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Twenty-five Years of Lattice Gauge Theory: Consequences of the QCD Lagrangian  [PDF]
Andreas S. Kronfeld
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: When the Lake Louise Winter Institute started twenty-five years ago, many properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) were believed to be true, but had not been demonstrated to be true. This talk surveys a variety of results that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian, shedding light on the origin of (your) mass and its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as some further intriguing features of the natural world.
Transconjunctival 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema  [cached]
Cho M,D'Amico DJ
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012,
Abstract: Minhee Cho, Donald J D'AmicoWeill Cornell Medical College, Department of Ophthalmology, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with chronic macular edema who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling.Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 24 eyes from 21 patients who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema. Preoperative and postoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was examined for macular thickness and macular volume. Outcomes and variables were analyzed using the two-tailed t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.Results: Twenty-four eyes from 11 men and 10 women of mean age 69 (range 55–84) years were included. Four patients (17%) had chronic macular edema from uveitis, four (17%) from retinal vein occlusion, and 16 (67%) from diabetes. Mean visual acuity was 20/103 preoperatively and 20/87 postoperatively (P = 0.55). Sixty-three percent of the eyes had improved vision (47% better than 20/40), 21% maintained the same vision, and 17% had worse vision. Forty-seven percent of improved eyes and 30% of total eyes gained more than two lines of visual acuity (range -9 to +7 lines). Mean macular thickness was 455 μm preoperatively and 396 μm postoperatively (P = 0.29). Mean macular volume was 7.9 mm3 preoperatively and 7.5 mm3 postoperatively (P = 0.51). The strongest predictor of postoperative visual acuity was initial visual acuity (r = 0.673, P = 0.0003).Conclusion: Even though a majority of patients had improved vision and decreased macular thickening after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema of various etiologies, the difference in visual acuity or macular thickening did not reach statistical significance.Keywords: chronic macular edema, diabetes mellitus, internal limiting membrane peeling, 25-gauge vitrectomy, uveitis, vein occlusion
Transconjunctival 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema
Cho M, D'Amico DJ
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S33391
Abstract: ansconjunctival 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema Original Research (1354) Total Article Views Authors: Cho M, D'Amico DJ Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 981 - 989 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S33391 Received: 28 April 2012 Accepted: 15 May 2012 Published: 06 July 2012 Minhee Cho, Donald J D'Amico Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Ophthalmology, New York, NY, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with chronic macular edema who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 24 eyes from 21 patients who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema. Preoperative and postoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was examined for macular thickness and macular volume. Outcomes and variables were analyzed using the two-tailed t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Twenty-four eyes from 11 men and 10 women of mean age 69 (range 55–84) years were included. Four patients (17%) had chronic macular edema from uveitis, four (17%) from retinal vein occlusion, and 16 (67%) from diabetes. Mean visual acuity was 20/103 preoperatively and 20/87 postoperatively (P = 0.55). Sixty-three percent of the eyes had improved vision (47% better than 20/40), 21% maintained the same vision, and 17% had worse vision. Forty-seven percent of improved eyes and 30% of total eyes gained more than two lines of visual acuity (range -9 to +7 lines). Mean macular thickness was 455 μm preoperatively and 396 μm postoperatively (P = 0.29). Mean macular volume was 7.9 mm3 preoperatively and 7.5 mm3 postoperatively (P = 0.51). The strongest predictor of postoperative visual acuity was initial visual acuity (r = 0.673, P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Even though a majority of patients had improved vision and decreased macular thickening after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for chronic macular edema of various etiologies, the difference in visual acuity or macular thickening did not reach statistical significance.
25 gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia: A pilot study  [cached]
Raju Biju,Raju NSD,Raju Anju
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2006,
Abstract: Aims: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transconjunctival 25 gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia. Settings and Design: A pilot study of consecutive cases which underwent 25 gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Seven eyes of 7 patients underwent 25 gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia with a pledget soaked in anesthetic, for vitreous hemorrhage (2 eyes), retained cortex (1 eye) and postoperative endophthalmitis (4 eyes). Subjective pain and discomfort were graded from 0 (no pain or discomfort) to 4 (severe pain and discomfort). Patients underwent an immediate postoperative assessment, followed by day one and one week postoperative evaluation. Results: All patients had grade 0 pain during the surgery. Five patients had grade 2 pain during the placement of the sclerotomies. None of the patients required any sedation during the procedure. No inadvertent eye movements were noted during surgery. Except one patient, none required postoperative analgesics. Five eyes had a favorable outcome. No eyes in this pilot study had any procedure-related complications. Conclusion: With appropriate case selection, topical anesthesia is a safe and effective alternative to infiltrative anesthesia for 25 gauge vitrectomy. A larger series of patients with a longer follow-up is required to validate the findings of this pilot study.
