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Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents
Mesquita, Gema;Reim?o, Rubens;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652010000200029
Abstract: objective: the objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. method: two high schools in alfenas, southern minas gerais state, brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. the sample consisted of both genders (n=160) with 65.63% females. the age range of participants was 15 to18 years. the pittsburgh sleep quality index (psqi) was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. the lipp inventory of stress symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. results: it was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. with regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, mann-whitney (p=0.0596). conclusion: stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.
Nightly use of computer by adolescents: its effect on quality of sleep
Mesquita, Gema;Reim?o, Rubens;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2007000300012
Abstract: objective: to analyze the influence of nocturnal use of computer and their effect on sleep quality, in a group of adolescents. method: two middle schools were chosen for the research. the sample consisted of adolescents n=160 (55m; 105f), with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years. questionnaire about computer use with the objective of obtaining information regarding the time and number of hours of nocturnal computer use, were applied for collection of data. they included the pittsburgh sleep quality index (psqi), utilized to quantfy sleep quality; student report cards were used to note student's absences and grades were used. results: the multiple logistic regression test indicated that nocturnal computer use impairs good sleep (p=0.0062). conclusion: irregular sleep patterns associated with nightly computer use deteriorate sleep quality.
Lipodystrophic syndrome in children and adolescents infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
Alves, Crésio;Oliveira, Ana Cláudia;Brites, Carlos;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702008000400018
Abstract: the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) has resulted in greater survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). however, the use of these drugs has been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome (ls), which is characterized by metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lactic acidosis) and abnormal corporal fat distribution. clinically, ls may manifest as three different forms: lipohipertrophy (accumulation of fat in the central part of the body), lipoatrophy (loss of fat in the extremities, face and buttocks) and mixed (lipohipertrophy + lipoatrophy). although its physiopathology has not been elucidated, some mechanisms have been described, including leptin and adiponectin deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction and use of antiretroviral drugs. the type, dose and duration of the antiretroviral treatment, as well as age and puberty are the main risk factors. ls is also associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular illnesses, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. treatment includes physical activity, cautious restriction of caloric intake, changes in antiretroviral therapy, and use of insulin-sensitizing and lipid-lowering agents. follow up must be periodic, consisting of measurement of body fat distribution, evaluation of the lipid profile and insulin resistance.
Relationship of Sleep Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents According to Self- and Proxy Ratings: A Questionnaire Survey  [PDF]
Karolin Roeser,Barbara Schwerdtle,Andrea Kübler
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00076
Abstract: Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common in adolescents and adversely affect performance, social contact, and susceptibility to stress. We investigated the hypothesis of a relationship between sleep and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and applied self- and proxy ratings. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 92 adolescents aged 11–17 years. All participants and their parents completed a HRQoL measure and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Children with SDSC T-scores above the normal range (above 60) were classified as poor sleepers. Results: According to self- and proxy ratings, good sleepers reported significantly higher HRQoL than poor sleepers. Sleep disturbances were significantly higher and HRQoL significantly lower in self- as compared to parental ratings. Parent-child agreement was higher for subscales measuring observable aspects. Girls experienced significantly ber sleep disturbances and lower self-rated HRQoL than boys. Discussion: Our findings support the positive relationship of sleep and HRQoL. Furthermore, parents significantly underestimate sleep disturbances and overestimate HRQoL in their children.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Adolescents  [PDF]
George K. Siberry,Toni Frederick,Patricia Emmanuel,Mary E. Paul,Beverly Bohannon,Travis Wheeling,Theresa Barton,Mobeen H. Rathore,Kenneth L. Dominguez
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/627974
