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Post mortem findings in sows and gilts euthanised or found dead in a large Swedish herd
Linda Engblom, Lena Eliasson-Selling, Nils Lundeheim, Katinka Belák, Kjell Andersson, Anne-Marie Dalin
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-25
Abstract: A large Swedish herd was studied from January to September 2006. During the 32-week period 3.9% of the removed sows and gilts (old enough to be mated) were found dead, 12.0% were euthanised and the rest were sent to slaughter. Of 32 sows/gilts found dead 17 (53%) were post mortem examined, and of 98 sows euthanised 79 (81%) were examined. The 96 examined carcasses were after 70 sows and 26 gilts. The findings at examination were together with data from the herd monitoring program PigWin Sugg the base for the descriptive statistics presented.The average parity number at removal was 2.8 for those found dead and 2.1 for those euthanised. The highest number euthanised and found dead was in parity 0 (gilts). The main proportion of post mortem examinations was made on sows being in the period = 28 d of gestation at death (37.5%), followed by weaning to next service period (24.0%). Arthritis, with an incidence of 36.4% was the most common main finding of pathological-anatomical diagnosis (PAD). Of sows/gilts found dead were circulatory/cardiac failure (23.5%) and trauma related injuries (23.5%) most common PAD. The most commonly observed clinical symptom and reason for euthanasia of the sows/gilts was lameness. Notably, in 43% of the cases with PAD arthritis, the clinical symptoms suggested it being a fracture. Further one or more abscesses (38.5%) and teeth injuries (31.0%) were common findings when also incidental findings were included.This post mortem study based on carcasses from sows/gilts found dead or euthanised showed that arthritis was a significant problem in the studied herd and that post mortem examination was important to get proper diagnosis.Sow mortality includes sows found dead. However, sows euthanised on farm due to trauma or disease are generally also included in studies on mortality. Both of these two kinds of unplanned removal lead to urgent need for replacement gilts, loss of income from slaughter, and an extra cost for destruction of the carcasses.
PRACTICAL RESULTS CONCERNING THE VALUES OF SOME REPRODUCTION INDICES IN GRAZING SOWS IN THE BANAT AREA
CORNELIA PETROMAN,I. PETROMAN,N. P?CAL?,MIHAELA IANCU
Lucr?ri ?tiin?ifice : Management Agricol , 2008,
Abstract: In grazing reproduction animals, grazing sows’ use index was 2.16 farrows per year, while prolificacy index was 10.80, and the number of weaned piglets was 9.6, with a higher percentage of losses in the first days after birth compared to the animals bred in the intensive breeding system. Grazing sows’ fecundity varied depending on the age of primiparous grazing sows, with a fecundity percentage o f 86.0%, while in multiparous grazing sows, fecundity percentage was 75.3%. Heat appearance post-partum after a period of breast-feeding of 6 weeks, manifested in 85.3% in primiparous grazing sows and 88.4% in multiparous ones in the first heat cycle and 4.2% and 3.7% respectively in the second heat cycle.
Fertilization Rate and Number of Embryos on Day 2 after Intrauterine and Deep Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in Multiparous Sows
Kakanang Buranaamnuay,Yodchai Panyaboriban,Padet Tummaruk,Mongkol Techakumphu
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/162878
Abstract: The present study determines fertilization rate and number of embryos on Day 2 after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) using frozen-thawed (FT) boar semen in multiparous sows. Twelve crossbred Landrace × Yorkshire multiparous sows were included. The sows were inseminated at 24 h after oestrus detection and reinseminated every 12 h until ovulation took place. The inseminations were conducted using IUI with 2×109 FT sperm per dose (=6) and DIUI with 1×109 FT sperm per dose (=6). The sows were slaughtered at 45.1±7.2 h after ovulation. Embryos and unfertilized oocytes were flushed from the oviducts. IUI yielded a better fertilization rate than DIUI (66.0% versus 31.0%, <.001). The number of embryos was 13.5±2.7 and 6.6±3.2 embryos/sow in IUI and DIUI groups, respectively (=.08). The proportion of sows having unilateral fertilization was higher in the DIUI (3/5) than the IUI group (1/6). In conclusion, IUI with at least 2×109 total number of FT boar spermatozoa is recommended.
CARCASS MARKET VALUE OF FATTENER GILTS AND PRIMIPAROUS GILTS  [PDF]
Milena BIEGNIEWSKA,Wojciech KAPELA?SKI
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2011, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/12.1.893
Abstract: Study comprised 60 crossbred gilts F1 (PLW x PL), 30 fattener gilts (A) and 30 littermate primiparous gilts (B). The fattening was conducted in standard condition from 30 to 108 kg body weight. The primiparous gilts were mated at second oestrus. During pregnancy and lactation period they were reared in standard condition adopted for pregnant and lactating sows. Fattener sows as well as primiparous sows were slaughtered after end of the experiment. Market carcass value was estimated on carcass jointing basis. It was assumed that market value is a function of percentage share of main parts in carcass and their unitary price (PLN/kg). Market carcass value of fattener sows and primiparous sows counted on 100 kg was comparable.
