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Is the Lottery Product an Inferior Good in Higher Income Countries?  [cached]
Maria Jo?o Kaizeler,Horácio C. Faustino
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v3n4p54
Abstract: Do the populations of low per-capita income countries participate with a stronger desire to win and spend relatively more money on lottery products? Is such a desire to buy lottery products constant, or does it decrease when the country reaches a higher per-capita income class? To answer these questions, this paper uses econometric models with significant explanatory variables. The results confirm the hypothesis that the lower income-class countries spend more than the higher income-class countries. However, the results do not confirm the hypothesis that lottery products may be considered an inferior good in countries belonging to the higher per-capita income class. The results also show that for all countries, there is an inverted U relationship between per-capita sales and per-capita GDP and up to a specific value, the per-capita lottery sales decrease as per-capita GDP increases, becoming an inferior good as a result.
The Lottery Preparation  [PDF]
Joel David Hamkins
Mathematics , 1998,
Abstract: The lottery preparation, a new general kind of Laver preparation, works uniformly with supercompact cardinals, strongly compact cardinals, strong cardinals, measurable cardinals, or what have you. And like the Laver preparation, the lottery preparation makes these cardinals indestructible by various kinds of further forcing. A supercompact cardinal kappa, for example, becomes fully indestructible by kappa-directed closed forcing; a strong cardinal kappa becomes indestructible by less-than-or-equal-kappa-strategically closed forcing; and a strongly compact cardinal kappa becomes indestructible by, among others, the forcing to add a Cohen subset to kappa, the forcing to shoot a club C in kappa which avoids the measurable cardinals and the forcing to add various long Prikry sequences. The lottery preparation works best when performed after fast function forcing, which adds a new completely general kind of Laver function for any large cardinal, thereby freeing the Laver function concept from the supercompact cardinal context.
Ironies in The Lottery  [cached]
Yuhan ZHU
Studies in Literature and Language , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320130601.1574
Abstract: Shirley Jackson is a prestigious writer in the twentieth century. Different from other female writers who are romantic and tender, and who tend to convince readers with soft words and mild tones, she writes stories which are often violent and bloody. She is willing to shock readers with impressive and unforgettable scenes, and she likes to use ironic pictures to insinuate her criticisms. The short story, “The Lottery” is a typical example of her use of irony. Previous researches on the story have mainly focused on people in the village who are bound by tradition or on the analysis of South America in the light of cultural study. This paper intends to analyze the story from the angle of the use of irony in the story, through which the author artfully punches on the indifferent people, capitalism, and religion. Key words: Shirley Jackson; The lottery; Ironies and ironic figures
Distances between the winning numbers in Lottery  [PDF]
Konstantinos Drakakis
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We prove an interesting fact about Lottery: the winning 6 numbers (out of 49) in the game of the Lottery contain two consecutive numbers with a surprisingly high probability (almost 50%).
Import Liberalization and Import Tariff Yield in Ghana: Estimating Tariff Buoyancy and Elasticity
American Journal of Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.economics.20120202.04
Abstract: The basic objective of the study is to evaluate the import tariff yield in Ghana, and investigate the impact of import liberalization and customs reforms on the yield. Theory suggests that the relationship between import liberalization and tariff revenue is ambiguous. Empirical studies also indicate that there is no clear link between import liberalization and tariff revenue. To achieve the stated objective, the import tariff buoyancy and elasticity for the pre-reform and reform periods as well as the impact of the liberalization on the yield were estimated. The study confirms the hypothesis that tariff reforms improve tariff revenue yield.
Economic mechanisms of tariff regulation in housing-and-municipal services
Svistunov Andrey Valerjevich
Sovremennaa Ekonomika : Problemy, Tendencii, Perspektivy , 2011,
Abstract: In article the problem of use of economic mechanisms of tariff formation and regulation in housing-and-municipal services is considered. In a basis of effective system of tariff regulation scientifically proved mechanism of charge of depreciation charges in structure of means for major overhaul is determined. The expediency of introduction of new approaches to tariff definition is shown, they are connected with use of two rates tariffs in housing-and-municipal services.
Research on the Management System of China’s Lottery Industry  [PDF]
Yan Peng, Wei Song, Duanyang Ren
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.86093
Abstract: With over 20 years of development, China’s lottery industry has taken shape. But there are also some problems in the development, especially there are also some problems in the lottery management system. On the basis of analyzing the current situation of China’s lottery industry, using the methods such as literature data, and comparative analysis, this paper discusses the direction and objectives of the China’s lottery management system and reform, and puts forward suggestions to improve the lottery management system which provide guidance for the normative development of China’s lottery industry.
