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Transient and Permanent Experience with Fatty Acids Changes Drosophila melanogaster Preference and Fitness  [PDF]
Justin Flaven-Pouchon, Thibault Garcia, Dehbia Abed-Vieillard, Jean-Pierre Farine, Jean-Fran?ois Ferveur, Claude Everaerts
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092352
Abstract: Food and host-preference relies on genetic adaptation and sensory experience. In vertebrates, experience with food-related cues during early development can change adult preference. This is also true in holometabolous insects, which undergo a drastic nervous system remodelling during their complete metamorphosis, but remains uncertain in Drosophila melanogaster. We have conditioned D. melanogaster with oleic (C18:1) and stearic (C18:0) acids, two common dietary fatty acids, respectively preferred by larvae and adult. Wild-type individuals exposed either during a transient period of development–from embryo to adult–or more permanently–during one to ten generation cycles–were affected by such conditioning. In particular, the oviposition preference of females exposed to each fatty acid during larval development was affected without cross-effect indicating the specificity of each substance. Permanent exposure to each fatty acid also drastically changed oviposition preference as well as major fitness traits (development duration, sex-ratio, fecundity, adult lethality). This suggests that D. melanogaster ability to adapt to new food sources is determined by its genetic and sensory plasticity both of which may explain the success of this generalist-diet species.
Innate preference in Drosophila melanogaster
ZheFeng Gong
Science China Life Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-012-4271-5
Abstract: Innate preference behaviors are fundamental for animal survival. They actually form the basis for many animal complex behaviors. Recent years have seen significant progresses in disclosing the molecular and neural mechanism underlying animal innate preferences, especially in Drosophila. In this review, I will review these studies according to the sensory modalities adopted for preference assaying, such as vision, olfaction, thermal sensation. The behavioral strategies and the theoretic models for the formation of innate preferences are also reviewed and discussed.
Odorant-Binding Proteins OBP57d and OBP57e Affect Taste Perception and Host-Plant Preference in Drosophila sechellia  [PDF]
Takashi Matsuo,Shigeru Sugaya,Jyunichiro Yasukawa,Toshiro Aigaki,Yoshiaki Fuyama
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050118
Abstract: Despite its morphological similarity to the other species in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, D. sechellia has evolved distinct physiological and behavioral adaptations to its host plant Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Tahitian Noni. The odor of the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia originates from hexanoic and octanoic acid. D. sechellia is attracted to these two fatty acids, whereas the other species in the complex are repelled. Here, using interspecies hybrids between D. melanogaster deficiency mutants and D. sechellia, we showed that the Odorant-binding protein 57e (Obp57e) gene is involved in the behavioral difference between the species. D. melanogaster knock-out flies for Obp57e and Obp57d showed altered behavioral responses to hexanoic acid and octanoic acid. Furthermore, the introduction of Obp57d and Obp57e from D. simulans and D. sechellia shifted the oviposition site preference of D. melanogaster Obp57d/eKO flies to that of the original species, confirming the contribution of these genes to D. sechellia's specialization to M. citrifolia. Our finding of the genes involved in host-plant determination may lead to further understanding of mechanisms underlying taste perception, evolution of plant–herbivore interactions, and speciation.
Odorant-Binding Proteins OBP57d and OBP57e Affect Taste Perception and Host-Plant Preference in Drosophila sechellia  [PDF]
Takashi Matsuo ,Shigeru Sugaya,Jyunichiro Yasukawa,Toshiro Aigaki,Yoshiaki Fuyama
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050118
Abstract: Despite its morphological similarity to the other species in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, D. sechellia has evolved distinct physiological and behavioral adaptations to its host plant Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Tahitian Noni. The odor of the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia originates from hexanoic and octanoic acid. D. sechellia is attracted to these two fatty acids, whereas the other species in the complex are repelled. Here, using interspecies hybrids between D. melanogaster deficiency mutants and D. sechellia, we showed that the Odorant-binding protein 57e (Obp57e) gene is involved in the behavioral difference between the species. D. melanogaster knock-out flies for Obp57e and Obp57d showed altered behavioral responses to hexanoic acid and octanoic acid. Furthermore, the introduction of Obp57d and Obp57e from D. simulans and D. sechellia shifted the oviposition site preference of D. melanogaster Obp57d/eKO flies to that of the original species, confirming the contribution of these genes to D. sechellia's specialization to M. citrifolia. Our finding of the genes involved in host-plant determination may lead to further understanding of mechanisms underlying taste perception, evolution of plant–herbivore interactions, and speciation.
Dietary fatty acids alter mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and proton leak in Drosophila melanogaster
A Ocloo
Biokemistri , 2006,
Abstract: Two groups of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) were maintained on different diets. Mitochondria were isolated, proton leak was measured and phospholipid fatty acid composition determined. Mitochondria from flies fed on corn-base meal (containing high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18:2(n-6) and 18:3(n-3) and low amounts of monounsaturated fatty acid, 18:1(n-9)) contained more polyunsaturated fatty acids in their membranes than mitochondria from flies fed on yeast-base meal (containing less amount of polyunsaturates and high amount of monounsaturates). The more polyunsaturated mitochondria were leakier to protons than the more monounsaturated mitochondria.
Incestuous Sisters: Mate Preference for Brothers over Unrelated Males in Drosophila melanogaster  [PDF]
Adeline Loyau, Jérémie H. Cornuau, Jean Clobert, étienne Danchin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051293
Abstract: The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent) and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness.
Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase Sustains a Fatty Acid–Dependent Remote Signal to Waterproof the Respiratory System  [PDF]
Jean-Philippe Parvy equal contributor,Laura Napal equal contributor,Thomas Rubin,Mickael Poidevin,Laurent Perrin,Claude Wicker-Thomas,Jacques Montagne
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002925
Abstract: Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA–interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA–interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles—the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.