Unexplained postoperative retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy  [cached]
Ohno H,Inoue K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Hisato Ohno, Kenji InoueInouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report five cases of unexplained retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy. A 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy was performed for four cases of macular holes (MH) and one case of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). Retinal hemorrhages were observed on the first day after surgery and disappeared within several months without leaving any recognizable damage. We speculate that the retinal hemorrhages might have resulted from repeated collapse of the globe through a cannula under air perfusion, but other causes such as retinal vein congestion by face-down positioning are also possible.Keywords: retinal hemorrhage, vitrectomy, postoperative, macular hole, sutureless surgery
Unexplained postoperative retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy
Ohno H, Inoue K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S23620
Abstract: explained postoperative retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy Case Series (3172) Total Article Views Authors: Ohno H, Inoue K Published Date July 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 1027 - 1029 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S23620 Hisato Ohno, Kenji Inoue Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We report five cases of unexplained retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy. A 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy was performed for four cases of macular holes (MH) and one case of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). Retinal hemorrhages were observed on the first day after surgery and disappeared within several months without leaving any recognizable damage. We speculate that the retinal hemorrhages might have resulted from repeated collapse of the globe through a cannula under air perfusion, but other causes such as retinal vein congestion by face-down positioning are also possible.
Sympathetic ophthalmia after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy
Masatoshi Haruta, Hirokazu Mukuno, Kazuaki Nishijima, et al
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S14948
Abstract: thetic ophthalmia after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy Case report (3700) Total Article Views Authors: Masatoshi Haruta, Hirokazu Mukuno, Kazuaki Nishijima, et al Published Date November 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 1347 - 1349 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S14948 Masatoshi Haruta1, Hirokazu Mukuno2, Kazuaki Nishijima3, Hitoshi Takagi4, Mihori Kita5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Konan Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: We report a case of a sympathetic ophthalmia that occurred after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a retinal detachment. Case report: A 41-year-old Japanese woman underwent combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye. Endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade were used to manage inferior retinal holes. Four weeks after the surgery, she returned with a 5-day history of reduced vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed a shallow anterior chamber in the right eye and moderate anterior uveitis bilaterally. Silicone oil bubbles and pigment dispersion were observed in the subconjunctival space adjacent to the right eye’s superonasal sclerotomy site. Fundus examination showed multifocal serous retinal detachments in both eyes. A diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia was made and the patient was treated with intensive topical and systemic steroids. The subretinal fluid cleared in both eyes following treatment. Twelve months after the onset of inflammation, the patient’s condition was stable on a combination of oral cyclosporine and topical steroids. Sunset glow retinal changes remain, but there has been no evidence of recurrent inflammation. Conclusion: Sympathetic ophthalmia can develop after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy despite its smaller sclerotomy size. We recommend that special care should be taken to inspect for adequate closure of sclerotomy sites at the end of this operation.