Relationship among body condition at parturition, decrease of backfat thickness and weight during the lactation and the interval from weaning to oestrus of sows
GUEDES, Roberto Maurício Carvalho;NOGUEIRA, Raimundo Hilton Gir?o;
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-95962000000100006
Abstract: the main objectives of this study were to verify the relationship among body condition at parturition, decrease of backfat thickness and weight during the lactation and the interval from weaning to oestrus of sows. it was performed with 10 gilts and 10 fifth, sixth and seventh parity camborough sows. the average breeding age and weight of the gilts were respectively 231 days and 149.5 kg. during lactation all females were fed a wet diet (3.34 mcal/kg, 17% cp), ad libitum. the average daily food consumption was 5.233 for gilts and 5.721 kg for multiparous sows. ultrasonic measurements of backfat at the p2 site were recorded on day 6 before and days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 25 after parturition. body weight was recorded on the same dates, except the day before parturition. sows were divided into 2 groups according to their backfat thickness 6 days before parturition. sows with a backfat thickness of 16 mm or less were assigned to the l-group, while those with a backfat thickness more than 16 mm were assigned to the h-group. after weaning, the interval from weaning to oestrus was recorded. the percentage of total weight loss during lactation was slightly higher (not significant) in the h-group (-4.26%) than in the l-group (-2.64%). the percentage of backfat thickness decreased in both groups from 6 days before parturition until day 25 of lactation, but the decrease was highest in the h-group (p < 0.03). the weaning-oestrus interval did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. in conclusion: there was no correlation between percentage of weight loss (total) and weaning to oestrus interval, or percentage of backfat thickness loss (total or by periods) and weaning-oestrus interval, or percentage of weight loss (total or by periods) and percentage of backfat thickness loss (total or by periods). on the other hand, there was a significant positive correlation between weaning-oestrus interval and percentage of weight loss during the third week of lactation.
Dinamica folicular y momento de la ovulación en cerdas púberes y pluríparas posdestete Follicular dynamics and time of ovulation in gilts and postweaning sows  [cached]
S.I. Williams,V.C. Fernandez,R.L. De La Sota
InVet , 2010,
Abstract: El proceso del desarrollo folicular en la cerda comprende el reclutamiento y la selección, y no se describen ondas foliculares, a excepción del período prepuberal. El estudio del estado ovárico y de la dinámica folicular mediante el uso de la ultrasonografía es uno de los avances más recientes en ginecología. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar el número y el tama o de folículos, la dinámica folicular desde el comienzo del estro hasta la ovulación, en cerdas nulíparas púberes y en pluríparas luego del destete. Las ecografías fueron realizadas por la vía transabdominal (nulíparas) y transrectal (pluríparas), para registrar el número, la localización y el tama o de los folículos > 3 mm y confeccionar mapas ováricos. Desde el momento que mostraron síntomas de estro (0 h) hasta el momento de la ovulación, las ecografías fueron realizados cada 8 horas. Se observó una disminución en el número de folículos de 3-5 mm, probablemente debido a atresia y a que algunos folículos desarrollaron hasta 6-7 mm; y una disminución del número de folículos de 6-7 mm, debido a que dichos folículos crecieron hasta 8-9 mm. Considerando las diferencias observadas entre cerdas nulíparas y posdestete en el momento de la ovulación (36,5±1,8 vs. 29,1±2,6 h) y en el tama o de los folículos ovulatorios (5,6±0,5 vs. 7,0±1,0 mm;), se puede concluir que la aplicación de la ultrasonografía adquiere importancia para el seguimiento del desarrollo folicular y para predecir el momento de la ovulación y así, utilizar esta información en el dise o de protocolos para inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo. Follicular development in sows, includes the process of recruitment and selection; however, follicle waves were described only in prepubertal period. Recent technical advances have made possible to study ovarian activity in pig using real time ultrasonography. The objective of this study was to determine the number and follicles size at estrus and the follicular development pattern till the ovulation time in gilts and weaning sows. From the onset of estrus onward, ovaries were scanned every 8 h and number, size, location of ovarian follicles and ovulation time were recorded Ovaries were visualized by transabdominal (gilts) and transrectal (sows) scanning. For transrectal scanning, a sector transducer was attached to a polyvinyl chloride fixed-angle transrectal stabilizing cord. Ovulation time was defined as the time of the first scanning when no presumptive ovulatory follicles were found minus 4 h, and ovulation was confirmed by a further scanning 8 h later. The number of follicles 3-
Reproductive performance of gilts in a big farm in Vojvodina  [PDF]
Gagr?in Mladen,Stan?i? Ivan,Bo?i? Aleksandar,Stan?i? Blagoje
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0902077g
Abstract: The reproductive performance of gilts significantly affects the number of annually produced piglets per sow. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the reproductive performance of gilts on a big pig farm in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia), with a capacity of around 5,500 sows. Out of the total of 19,000 female piglets selected for reproduction, insemination, aged 210 days, a total of 5,420 (28.5%) gilts are prepared, and 70% of these are inseminated. A total of 29.3% gilts are culled for reproduction because of longterm pre insemination anestria (estrus was not established until the age of 9 months). It is believed that the basic reason for the occurrence of long-term anestrias is the inadequate technology for detecting estrus on the farm (once every 24 hours, without direct contact between the test boar and the gilts). As a consequence, there are significant economic losses in piglet production on the examined farm.