Abstract: Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection incidence has increased in healthy US children. Our objective was to evaluate MRSA incidence and correlates in HIV-infected youth. Methods. The CDC-sponsored LEGACY study is a US multicenter chart abstraction study of HIV-infected youth. We identified MRSA infections among participants with ≥1 visit during 2006. We used bivariate and multivariable analyses to compare sociodemographic and HIV clinical factors between MRSA cases and noncases. Results. Fourteen MRSA infections (1 invasive, 12 soft tissue, 1 indeterminate) occurred among 1,813 subjects (11.1 infections/1,000 patient-years (PY), 95% CI: 11.06–11.14). Most (86%) isolates were clindamycin susceptible. Compared with noncases, MRSA cases were more likely older (17 versus 14 years), black (100% versus 69%), behaviorally HIV infected (43% versus 17%), and in Maryland (43% versus 7%) and had viral loads (VL) >1000 copies/mL (86% versus 51%) and lower mean CD4% (18% versus 27%) (all ?? < 0 . 0 5 ). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors were Maryland care site (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 9.0), VL >1000 copies/mL (aOR = 5.9), and black race (aOR undefined). Conclusions. MRSA occurred at a rate of 11.1 infections/1,000 PY in HIV-infected youth but invasive disease was uncommon. Geographic location, black race, and increased VL, but not immunosuppression, were independently associated with MRSA risk. 1. Introduction Throughout the United States, MRSA infections have increased dramatically in healthy adults and children without more commonly healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) risk factors, such as recent hospitalization or surgery, indwelling catheter or residence in a long-term care facility [1–5]. Estimated rates of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infection are 18–26 per 100,000 persons annually with higher rates in young children and blacks [3]. Most circulating CA-MRSA strains cause skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), though invasive infections occur and may be increasing [6–9]. These same CA-MRSA strains have also increasingly caused infections in healthcare settings and in patients with traditional risk factors for HA-MRSA [10–12]. HIV infection appears to be an independent risk factor for MRSA infections in adults, and MRSA infections occur at higher rates in HIV-infected adults [13, 14]. The association of lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts with higher risk of MRSA infection suggests that the MRSA infection risk may be increased by immunodeficiency [13] and raises concern for higher risk of
Clinical Response to Treatment of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis in Non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adolescents and Adults  [PDF]
Jin Young Lee, Su Jin Lee, Ji Young Park, Min Jeong Kim
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44020
Abstract: Introduction: More than half of patients with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) die or are left with severe neurological deficits despite receiving anti-TB treatment. Aims of the study: This study examined risk factors associated with poor response to initial treatment with four anti-TB drug regimens or three drug regimens with steroids as adjuvant therapy. Methods: This study analyzed medical records from two tertiary hospitals in Busan, Korea, between January 2009 and March 2012. The subjects were non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients aged ≥16 years with clinical CNS TB. The subjects were divided into two groups according to response to treatment. Results: In totally, 52 patients with CNS TB were included. Of these, 14 (26%) and 38 (73%) showed poor and good responses, respectively. Of the patients with poor response, nine had stage III disease (64.3%) according to the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging system. A significantly higher proportion was seen in the good response group (p < 0.05). Patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture, positive sputum AFB culture, positive CSF TB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and brain tuberculoma had poorer responses (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis to determine risk factors associated with poor response to anti-TB therapy revealed that a poor response was associated with stage III clinical signs upon diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 32.122; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.221 - 464.605), positive sputum AFB culture (OR 13.624; 95% CI 1.066 - 174.149), and tuberculoma on brain images (OR 45.714; 95% CI 1.893 - 1104.018). Conclusions: The results demonstrate the importance of identifying the severity of CNS TB and promptly administering anti-TB drugs. It is necessary to perform drug susceptibility testing for anti-TB drugs. Further studies are needed to confirm the correlations between risk factors associated with poor response and anti-TB drug resistance and the other risk factors.
Infatuation and Lovesickness on Sleep Quality and Dreams in Adolescence  [PDF]
Angelika A. Schlarb, Nathalie Brock, Fridtjof W. Nussbeck, Merle Cla?en
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.91010
Abstract: Background: Infatuation and lovesickness are widespread and significant experiences in adolescence. Less is known about the connection between infatuation/lovesickness and sleep. The few studies, examining the link between infatuation and sleep quality show inconsistent results. The link between lovesickness and sleep as well as the link between infatuation/lovesickness and dreams has not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to examine whether infatuation and lovesickness are linked to sleep quality and dreams in adolescents. Methods: A self-assessment online questionnaire was constructed to assess adolescents’ infatuation, lovesickness, sleep quality and dreams. In total, data of 630 adolescents and young adults (150 males, 480 females; aged 16 - 21) were analyzed in this study. Results: Infatuation did not relate to overall sleep quality and dreams. Sleep disturbances, as a component of overall sleep quality, were more frequent in infatuated adolescents. Adolescents currently suffering from lovesickness reported a significantly lower sleep quality, more negative dreams and nightmares. Furthermore, nightmares influenced them more strongly the next day. Conclusions: The associations between infatuation/lovesickness and sleep provide evidence for the far reaching effects of infatuation and lovesickness in adolescents’ lives. The fact that lovesickness leads to lower sleep quality and more negative dreams should be integrated in new approaches of insomnia treatment.
Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems in a Representative Sample of German Children and Adolescents  [PDF]
Angelika A. Schlarb, Marco D. Gulewitsch, Victoria Weltzer, Ute Ellert, Paul Enck
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711154
Abstract: Objective: The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration for nighttime sleep from early infancy to late adolescence in a German sample to illustrate the developmental course and age-specific variability of these variables among subjects. Methods: A total of 17,641 subjects from the KiGGS study were evaluated. The questionnaires contained questions about physical health, living circumstances, health behavior and risks, health supply, mental health, health-related quality of life and sleep. KiGGS assessed sleep by using parent questionnaire of children aged 0 to 10 years (n = 9944) and self-reports of adolescents (n = 7697) aged 11 to 17 years. Results: Total sleep duration decreased from 14.28 hours (SD = 2.33) at the ages 0 - 0.5 to 9.50 hours (SD = 0.82) at the ages of 10.5 - 11. Above the age of 11 adolescents report a decrease of sleep at night from 9.41 hours (SD = 1.33) at the age of 11 - 11.5 to 7.42 (SD = 1.73) at the age of 17.5 - 18 years. Unspecified sleep problems were reported of 19.5%, 13.0% of the children had difficulties falling asleep, difficulties sleeping through the night showed 8.8% of the children, whereas 3.0% report both symptoms—difficulties falling asleep and difficulties sleeping through the night. Conclusions: Age-specific variability of sleep duration is reported as well as sleep difficulties from infancy to adolescence. This is important knowledge for the health care professional who deals with sleep problems in pediatric practice.
Sleep Deficiency and Sleep Health Problems in Chinese Adolescents
Victor Kang, Jesus Shao, Kai Zhang, Martha Mulvey, Xue Ming and George C. Wagner
Clinical Medicine Insights: Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMPed.S8407
Abstract: A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported (P < 0.0001). Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers (P < 0.0001). Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance.
Formulation preference, tolerability and quality of life assessment following a switch from lopinavir/ritonavir soft gel capsule to tablet in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Susan K Chuck, Brian Schmotzer, Kelly L O'Neil
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-6-29
Abstract: In a prospective, single-arm, cohort study-design, 74 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects stable on LPV/r-based therapy were enrolled prior to (n = 25) or 8 weeks (n = 49) after switching from SGC to tablet. Baseline data included clinical laboratory tests, bowel habit survey (BHS) and QoL questionnaire (recalled if enrolled post-switch). Global Condition Improvement (GCI)-score, BHS-score, QoL-score, and formulation preference data were captured at weeks 4 and 12.At week 12 post-enrollment; the tablet was preferred to the SGC (74% vs. 10%, p < 0.0001). GCI-overall-tolerability score was 2.46 ± 3.30 on a scale of -7 to +7, with 90% admitting to feeling better or about the same. Stool frequency, consistency, volume, and ± blood improved, however the improvement was significant in "consistency" only (p = 0.03). Aggregate Bowel Habit-Profile improved (BHS-score change = -0.227, p = 0.01). Inverse relationship existed between GCI and BHS (slope = -1.2, p = 0.02) at week-4, suggesting that improved overall-tolerability was related to better gastrointestinal (GI)-tolerance. QoL-scores were stable. Mean reductions in total cholesterol of 9.20 mg/dL (p = 0.02), in triglycerides of 33 mg/dL (p = 0.04), and in HDL of 4.50 mg/dL (p = 0.01) unrelated to lipid-lowering therapy, were observed at week 12.LPV/r-tablet was well tolerated and preferred to the SGC in HIV infected subjects, with stable QoL and appreciable improvement in GI-tolerability. The unexpected changes in lipid profile deserve further evaluation.Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) tablet is now widely used in combination with other antiretroviral agents in place of the soft gel capsule (SGC) in the treatment of HIV-infection. Developed by the melt extrusion technology and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2005 [1], LPV/r tablets have several advantages over the SGC. The tablet allows a reduced pill burden (4 tablets/day vs. 6 SGC/day), is storable at room temperature, has no special food r
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