Jane Flaherty
Essays in Economic & Business History , 2001,
Abstract: Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican party’s protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress urged revising the Tariff of 1857 to arrest the growth of the federal deficit. However, the bitter rhetoric that accompanied the secession crisis has obscured the true nature of this short-lived, but important, revenue measure. An examination of the Morrill Tariff and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that it re-established the rates from the free trade Tariff of 1846 while providing incidental protection for select industries, a practice accepted, even advocated, by the Democratic party for over a decade.
Islam in Shirley Jackson’s The Lottery  [cached]
Nayef Ali Al-Joulan
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2010, DOI: 10.3968/967
Abstract: This paper examines a cross-cultural concern in Shirley Jackson’s The Lottery, underlining the story’s striking allusions to Islam which can be categorically seen in the following five aspects: the symbolic black-box, stoning, the status of women, the fixed annual date(s) of the lottery, and the act of calling the participants in the lottery five times (calls), in addition to further points regarding characterization and scapegoat. It turns out that The Lottery is a carefully-woven complexity of symbols allegorizing Islam. Above all, Jackson’s symbolic black box shares a great deal of the distinctions of the Ka’ba and the Black Stone and the brutal ancient rite she recruits echoes the two aspects of stoning in Islamic Hajj and Islam’s penal law regarding adultery. Besides, the annual dates of the lottery reflect on annual rituals in Islam, with additional significance of the twenty-seventh (and twenty-sixth) day of the month. Further, the status of Jackson’s women perhaps alludes to propaganda-views of women’s secondary position in Islam, and the story possibly points to Islamic prayer. Nonetheless, the allegory of Islam in The Lottery seems to reflect Jackson’s vague, confused, superficial, and stereotypical perception of Islam and Islamic rituals. Key words: Shirley Jackson; The Lottery; Islam; Symbolism; allusion; cross-cultural stereotypesRésumé: Cet article examine une préoccupation interculturelle dans La Loterie de Shirley Jackson, en soulignant les allusions frappantes de l'histoire vis-à-vis de l'Islam qui peut être catégoriquement vu dans les cinq aspects suivants: la symbolique bo te noire , la lapidation, le statut des femmes, la date annuelle fixe de la loterie et l'acte d'appeler cinq fois les participants à la loterie (appels), en plus des points supplémentaires concernant la caractérisation et la désignation de boucs émissaires. Il s'avère que La Loterie est une complexité soigneusement tissée de symboles allégorisant l'Islam. Surtout, la bo te noire symbolique se réfère aux caractéristiques de la Ka'ba, et les termes de la “pierre noire” et du "rite antique brutal" qu'elle utilise renvoient aux deux aspects de la lapidation du Hajj islamique et au droit pénal islamique concernant l'adultère.En outre, la date annuelle de la loterie reflète les rites annuels dans l'Islam, avec une signification additionnelle de la vingt-septième (et vingt-sixième) jour du mois.De plus, le statut de la femme de Jackson fait allusion peut-être à la vue propagande de la position secondaire des femmes dans l'Islam, et l'histoire pointe peut-être sur la prièr
Lottery Scam in a Third-World Nation: The Economics of a Financial Crime and its Breadth  [cached]
Paul Andrew Bourne,Chad Chambers,Damion K. Blake,Charlene Sharpe-Pryce
Asian Journal of Business Management , 2013,
Abstract: In 2007, a stratified random sample of 1,338 Jamaicans revealed that 11 out of every 27 indicated that crime and violence was the leading problem of the nation. The Lottery Scam, a growing financial crime, is widely practiced in many developing nations, inclusive of Jamaica, where the matter has got the attention of public security management. The Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF, Year) formed a task force in 2012 to critically investigate this phenomenon which has been plaguing private businesses for more than a decade. This study will, examine the Lottery Scam Business from an empirical perspective and provide invaluable insights into its operations, politics and economics. A 2-dimensional epistemological framework is used in this study, objectivism and constructionist. The theoretical framework employed is interpreted by positivism and interpretive hence, the use of survey research, documentary analysis, focus group and elite interviews with participants. The participants were purposively drawn because there is no population register of lottery matters. It follows, therefore, that the study used a snow balling approach to allot participants, those incarcerated, awaiting time for trial, police officers, private investigators and participants introducing the researchers to others involved in different aspect of scamming activities. The development and continuation of the lottery scam is primarily because of the general decay in the economy. Peoples’ involvement in lottery scamming and by extension related criminal activities such as murders is substantially an economics issue. The lottery scam and its relationship with increased murder is again another subset of the general worsening in the state of the Jamaican economy and why this illegal activity continues to pull people to such actions. Hence, murders associated with the lottery scam cannot be simply solved by way of police or judiciary intervention as their cause is an economic one and can only be effectively addressed as such.
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