Effect of season on fertility of sows  [PDF]
Stan?i? Blagoje L.,Gagr?in Mladen,Kov?in Stanimir
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0202097s
Abstract: Reduced fertility of sows during the warmer period of the year is a well-known occurrence in practical production. Namely, during summer months gilts become sexually mature later, the interval from weaning to estrus is prolonged, there is a greater number of postlactation silent estruses anestrias and ovarian cysts, the value of conception is lower, there are more irregular failed fertilizations, there is a higher degree of embryo mortality, and the litter size is smaller. This is why this occurrence presents an important zootechnological, veterinary-medical and economic problem. Most scientific research shows that this phenomenon is a consequence of the effects of an extended daily photoperiod and a higher ambient temperature. However, the degree of the individual effect of these factors has not been determined clearly, or the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms of their action. It is probably not possible completely to avoid the negative influence of seasonal factors on reduced fertility in sows during the summer period. However, it can be significantly alleviated with a regular maintenance technology, diet, hygiene and medical protection of sows. This paper presents knowledge acquired so far on the manifestation of this phenomenon, its physiological and endocrine bases, as well as possibilities for its practical resolving.
EFFECT OF SOWS’ CONDITION ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD INDICATORS  [PDF]
Anna REKIEL,Justyna WI?CEK,Karolina BEYGA,Józef KULISIEWICZ
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/12.4.980
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sows’ condition, being expressed as fat reserve – the mean from two measurements (P2 + P4)/2 on the 104th day of pregnancy (±2 – 3 days) on hematological indicators in blood of PLW x PL sows. Classification of sows into two groups was performed on the basis of lifetime evaluation of backfat thickness in 97 sows (primiparous: multiparous – 30%:70%); group I consisted of the sows with (P2 + P4)/2>20 mm and group II with (P2 + P4)/2≤20 mm. The condition of sows, as expressed by backfat thickness in three dates (late pregnancy, parturition, weaning) amounted to >3,5 for group I and ≤2.5 for group II on a 5-point scale. The examination of hematological indicators was performed on a representative group of 32 randomly chosen sows, 16 animals from each group. Blood for analyses was sampled from the sows on the 104th day of pregnancy and on the 21st day of lactation. Any significant differences between group I and II in respect of morphological indices, excluding significantly higher MCV in sows from group I vs. II on the 21st day of lactation (P≤0.05), were not found. In late pregnancy, significant differences were recorded for the content of ALB and TP (P≤0.05), BUN (P≤0.01), HDL (P≤0.001) and in final stage of lactation – HDL (P≤0.01) (higher in group I vs. II). The mean values of the studied blood indicators of the sows were found within the standards for the species, production group and stage of reproduction cycle, irrespectively of the condition of the females.
COMPARISON OF INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT IN THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS AND IN THE FATTENING GILTS  [PDF]
ALEKSANDRA JELI?SKA,MARIA BOCIAN,Wojciech KAPELA?SKI,JOANNA WI?NIEWSKA
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to compare the slaughter value and meat quality of the first farrowing gilts with normal fattening gilts. The study was carried out on 30 primiparous gilts (A) and 39 fattening gilts (B). Age of A gilts at slaughter was 371.03 days and that of B gilts was two times lower and attained 179.64 days. However carcass fatness of the younger B gilts was higher than of primiparous gilts (P < 0.05) and carcass lean content was high in both gilt groups. Meat characteristics were determined in longissimus lumborum muscle. Some differences between the compared gilt groups were stated in muscle colour, WHC, protein and intramuscular fat content. Higher IMF content was found in primiparous gilts (1.88 ± 0.50 versus 1.19 ± 0.39%; P< 0.01).
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