Comparison of retinal breaks observed during 23 gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy versus conventional 20 gauge surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Sharif A Issa, Alan Connor, Maged Habib, et al
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S16414
Abstract: mparison of retinal breaks observed during 23 gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy versus conventional 20 gauge surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy Original Research (3819) Total Article Views Authors: Sharif A Issa, Alan Connor, Maged Habib, et al Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 109 - 114 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S16414 Sharif A Issa, Alan Connor, Maged Habib, David HW Steel Department of Ophthalmology, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, UK Background: To assess the rate and type of retinal break formation in patients undergoing 23 gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy surgery for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy compared with 20 gauge vitrectomy surgery. Methods: Retrospective case notes review of two consecutive series of patients who had primary pars plana vitrectomy for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by a single surgeon. The control group had standard 20 gauge vitrectomy surgery whilst the second group had 23 gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy surgery. Results: Eighty-five eyes were included in the 20 gauge group and 85 eyes in the 23 gauge group. The groups were well matched for surgical complexity and indications for surgery, as well as a variety of other preoperative variables. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of peripheral sclerotomy-related retinal breaks and lesions suspicious for breaks (4/85 [5%] 23 gauge versus 14/85 [16%] 20 gauge, P = 0.02) and posterior retinal breaks (3/85 [4%] 23 gauge versus 12/85 [14%] 20 gauge, P = 0.03). Six eyes (7%) in total had definite new retinal breaks of any type detected in the 23 gauge group compared with 16 (18.8%) in the 20 gauge group (P = 0.04). One patient in each group experienced a retinal detachment postoperatively related in both cases to a posterior retinal break associated with recurrent traction. Conclusion: In this series of patients, 23 gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy surgery was associated with a lower rate of retinal break formation than 20 gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Sympathetic ophthalmia after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy  [cached]
Masatoshi Haruta,Hirokazu Mukuno,Kazuaki Nishijima,et al
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: Masatoshi Haruta1, Hirokazu Mukuno2, Kazuaki Nishijima3, Hitoshi Takagi4, Mihori Kita51Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Konan Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report a case of a sympathetic ophthalmia that occurred after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a retinal detachment.Case report: A 41-year-old Japanese woman underwent combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye. Endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade were used to manage inferior retinal holes. Four weeks after the surgery, she returned with a 5-day history of reduced vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed a shallow anterior chamber in the right eye and moderate anterior uveitis bilaterally. Silicone oil bubbles and pigment dispersion were observed in the subconjunctival space adjacent to the right eye’s superonasal sclerotomy site. Fundus examination showed multifocal serous retinal detachments in both eyes. A diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia was made and the patient was treated with intensive topical and systemic steroids. The subretinal fluid cleared in both eyes following treatment. Twelve months after the onset of inflammation, the patient’s condition was stable on a combination of oral cyclosporine and topical steroids. Sunset glow retinal changes remain, but there has been no evidence of recurrent inflammation.Conclusion: Sympathetic ophthalmia can develop after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy despite its smaller sclerotomy size. We recommend that special care should be taken to inspect for adequate closure of sclerotomy sites at the end of this operation.Keywords: fluorescein angiography, hypotony, optical coherence tomography, retinal detachment, shallow anterior chamber
Faster recovery after 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery than after 20-gauge vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy  [cached]
Sato T,Emi K,Bando H,Ikeda T
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012,
Abstract: Tatsuhiko Sato, Kazuyuki Emi, Hajime Bando, Toshihide IkedaOsaka Rosai Hospital Clinical Research Center for Occupational Sensory Organ Disability, Sakai, JapanBackground and methods: We compared surgical procedures and outcomes, including duration of recovery period, in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy that underwent 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery with those that underwent 20-gauge vitrectomy. Seventy-two eyes from 53 patients that underwent 20-gauge vitrectomy in 2006 and 87 eyes from 55 patients that underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy in 2010 were studied. The surgical procedures, ie, number of vitreous procedures, operating time, and ratio of type of intraocular tamponade were compared between the two groups. In addition, the outcomes, ie, postoperative complications, anatomical success, postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and duration of hospitalization as an indicator of the postoperative recovery period were also compared.Results: There were no significant differences in surgical procedures or ratio of cases with postoperative complications between cases with 20-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy. The final anatomical success rate was 100% in the two groups. BCVA at 6 months after the final vitrectomy was significantly better than the preoperative BCVA for both types of vitrectomy (P < 0.05), and was not significantly different between the two groups. The average duration of hospitalization was 19.5 days after 20-gauge vitrectomy, which was significantly longer than the 11.0 days after 25-gauge vitrectomy (P < 0.001).Conclusion: These results indicate that the anatomical and functional improvements after 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery are not significantly different from those after 20-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, the significantly shorter recovery period after 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery suggests that it is less traumatic than 20-gauge vitrectomy.Keywords: vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, microincision vitrectomy surgery, diabetic retinopathy, postoperative recovery
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