actical accelerometry did not change. There was however a significant decrease in daytime sedentary/light energy expenditure.Our findings suggest the F.E.R.R.E.T sleep hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819It is well established that children and adolescents require an average of at least nine hours of sleep per night [1-4] but unfortunately
Sleep disorders in high school and pre-university students
Rocha, Célia R.S.;Rossini, Sueli;Reim?o, Rubens;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2010000600014
Abstract: adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. the selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. objective: to verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. method: this cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (m=241, f=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-university courses - a middle-class neighborhood in the city of s?o paulo - aged between 16 and 19 years old. we used the pittsburgh sleep quality index (psqi) - a standardized questionnaire. results: the participants (52.9%) took about 30 minutes to fall asleep, with an average of 306.4 minutes asleep, moderate daytime sleepiness (n=243, 45.9%) and indisposition (n=402, 75.9%) to develop the activities. the scores (m and f) were similar regarding problems that affect sleep. conclusion: the investigated population showed sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.
Prevalence of Sleep-related Breathing Disorders in Children from 6 to 11 Years Old Prevalencia de los trastornos respiratorios asociados al sue o en escolares  [cached]
Alexander Torres Molina
MediSur , 2012,
Abstract: Background: For many authors the current prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders is not totally clear. Nevertheless, it affects approximately from 2 to 13% of children and adolescents ranging from simple snoring child to those with clinical manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and major symptoms associated with sleep-related breathing disorders in school children from 6 to 11 years old. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in Moa, which included a sample of 1608 school children aged from 6 to11 years old. For epidemiologic data recollection, a questionnaire named TuCASA was used and in order to stratify patients according to clinical manifestations related to sleep-related breathing disorders the Brouillette score was used. Results: 13.55% of school children snore habitually and 36.01% occasionally. 14.31% of males and 12.65% of females snore regularly. Sore throat (44.95%) and mouth breathing during the day (47.71%) were common clinical manifestations in habitually snoring children. 91.61% of those with a score between -1 and 3.5 and 89.80% of those who had> 3.5 in Brouillette score were habitual snorers. Conclusions: A high percentage of schoolchildren are occasional or habitual snorers, which was most frequently observed in 8 to 9 years old male children. Clinical manifestations during the day and night compatible with sleep-related breathing disorders are more common in habitual snorers Fundamento: para muchos autores la prevalencia actual de los trastornos respiratorios asociados al sue o es imprecisa, sin embargo afecta aproximadamente del 2 al 13 % de ni os y adolescentes. Abarcan desde el ni o roncador simple, hasta aquellos con manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sue o. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del ronquido habitual y de los principales síntomas relacionados con los trastornos respiratorios asociados al sue o en escolares de 6-11 a os. Métodos: estudio descriptivo longitudinal realizado en Moa, que incluyó una muestra de 1608 escolares de 6-11 a os. Para obtener los datos epidemiológicos se empleó el cuestionario TuCASA y para estratificar los pacientes según manifestaciones clínicas relacionadas con los trastornos respiratorios asociados al sue o, el score de Brouillette. Resultados: el 13,55 % de los escolares ronca habitualmente, el 36,01 % ocasionalmente. El 14,31 % de los varones y el 12,65 % de las féminas roncan de forma habitual. El dolor de garganta (44,95 %) y la respiración bucal durante el día (47,71 %) constituyeron
Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study  [PDF]
Philipp Mahlknecht, Stefan Kiechl, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Johann Willeit, Christoph Scherfler, Arno Gasperi, Gregorio Rungger, Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069627
Abstract: Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (p<0.001), but 38.3% (95%CI 30.1%–47.3%) of the subjects aged 80 years or older still had a normally preserved gait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; p<0.001 for multiple neurological gait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower cognitive function, depressed mood, and diminished quality of life.
Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD
Reut Gruber, Laura Fontil, Lana Bergmame, Sabrina T Wiebe, Rhonda Amsel, Sonia Frenette, Julie Carrier
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-212
Abstract: After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls) aged 7–11?years (mean age 8.61?years, SD 1.27?years) participated in the present study.In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident.Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impulsivity/hyperactivity and inattention, with symptom onset before 7?years of age and impaired functioning in two or more environmental settings [1]. ADHD is estimated to occur in 3–7.5% of school-aged children, making it one of the most prevalent child psychiatric conditions. Moreover, 50% of children diagnosed with ADHD also suffer from impairment as young adults [2]. Parental reports indicate a 2- to 3-fold higher prevalence of sleep problems in children with ADHD compared to normal controls [3], including increased bedtime resistance [4,5], delayed sleep onset [6], frequent waking in the night [7], frequent motor movements during sleep [8], and morning/daytime fatigue [9,10]. As well, approximately one-third of medication-free children with ADHD experience chronic sl
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