Overexpression of Fatty-Acid- -Oxidation-Related Genes Extends the Lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster  [PDF]
Shin-Hae Lee,Su-Kyung Lee,Donggi Paik,Kyung-Jin Min
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/854502
Abstract: A better understanding of the aging process is necessary to ensure that the healthcare needs of an aging population are met. With the trend toward increased human life expectancies, identification of candidate genes affecting the regulation of lifespan and its relationship to environmental factors is essential. Through misexpression screening of EP mutant lines, we previously isolated several genes extending lifespan when ubiquitously overexpressed, including the two genes encoding the fatty-acid-binding protein and dodecenoyl-CoA delta-isomerase involved in fatty-acid β-oxidation, which is the main energy resource pathway in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we analyzed flies overexpressing the two main components of fatty-acid β-oxidation, and found that overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes extended the Drosophila lifespan. Furthermore, we found that the ability of dietary restriction to extend lifespan was reduced by the overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes. Moreover, the overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes enhanced stress tolerance to oxidative and starvation stresses and activated the dFOXO signal, indicating translocation to the nucleus and transcriptional activation of the dFOXO target genes. Overall, the results of this study suggest that overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes extends lifespan in a dietary-restriction-related manner, and that the mechanism of this process may be related to FOXO activation.
Overexpression of Fatty-Acid- -Oxidation-Related Genes Extends the Lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster  [PDF]
Shin-Hae Lee,Su-Kyung Lee,Donggi Paik,Kyung-Jin Min
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/854502
Abstract: A better understanding of the aging process is necessary to ensure that the healthcare needs of an aging population are met. With the trend toward increased human life expectancies, identification of candidate genes affecting the regulation of lifespan and its relationship to environmental factors is essential. Through misexpression screening of EP mutant lines, we previously isolated several genes extending lifespan when ubiquitously overexpressed, including the two genes encoding the fatty-acid-binding protein and dodecenoyl-CoA delta-isomerase involved in fatty-acid β-oxidation, which is the main energy resource pathway in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we analyzed flies overexpressing the two main components of fatty-acid β-oxidation, and found that overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes extended the Drosophila lifespan. Furthermore, we found that the ability of dietary restriction to extend lifespan was reduced by the overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes. Moreover, the overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes enhanced stress tolerance to oxidative and starvation stresses and activated the dFOXO signal, indicating translocation to the nucleus and transcriptional activation of the dFOXO target genes. Overall, the results of this study suggest that overexpression of fatty-acid-β-oxidation-related genes extends lifespan in a dietary-restriction-related manner, and that the mechanism of this process may be related to FOXO activation. 1. Introduction The trend towards increased life expectancy demands a greater understanding of the aging process to ensure that healthcare needs of an aging population are met. This goal requires identification of the so-called “longevity candidate genes,” which are potential genes important to the regulation of lifespan, as well as appropriate understanding of how the effects of these genes are modulated by environmental factors such as diet. Numerous longevity candidate genes have been identified in model systems using extended longevity mutant phenotypes, offering important insights into the mechanisms of aging and lifespan determination [1–5]. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS), a major nutrient-sensing pathway, is a well-characterized age-related pathway. The loss of IIS function by mutations affecting insulin/IGF receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, and forkhead box (FOXO) has been found to extend the lifespan of C. elegans, Drosophila, and mammals [3, 6–11]. In addition, energy-sensing pathways such as those associated with
Cuticular Hydrocarbon Content that Affects Male Mate Preference of Drosophila melanogaster from West Africa  [PDF]
Aya Takahashi,Nao Fujiwara-Tsujii,Ryohei Yamaoka,Masanobu Itoh,Mamiko Ozaki,Toshiyuki Takano-Shimizu
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/278903
Abstract: Intraspecific variation in mating signals and preferences can be a potential source of incipient speciation. Variable crossability between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans among different strains suggested the abundance of such variations. A particular focus on one combination of D. melanogaster strains, TW1(G23) and Mel6(G59), that showed different crossabilities to D. simulans, revealed that the mating between females from the former and males from the latter occurs at low frequency. The cuticular hydrocarbon transfer experiment indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons of TW1 females have an inhibitory effect on courtship by Mel6 males. A candidate component, a C25 diene, was inferred from the gas chromatography analyses. The intensity of male refusal of TW1 females was variable among different strains of D. melanogaster, which suggested the presence of variation in sensitivity to different chemicals on the cuticle. Such variation could be a potential factor for the establishment of premating isolation under some conditions. 1. Introduction Drosophila exhibits complex mating behavior with frequent wing vibration and copulation attempts by males. The successful mating is achieved by communications between males and females using chemical, acoustic, and visual signals (reviewed in [1]). Subtle differences in these signals may accumulate during or after the formation of reproductive isolation. Once reproduction isolation is established to a certain extent, the correct mate recognition is essential to avoid costly hybridization and wasting time on unsuccessful courtship. Indeed, a certain degree of premating isolation or mating incompatibility is commonly observed between closely related species of Drosophila [2, 3]. In some cosmopolitan species of Drosophila, for example, D. ananassae [4] and D. elegans [5, 6], widely observed mating incompatibilities between populations from different locations exist. The degree of incompatibility is variable among sampled strains in these species. Another cosmopolitan species, D. melanogaster, also harbors incompatible combinations of populations [7–11]. The degree of incompatibility between populations is also variable, and many intermediate strains are typically observed. These within species incompatibilities suggest that there are many intraspecific variations in mating signals and preferences. Those variations could either fix in isolated populations or become targets of sexual selection under some conditions and consequently result in divergent mating-associated characters among different populations. It is
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